Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives and even entire sentences. They can go almost anywhere in a sentence (but often go in the beginning) and give information about the way in which something was done.
これはとてもおいしいです。This is very delicious
ゆっくり話してください。Please speak slowly.
I got a message from her just as I was about to call her.
Types of adverbs
Adverbs are words that give more information about a verb, but there are lots of ways to describe a verb. That being said, they don’t require particles to use and can basically go anywhere in a sentence, so don’t worry about too much and learn them as you go. Here we’ll introduce a few of the most common types of adverbs, which:
- tell when something is done (adverbs of time)
- tell how often somethingis done (adverbs of frequency)
- tell to what extent something is done (adverbs of degree)
- tell in what way something is done (adverbs of manner)
- how to use adjectives as adverbs
Adverbs of Time
Adverbs of time give information about when something is done.
彼は明日、東京に行く。He is going to Tokyo tomorrow.
昼ごはんはもう食べた。I have already eaten breakfast.
Adverbs of Frequency
Adverbs of Frequency give information about how often something is done.
|Never; not even once||一度も（いちども)||Rarely||滅多に（めったに)|
私は毎日メロンパンを食べています。I eat Melon Pan every day.
Even though I lived in Japan for two years, I have never gone to Tokyo / not even gone once.
** 一度も must be used with a negative verb in order to mean “never”.
Adverbs of Degree
Adverbs of Degree are used to place the words they describe on a spectrum: our interest, for example, can range from not interested at all to completely engrossed and everywhere in between.
|Completely/not at all||全く（まったく)||Furthermore; “even”||さらに|
数学には全く興味がない。I have absolutely no interest in mathematics.
My dad got fired, and to make things (even/further) worse, my mom was hospitalized.
Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs of manner tell the way in which something was done.
私は一人で朝ご飯を食べた。I ate breakfast alone.
We happened to be at the same restaurant, but my ex (boyfriend) intentionally ignored me.
Making Adjectives into Adverbs
Just like English adjectives can typically be turned into adverbs by adding ~ly, Japanese adjectives can also be turned into adverbs.
For い adjectives, replace the final い with く。
悲しい（かなしい）sad → 悲しく sadly
For な adjectives, simply tack a に onto the adjective’s root form.
静か（しずか）quiet → 静かに quietly
丁寧（ていねい）polite, civil → 丁寧に politely, civilly
彼女は子供の頬に優しくキスをした。She tenderly kissed the child’s cheek.
泥棒は静かに部屋に入った。The thief quietly entered the room.