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Daily English with Sylvia, BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / 3D printers

BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / 3D printers

Sam:

Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Sam.

Neil:

And I'm Neil. In 1436 in Germany, Johannes Gutenberg, invented the printing press - a machine capable of making many copies of the same page of text.

Ever since, printing has been used around the world to produce books, newspapers and magazines.

Sam:

Printing technology has come a long way since Gutenberg's time, but even today's most advanced laser printers have only printed flat, two-dimensional objects… until now.

Neil:

In this programme, we're discussing 3D printers – printers which can build solid, three-dimensional objects out of a variety of materials including plastic, concrete and metal.

Sam:

Now, Neil, when you say a printer that can make solid objects, I guess you're not talking about a normal printer…

Neil:

That's right, Sam. These large and complex 3D printers work in a completely different way.

Unlike a sculptor who chips away at a block of stone to reveal a shape underneath, 3D printers work in the opposite way, building up physical objects by adding material layer on layer.

And the ability to print objects in this way is providing solutions to many problems, as we'll be finding out…

Sam:

But first I have a question for you, Neil.

Before Johannes Gutenberg invented his printing press, copies of texts were made by block printing, using hand-carved wooden blocks pressed into ink.

So - what was the oldest known text to be printed this way? Was it:

a) a religious teaching? b) a cooking recipe? or, c) a love letter?

Neil:

I think it might have been a recipe.

Sam:

OK, Neil. I'll reveal the answer later in the programme.

The idea of printing solid objects is not new, but it was only after the millennium that tech companies began to realise how it could be done.

Here's Professor Mark Miodownik, a material scientist at University College, London, explaining more to BBC World Service programme, People Fixing The World:

Professor Mark Miodownik:

As the millennium turned, patents expired and that meant people started making very cheap 3D printers.

And people started mucking about with them and going, ‘Hold on a minute! - it's not just an industrial tool….

You can put them in schools, you can put them in universities…Ohh, it's actually really great for prototyping'.

And then people got excited about it and it became the answer to everything. Everything was going to be 3D-printed!

Neil:

After the year 2000, 3D printers suddenly got much cheaper and tech companies started mucking about with them – spending time playing with them in a fun way.

They realised that 3D printers had many uses - for example, they discovered that 3D printers were great at making prototypes – models of a product that can be tested, improved and used to develop better products.

Sam:

Professor Miodownik thinks these tech companies were surprised at how useful 3D printing was.

He uses the phrase Hold on a minute! to express this surprise or disbelief.

Neil:

In fact, in turned out that 3D printers were excellent at making bespoke things – objects which are made specially for a particular person.

One area which 3D printing dramatically improved was medical prosthetics - artificial body parts made specially for someone who has lost an arm, a leg or a foot, for example.

Sam:

In 2021, Stephen Verze, who lost an eye in a childhood accident, became the first person to be fitted with a 3D-printed prosthetic eye. It's prosthetic, so the new eye doesn't restore Stephen's sight, but it has boosted his confidence.

Surgeon, Mandeep Sagoo, led the team at Moorsfield Hospital that operated on Stephen's eye.

Here he is explaining more to BBC World Service's, People Fixing The World:

Professor Mandeep Sagoo:

In many countries, particularly the developed world, there are facilities for custom-making a prosthetic eye to match the other eye, and that's an artisan process which is very time-consuming and requires real artistry on the part of the ocularist – the ocularist is the person who fits the prosthetic eye – and so what we have been developing is a technique to automate the whole process.

Neil:

Even before 3D printers, prosthetic eyes were custom-made, a word similar to ‘bespoke' which means specially made according to a particular person's requirements.

But the traditional way of making artificial eyes by hand is very time-consuming – it takes a lot of time to do.

Nowadays, 3D printing can complete the whole process in just thirty minutes.

Sam:

It's great to see technology helping people, and amazing how far new inventions like 3D printers have come since the days of Johannes Gutenberg… speaking of which, Neil, it's time to reveal the answer to my question.

Neil:

Right. You asked me about the earliest known text to have been printed using wooden blocks, and I guesses it was a cooking recipe… So, was I right?

Sam:

You were… wrong, I'm afraid, Neil! The oldest known wooden block print was actually a religious text – the Buddha's Diamond Sutra.

OK, let's recap the vocabulary from this programme, starting with mucking about, an informal way to say playing with something carelessly, not for a serious reason.

Neil:

A prototype is a model of a product that can be tested, improved and used to develop a better product.

Sam:

The phrase Hold on a minute! can be used to express surprise or disbelief.

Neil:

Prosthetics refer to artificial body parts such as arms, legs, feet or eyes, which are used to replace a missing natural part.

Sam:

The words bespoke, and custom-made describe something specially made for a particular person.

Neil:

And finally, if something is time-consuming, it takes a lot of time to do. Goodbye for now!

Sam:

Goodbye!


BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / 3D printers بي بي سي تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - 6 دقائق باللغة الإنجليزية / طابعات ثلاثية الأبعاد BBC Learning English - 6 Minuten Englisch / 3D-Drucker BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / Impresoras 3D BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / Imprimantes 3D BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / Stampanti 3D BBC Learning English - 6分間英語 / 3Dプリンター BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / Drukarki 3D BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / Impressoras 3D BBC Learning English - 6 Minute English / 3D-принтеры BBC Learning English - 6 Dakika İngilizce / 3D yazıcılar BBC Learning English - 6-хвилинна англійська / 3D-принтери BBC Learning English - 6 分钟英语 / 3D 打印机 BBC 學習英語 - 6 分鍾英語 / 3D 打印機

Sam: Sam:

Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Sam.

Neil:

And I'm Neil. In 1436 in Germany, Johannes Gutenberg, invented the printing press - a machine capable of making many copies of the same page of text. في عام 1436 في ألمانيا، اخترع يوهانس جوتنبرج آلة الطباعة - وهي آلة قادرة على عمل نسخ عديدة من نفس الصفحة من النص. En 1436, en Allemagne, Johannes Gutenberg invente la presse à imprimer, une machine capable de faire plusieurs copies d'une même page de texte. 1436 yılında Almanya'da Johannes Gutenberg, aynı metin sayfasının birçok kopyasını çıkarabilen bir makine olan matbaayı icat etti.

Ever since, printing has been used around the world to produce books, newspapers and magazines. ومنذ ذلك الحين، تم استخدام الطباعة في جميع أنحاء العالم لإنتاج الكتب والصحف والمجلات. Depuis lors, l'imprimerie est utilisée dans le monde entier pour produire des livres, des journaux et des magazines. O zamandan beri baskı, kitap, gazete ve dergi üretmek için dünyanın dört bir yanında kullanılmaktadır.

Sam:

Printing technology has come a long way since Gutenberg's time, but even today's most advanced laser printers have only printed flat, two-dimensional objects… until now. لقد قطعت تكنولوجيا الطباعة شوطًا طويلًا منذ زمن جوتنبرج، ولكن حتى طابعات الليزر الأكثر تقدمًا اليوم لم تطبع سوى كائنات مسطحة ثنائية الأبعاد... حتى الآن. La technologie de l'impression a beaucoup évolué depuis l'époque de Gutenberg, mais même les imprimantes laser les plus perfectionnées d'aujourd'hui n'imprimaient que des objets plats et bidimensionnels... jusqu'à présent. Baskı teknolojisi Gutenberg'in zamanından bu yana uzun bir yol kat etti, ancak günümüzün en gelişmiş lazer yazıcıları bile yalnızca düz, iki boyutlu nesneler bastı... şimdiye kadar.

Neil:

In this programme, we're discussing 3D printers – printers which can build solid, three-dimensional objects out of a variety of materials including plastic, concrete and metal. في هذا البرنامج، نناقش الطابعات ثلاثية الأبعاد - الطابعات التي يمكنها بناء أجسام صلبة ثلاثية الأبعاد من مجموعة متنوعة من المواد بما في ذلك البلاستيك والخرسانة والمعادن. Dans ce programme, nous parlerons des imprimantes 3D, qui permettent de fabriquer des objets solides et tridimensionnels à partir de divers matériaux tels que le plastique, le béton et le métal. Bu programda, plastik, beton ve metal dahil olmak üzere çeşitli malzemelerden katı, üç boyutlu nesneler oluşturabilen 3D yazıcıları tartışıyoruz.

Sam:

Now, Neil, when you say a printer that can make solid objects, I guess you're not talking about a normal printer… الآن يا نيل، عندما تقول طابعة يمكنها صنع الأجسام الصلبة، أعتقد أنك لا تتحدث عن طابعة عادية... Neil, quand tu parles d'une imprimante capable de fabriquer des objets solides, je suppose que tu ne parles pas d'une imprimante normale... Neil, katı nesneler yapabilen bir yazıcı derken, sanırım normal bir yazıcıdan bahsetmiyorsun...

Neil:

That's right, Sam. These large and complex 3D printers work in a completely different way. تعمل هذه الطابعات ثلاثية الأبعاد الكبيرة والمعقدة بطريقة مختلفة تمامًا. Bu büyük ve karmaşık 3D yazıcılar tamamen farklı bir şekilde çalışır.

Unlike a sculptor who chips away at a block of stone to reveal a shape underneath, 3D printers work in the opposite way, building up physical objects by adding material layer on layer. على عكس النحات الذي يقطع كتلة من الحجر ليكشف عن شكل تحتها، تعمل الطابعات ثلاثية الأبعاد بالطريقة المعاكسة، حيث تقوم ببناء الأشياء المادية عن طريق إضافة طبقة مادية على طبقة. À la différence d'un sculpteur qui taille un bloc de pierre pour en révéler la forme, les imprimantes 3D fonctionnent à l'inverse : elles construisent des objets physiques en ajoutant des matériaux couche par couche. В отличие от скульптора, который откалывает каменную глыбу, чтобы выявить под ней форму, 3D-принтеры работают в обратном направлении, создавая физические объекты путем послойного добавления материала. Altındaki şekli ortaya çıkarmak için bir taş bloğunu yontan bir heykeltıraşın aksine, 3D yazıcılar tam tersi şekilde çalışır ve katman katman malzeme ekleyerek fiziksel nesneler oluşturur.

And the ability to print objects in this way is providing solutions to many problems, as we'll be finding out… والقدرة على طباعة الأشياء بهذه الطريقة توفر حلولاً للعديد من المشاكل، كما سنكتشف… La possibilité d'imprimer des objets de cette manière apporte des solutions à de nombreux problèmes, comme nous allons le découvrir... И возможность печатать объекты таким образом позволяет решать многие проблемы, о чем мы сейчас узнаем... Ve nesnelerin bu şekilde basılabilmesi, ileride göreceğimiz gibi, birçok soruna çözüm getiriyor...

Sam:

But first I have a question for you, Neil.

Before Johannes Gutenberg invented his printing press, copies of texts were made by block printing, using hand-carved wooden blocks pressed into ink. قبل أن يخترع يوهانس جوتنبرج مطبعته، كانت نسخ النصوص تُصنع عن طريق الطباعة بالقالب، باستخدام كتل خشبية منحوتة يدويًا ومضغوطة بالحبر. Avant que Johannes Gutenberg n'invente sa presse à imprimer, les textes étaient imprimés à la planche, à l'aide de blocs de bois sculptés à la main et enduits d'encre. До изобретения Иоганном Гутенбергом печатного станка копии текстов изготавливались методом блочной печати с использованием деревянных брусков, вырезанных вручную и залитых краской. Johannes Gutenberg'in matbaayı icat etmesinden önce, metinlerin kopyaları elle oyulmuş tahta blokların mürekkeple preslenmesiyle blok baskı yöntemiyle yapılıyordu.

So - what was the oldest known text to be printed this way? إذًا - ما هو أقدم نص معروف تمت طباعته بهذه الطريقة؟ Quel est donc le plus ancien texte connu à avoir été imprimé de cette manière ? Was it:

a) a religious teaching? أ) التعليم الديني؟ b) a cooking recipe? ب) وصفة الطبخ؟ or, c) a love letter? أو ج) رسالة حب؟

Neil:

I think it might have been a recipe.

Sam:

OK, Neil. I'll reveal the answer later in the programme. سأكشف عن الإجابة لاحقًا في البرنامج.

The idea of printing solid objects is not new, but it was only after the millennium that tech companies began to realise how it could be done. إن فكرة طباعة الأجسام الصلبة ليست جديدة، ولكن بعد الألفية فقط بدأت شركات التكنولوجيا في إدراك كيفية القيام بذلك. Katı nesneleri basma fikri yeni değil, ancak teknoloji şirketleri bunun nasıl yapılabileceğini ancak milenyumdan sonra fark etmeye başladı.

Here's Professor Mark Miodownik, a material scientist at University College, London, explaining more to BBC World Service programme, People Fixing The World: Londra'daki University College'da malzeme bilimci olan Profesör Mark Miodownik, BBC Dünya Servisi'nin People Fixing The World programına daha fazla bilgi veriyor:

Professor Mark Miodownik:

As the millennium turned, patents expired and that meant people started making very cheap 3D printers. Au tournant du millénaire, les brevets ont expiré et les fabricants ont commencé à produire des imprimantes 3D très bon marché. С наступлением нового тысячелетия срок действия патентов истек, и люди начали производить очень дешевые 3D-принтеры. Milenyumla birlikte patentlerin süresi doldu ve bu da insanların çok ucuz 3D yazıcılar yapmaya başladığı anlamına geliyordu.

And people started mucking about with them and going, ‘Hold on a minute! Les gens ont commencé à les manipuler et à dire : "Attendez une minute ! İnsanlar onlarla uğraşmaya başladı ve 'Bir dakika! - it's not just an industrial tool….

You can put them in schools, you can put them in universities…Ohh, it's actually really great for prototyping'. On peut les mettre dans les écoles, dans les universités... Ohh, c'est vraiment génial pour le prototypage". Bunları okullara koyabilirsiniz, üniversitelere koyabilirsiniz... Ohh, aslında prototipleme için gerçekten harika'.

And then people got excited about it and it became the answer to everything. Puis les gens se sont enthousiasmés et c'est devenu la réponse à tout. Sonra insanlar bu konuda heyecanlandı ve her şeyin cevabı haline geldi. Everything was going to be 3D-printed! Tout allait être imprimé en 3D !

Neil:

After the year 2000, 3D printers suddenly got much cheaper and tech companies started mucking about with them – spending time playing with them in a fun way. Après l'an 2000, les imprimantes 3D sont soudainement devenues beaucoup moins chères et les entreprises technologiques ont commencé à s'en servir - à passer du temps à jouer avec elles de manière amusante. 2000 yılından sonra 3D yazıcılar birdenbire çok daha ucuzladı ve teknoloji şirketleri bunlarla uğraşmaya başladı - onlarla eğlenceli bir şekilde oynayarak zaman geçirdiler.

They realised that 3D printers had many uses - for example, they discovered that 3D printers were great at making prototypes – models of a product that can be tested, improved and used to develop better products. Ils se sont rendu compte que les imprimantes 3D avaient de nombreuses utilisations - par exemple, ils ont découvert que les imprimantes 3D étaient parfaites pour fabriquer des prototypes - des modèles d'un produit qui peuvent être testés, améliorés et utilisés pour développer de meilleurs produits. 3D yazıcıların birçok kullanım alanı olduğunu fark ettiler - örneğin, 3D yazıcıların prototip yapmak için harika olduğunu keşfettiler - test edilebilen, iyileştirilebilen ve daha iyi ürünler geliştirmek için kullanılabilen bir ürünün modelleri.

Sam:

Professor Miodownik thinks these tech companies were surprised at how useful 3D printing was. Profesör Miodownik, bu teknoloji şirketlerinin 3D baskının ne kadar faydalı olduğuna şaşırdıklarını düşünüyor.

He uses the phrase Hold on a minute! Il utilise la phrase "Attendez une minute ! Bir dakika bekleyin ifadesini kullanıyor! to express this surprise or disbelief. pour exprimer cette surprise ou cette incrédulité.

Neil:

In fact, in turned out that 3D printers were excellent at making bespoke things – objects which are made specially for a particular person. En fait, il s'est avéré que les imprimantes 3D étaient excellentes pour fabriquer des objets sur mesure, c'est-à-dire des objets fabriqués spécialement pour une personne donnée. Aslında, 3D yazıcıların ısmarlama şeyler - belirli bir kişi için özel olarak üretilen nesneler - yapmakta mükemmel olduğu ortaya çıktı.

One area which 3D printing dramatically improved was medical prosthetics - artificial body parts made specially for someone who has lost an arm, a leg or a foot, for example. 3D baskının önemli ölçüde geliştirdiği bir alan tıbbi protezlerdir - örneğin bir kolunu, bacağını veya ayağını kaybeden biri için özel olarak yapılan yapay vücut parçaları.

Sam:

In 2021, Stephen Verze, who lost an eye in a childhood accident, became the first person to be fitted with a 3D-printed prosthetic eye. En 2021, Stephen Verze, qui a perdu un œil lors d'un accident survenu dans son enfance, est devenu la première personne à recevoir une prothèse oculaire imprimée en 3D. 2021 yılında, çocukluğunda geçirdiği bir kazada gözünü kaybeden Stephen Verze, 3D baskılı protez göz takılan ilk kişi oldu. It's prosthetic, so the new eye doesn't restore Stephen's sight, but it has boosted his confidence. Protez olduğu için yeni göz Stephen'ın görme yetisini geri getirmedi ama kendine olan güvenini artırdı.

Surgeon, Mandeep Sagoo, led the team at Moorsfield Hospital that operated on Stephen's eye. Cerrah Mandeep Sagoo, Moorsfield Hastanesi'nde Stephen'ın gözünü ameliyat eden ekibe liderlik etti.

Here he is explaining more to BBC World Service's, People Fixing The World:

Professor Mandeep Sagoo:

In many countries, particularly the developed world, there are facilities for custom-making a prosthetic eye to match the other eye, and that's an artisan process which is very time-consuming and requires real artistry on the part of the ocularist – the ocularist is the person who fits the prosthetic eye – and so what we have been developing is a technique to automate the whole process. Dans de nombreux pays, en particulier dans les pays développés, il existe des installations permettant de fabriquer sur mesure une prothèse oculaire correspondant à l'autre œil. Il s'agit d'un processus artisanal qui prend beaucoup de temps et nécessite un véritable savoir-faire de la part de l'oculariste - l'oculariste est la personne qui pose la prothèse oculaire - et nous avons donc mis au point une technique permettant d'automatiser l'ensemble de ce processus. Во многих странах, особенно в развитых, существует оборудование для индивидуального изготовления протеза глаза, соответствующего другому глазу, и это ремесленный процесс, который занимает много времени и требует настоящего мастерства со стороны окулиста (окулист - это человек, который устанавливает протез глаза), поэтому мы разрабатываем методику автоматизации всего процесса. Pek çok ülkede, özellikle de gelişmiş ülkelerde, protez gözün diğer göze uyacak şekilde özel olarak üretildiği tesisler bulunmaktadır ve bu çok zaman alan ve göz doktorunun - göz doktoru protez gözü takan kişidir - gerçek bir sanatkârlık gerektiren zanaatkârca bir süreçtir ve bu nedenle geliştirmekte olduğumuz şey tüm süreci otomatikleştirecek bir tekniktir.

Neil:

Even before 3D printers, prosthetic eyes were custom-made, a word similar to ‘bespoke' which means specially made according to a particular person's requirements. Même avant les imprimantes 3D, les prothèses oculaires étaient fabriquées sur mesure, un terme similaire à "bespoke" (sur mesure) qui signifie spécialement conçu pour répondre aux besoins d'une personne en particulier. 3D yazıcılardan önce bile protez gözler, belirli bir kişinin gereksinimlerine göre özel olarak yapılmış anlamına gelen 'ısmarlama' kelimesine benzer bir kelime olan özel yapımdı.

But the traditional way of making artificial eyes by hand is very time-consuming – it takes a lot of time to do. Ancak elle yapay göz yapmanın geleneksel yolu çok zaman alıcıdır - yapılması çok zaman alır.

Nowadays, 3D printing can complete the whole process in just thirty minutes. Günümüzde 3D baskı tüm süreci sadece otuz dakika içinde tamamlayabiliyor.

Sam:

It's great to see technology helping people, and amazing how far new inventions like 3D printers have come since the days of Johannes Gutenberg… speaking of which, Neil, it's time to reveal the answer to my question. C'est formidable de voir la technologie aider les gens, et c'est incroyable de voir à quel point les nouvelles inventions comme les imprimantes 3D ont progressé depuis l'époque de Johannes Gutenberg... À ce propos, Neil, il est temps de révéler la réponse à ma question. Teknolojinin insanlara yardımcı olduğunu görmek harika ve Johannes Gutenberg'in günlerinden bu yana 3D yazıcılar gibi yeni icatların ne kadar ilerlediğini görmek inanılmaz... Bu arada Neil, sorumun cevabını açıklamanın zamanı geldi.

Neil:

Right. You asked me about the earliest known text to have been printed using wooden blocks, and I guesses it was a cooking recipe… So, was I right? Bana tahta bloklar kullanılarak basıldığı bilinen en eski metni sormuştunuz ve ben de bunun bir yemek tarifi olduğunu tahmin etmiştim... Peki, haklı mıydım?

Sam:

You were… wrong, I'm afraid, Neil! The oldest known wooden block print was actually a religious text – the Buddha's Diamond Sutra. Bilinen en eski ahşap blok baskı aslında dini bir metindi - Buda'nın Elmas Sutrası.

OK, let's recap the vocabulary from this programme, starting with mucking about, an informal way to say playing with something carelessly, not for a serious reason. Итак, давайте вспомним лексику из этой программы, начиная с mucking about - неформальный способ сказать, что играть с чем-то небрежно, без серьезной причины. Pekala, bu programdaki kelimeleri tekrar edelim, mucking about ile başlayalım, bir şeyle ciddi bir nedenle değil, dikkatsizce oynamanın gayri resmi bir yolu.

Neil:

A prototype is a model of a product that can be tested, improved and used to develop a better product.

Sam:

The phrase Hold on a minute! can be used to express surprise or disbelief.

Neil:

Prosthetics refer to artificial body parts such as arms, legs, feet or eyes, which are used to replace a missing natural part.

Sam:

The words bespoke, and custom-made describe something specially made for a particular person.

Neil:

And finally, if something is time-consuming, it takes a lot of time to do. Goodbye for now!

Sam:

Goodbye!