When making a noun plural, not only do certain endings of the word itself have to change, the article that comes before it must be changed as well.
For example, when a noun is masculine and begins with “el”, the article “el” should be changed to “los” and the ending of the noun itself should also reflect a change to plural.
Here are examples of simple-to-change masculine nouns that end in a vowel, so the noun change to plural form is simply adding an “-s”.
|El libro (The book)||Los libros (The books)|
|El chico (The boy)||Los chicos (The boys)|
|El ojo (The eye)||Los ojos (The eyes)|
The same rules apply for feminine-gendered nouns. Therefore, if a noun is feminine and begins with the article “la”, the article should be changed to “las”. The noun‘s ending should also change according to certain rules. However, for these examples, the simplest change is adding an “-s” at the end, which is done when the noun finishes with a vowel.
|La chica (The girl)||Las chicas (The girls)|
|La cara (The face)||Las caras (The faces)|
|La esquina (The corner)||Las esquinas (The corners)|
However, in most instances, changing the actual noun itself isn‘t as simple as adding an “-s” to it, that‘s only if the noun ends in a vowel.
Here are other examples of nouns ending in vowels changed to their plural forms:
|El doce (The sweet (dessert, candy))||Los doces (The sweets)|
|La tarde (The afternoon)||Las tardes (The afternoons)|
|El minuto (The minute)||Los minutos (The minutes)|
|La pintura (The painting)||Las pinturas (The paintings)|
As I mentioned before, the noun-change to its plural form isn‘t as simple as adding an “-s”. If the noun ends in a consonant, you must add an “-es” to its ending.
|El profesor (The teacher)||Los profesores (The teachers)|
|La universidad (The university)||Las universidades (The universities)|
|La ciudad (The city)||Las ciudades (The cities)|
|El dólar (The dollar)||Los dolares (The dollars)|
There are a few other rules pertaining to a noun ending. Another one is if the noun ends with a “-z” at the end.
Here is what you must do: If the noun ends in a “z,” change “z” → “c” and add “es.”
|El lápiz (The pencil)||Los lapices (The pencils)|
|La nariz (The nose)||Las narices (The noses)|
|La actriz (The actress)||Las actrices (The actresses)|
The various other plural options don‘t stop there, however. There is another instance where when the noun ends with the letters: “-ión”, then the proper plural rule is to add an “-es” and drop the accent.
|La canción (The song)||Las canciones (The songs)|
|La conversación (The conversation)||Las conversaciones (The conversations)|
|La televisión (The television)||Las televisiones (The televisions)|
|La procesión (The procession)||Las procesiones (The processions)|
One of the last rules is referring to a group of people or animals that contain both female and male subjects. When there is a group that has both genders, you refer to that group in the masculine plural form.
|Una perra y uno perro son dos perros||One dog (f.) and one dog (m.) are two dogs (m.)|
|Dos gatas y cuatro gatos son seis gatos.||Two cats (f.) and four cats (m.) are six cats (m.)|