LIBER PRIMVS X-XV
 Caesari renuntiatur Helvetiis esse in animo per agrum Sequanorum et Haeduorum iter in Santonum fines facere, qui non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, quae civitas est in provincia.
 It is reported to Caesar that the Helvetii intended to march through the country of the Sequani and the Aedui into the territories of the Santones, which are not far distant from the territories of the Tolosates, which is a state in the province.
Id si fieret, intellegebat magno cum periculo provinciae futurum ut homines bellicosos, populi Romani inimicos, locis patentibus maximeque frumentariis finitimos haberet.
If this were to be done, he understood that it would be with great danger to the province that he would have warlike men, enemies of the Roman people, bordering on open places and especially corn.
Ob eas causas ei munitioni quam fecerat T. Labienum legatum praeficit; ipse in Italiam magnis itineribus contendit duasque ibi legiones conscribit et tres, quae circum Aquileiam hiemabant, ex hibernis educit et, qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat, cum his quinque legionibus ire contendit.
For these reasons he appoints T. Labienus, his lieutenant, to the fortification which he had made; he himself hastens to Italy by forced marches, and there he recruits two legions, and leads out of the winter quarters around Aquileia, the three which were wintering at Aquileia, and hastens with these five legions, by which route the nearest route was to Further Gaul, through the Alps.
Ibi Ceutrones et Graioceli et Caturiges locis superioribus occupatis itinere exercitum prohibere conantur.
There the Ceutrones, and the Graiocels, and the Caturiges, having been seized on the higher grounds, endeavor to hinder their march by their march.
Compluribus his proeliis pulsis ab Ocelo, quod est oppidum citerioris provinciae extremum, in fines Vocontiorum ulterioris provinciae die septimo pervenit; inde in Allobrogum fines, ab Allobrogibus in Segusiavos exercitum ducit.
After being defeated in several of these battles, he arrived on the seventh day from Ocelus, a town of the Hither Province, into the territories of the Vocontii in the Farther Province; thence he leads his army into the territories of the Allobroges, and from the Allobroges to the Segusiani.
Hi sunt extra provinciam trans Rhodanum primi.
These were the first outside the province beyond the Rhone.
 Helvetii iam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suas copias traduxerant et in Haeduorum fines pervenerant eorumque agros populabantur.
The Helvetii had already led over their forces through the narrow defile and the territories of the Sequani, and had arrived at the territories of the Aedui, and were ravaging their lands.
Haedui, cum se suaque ab iis defendere non possent, legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rogatum auxilium: ita se omni tempore de populo Romano meritos esse ut paene in conspectu exercitus nostri agri vastari, liberi [eorum] in servitutem abduci, oppida expugnari non debuerint.
The Aedui, when they could not defend themselves and their possessions from them, send embassadors to Caesar to beg for assistance; that they had deserved the service of the Roman people at all times, that their lands should not have been laid waste in the sight of our army;
Eodem tempore quo Haedui Ambarri, necessarii et consanguinei Haeduorum, Caesarem certiorem faciunt sese depopulatis agris non facile ab oppidis vim hostium prohibere.
At the same time, the Aedui, the Ambarri, the necessary and kinsmen of the Aedui, informed Caesar that, having depopulated the country, it would not be easy to prevent the attack of the enemy from attacking the towns.
Item Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanum vicos possessionesque habebant, fuga se ad Caesarem recipiunt et demonstrant sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqui.
Likewise the Allobroges, who had settlements and possessions on the other side of the Rhone, retreat to Caesar in flight, and assure themselves that there is nothing left except the land alone.
Quibus rebus adductus Caesar non expectandum sibi statuit dum, omnibus, fortunis sociorum consumptis, in Santonos Helvetii pervenirent.
Caesar, induced by these circumstances, decides that he ought not to wait until the Helvetii, after destroying all the property of his allies, should arrive among the Santones.
 Flumen est Arar, quod per fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum in Rhodanum influit, incredibili lenitate, ita ut oculis in utram partem fluat iudicari non possit.
There is a river called the Saone, which flows through the territories of the Aedui and Sequani into the Rhone with incredible smoothness, so that it cannot be determined by the eye in which direction it flows.
Id Helvetii ratibus ac lintribus iunctis transibant.
This the Helvetii were crossing by rafts and boats joined together.
Ubi per exploratores Caesar certior factus est tres iam partes copiarum Helvetios id flumen traduxisse, quartam vero partem citra flumen Ararim reliquam esse, de tertia vigilia cum legionibus tribus e castris profectus ad eam partem pervenit quae nondum flumen transierat.
When Caesar, being informed by his scouts, was informed that three parts of his forces had already led over the Helvetii, the fourth part was on this side of the river Saone, and the remainder was on the third watch, with three legions, he marched from the camp to that part which had not yet crossed the river.
Eos impeditos et inopinantes adgressus magnam partem eorum concidit; reliqui sese fugae mandarunt atque in proximas silvas abdiderunt.
He attacked them, and, while not expecting them, fell, a great part of them; the rest entrusted themselves to their escape, and hid themselves in the nearest woods.
Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus; nam omnis civitas Helvetia in quattuor pagos divisa est.
This village was called Tigurinus; for the whole of Helvetia was divided into four cantons.
Hic pagus unus, cum domo exisset, patrum nostrorum memoria L. Cassium consulem interfecerat et eius exercitum sub iugum miserat.
This one canton, when he had gone out of the house, in memory of our fathers, had slain Lucius Cassius the consul, and had sent his army under the yoke.
Ita sive casu sive consilio deorum immortalium quae pars civitatis Helvetiae insignem calamitatem populo Romano intulerat, ea princeps poenam persolvit.
Thus, whether by chance, or by the design of the immortal gods, which part of the Helvetian state had brought a notable calamity upon the Roman people, the prince was the first to pay the penalty.
Qua in re Caesar non solum publicas, sed etiam privatas iniurias ultus est, quod eius soceri L. Pisonis avum, L. Pisonem legatum, Tigurini eodem proelio quo Cassium interfecerant.
In this Caesar avenged not only the public, but also his private injuries, because the Tigurini had slain Lucius Piso, the lieutenant of Cassius, the grandfather of Lucius Piso, his father-in-law, in the same battle as Cassius.
 Hoc proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetiorum ut consequi posset, pontem in Arari faciendum curat atque ita exercitum traducit.
 After this engagement, he takes care to build a bridge over the Saone, in order that he might be able to obtain the rest of the forces of the Helvetii, and bring over his army in this manner.
Helvetii repentino eius adventu commoti cum id quod ipsi diebus XX aegerrime confecerant, ut flumen transirent, illum uno die fecisse intellegerent, legatos ad eum mittunt; cuius legationis Divico princeps fuit, qui bello Cassiano dux Helvetiorum fuerat.
The Helvetii, being alarmed by his sudden arrival, send embassadors to him in one day to understand what they had accomplished with the greatest difficulty, in order that they might cross the river, that they had done for twenty days; the leader of this embassy was Divico, who had been commander of the Helvetii in Cassian's war.
Is ita cum Caesare egit: si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetiis faceret, in eam partem ituros atque ibi futuros Helvetios ubi eos Caesar constituisset atque esse voluisset; sin bello persequi perseveraret, reminisceretur et veteris incommodi populi Romani et pristinae virtutis Helvetiorum.
He acted thus with Caesar: if the Roman people were to make peace with the Helvetii, they would go into that part, and there would be the Helvetii, where Caesar had determined and wished them to be; but if he should continue to pursue war, he should remember both the old disadvantage of the Roman people and of the former valor of the Helvetii.
Quod improviso unum pagum adortus esset, cum ii qui flumen transissent suis auxilium ferre non possent, ne ob eam rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos despiceret.
Which unexpectedly he attacked one village, when those who had crossed the river could not bring assistance to his countrymen, lest for this reason he either attributed much to his own valor, or despised them.
Se ita a patribus maioribusque suis didicisse, ut magis virtute contenderent quam dolo aut insidiis niterentur.
that he had learned so much from his fathers and ancestors, that they should contend rather with courage, than rely on treachery or ambuscades.
Quare ne committeret ut is locus ubi constitissent ex calamitate populi Romani et internecione exercitus nomen caperet aut memoriam proderet.
Therefore he should not allow that the place where they had halted, on account of the calamity of the Roman people, and of the destruction of the army, might take their name or betray their memory.
 His Caesar ita respondit: eo sibi minus dubitationis dari, quod eas res quas legati Helvetii commemorassent memoria teneret, atque eo gravius ferre quo minus merito populi Romani accidissent; qui si alicuius iniuriae sibi conscius fuisset, non fuisse difficile cavere; sed eo deceptum, quod neque commissum a se intellegeret quare timeret neque sine causa timendum putaret.
 Caesar answered them thus: that the less hesitation should be given to him, that he might remember those things which the Helvetii had mentioned to the embassadors; who, if he had been aware of any wrong done to him, it would not have been difficult to guard against it; but he was deceived by this, because he neither understood what had been done by him, and why he feared it, nor thought it to be feared without cause.
Quod si veteris contumeliae oblivisci vellet, num etiam recentium iniuriarum, quod eo invito iter per provinciam per vim temptassent, quod Haeduos, quod Ambarros, quod Allobrogas vexassent, memoriam deponere posse?
But if he wished to forget the old insults, could he also lay aside the memory of the recent injuries, because they had attempted to march through the province by violence against their will, because the Aedui, and the Ambarri, because they had harassed the Allobroges?
Quod sua victoria tam insolenter gloriarentur quodque tam diu se impune iniurias tulisse admirarentur, eodem pertinere.
That they were boasting so outrageously of their own victory, and that they were astonished that they had so long endured injustices with impunity, pertains to the same.
Consuesse enim deos immortales, quo gravius homines ex commutatione rerum doleant, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, his secundiores interdum res et diuturniorem impunitatem concedere.
For it is customary for the immortal gods, in order that men grieve more grievously at the exchange of things, whom they wish to avenge for their wickedness, to grant to the latter sometimes more favorable circumstances and more lasting immunity.
Cum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab iis sibi dentur, uti ea quae polliceantur facturos intellegat, et si Haeduis de iniuriis quas ipsis sociisque eorum intulerint, item si Allobrogibus satis faciunt, sese cum iis pacem esse facturum.
Since these things are so, however, if hostages should be given to him by them, so that he may understand that they will do what they promise;
Divico respondit: ita Helvetios a maioribus suis institutos esse uti obsides accipere, non dare, consuerint; eius rem populum Romanum esse testem.
To Divico he replied: that the Helvetii, who had been trained by their ancestors, had been accustomed to accept, not to give as hostages; that the Roman people were a witness to this circumstance.
Hoc responso dato discessit.
Having given this reply, he departed.
 Postero die castra ex eo loco movent.
 The next day they move their camp from that place.
Idem facit Caesar equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quattuor milium, quem ex omni provincia et Haeduis atque eorum sociis coactum habebat, praemittit, qui videant quas in partes hostes iter faciant.
Caesar does the same, and sends forward all his cavalry, to the number of four thousand, which he had drawn together from all parts of the province, from both the Aedui and their allies, to see what parts the enemy are making their march.
Qui cupidius novissimum agmen insecuti alieno loco cum equitatu Helvetiorum proelium committunt; et pauci de nostris cadunt.
These, having too eagerly pursued the rear of the enemy, engage in battle with the cavalry of the Helvetii in a strange place; and a few of our men fall.
Quo proelio sublati Helvetii, quod quingentis equitibus tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant, audacius subsistere non numquam et novissimo agmine proelio nostros lacessere coeperunt.
The Helvetii, being taken away by this battle, because they had repelled so great a multitude of horse with five hundred horse, did not at any time stand still more boldly, and began to attack our men in the rear, in a skirmish.
Caesar suos a proelio continebat, ac satis habebat in praesentia hostem rapinis, pabulationibus populationibusque prohibere.
Caesar restrained his men from battle, and had sufficient for the present to prevent the enemy from rapine, forage, and depredation.
Ita dies circiter XV iter fecerunt uti inter novissimum hostium agmen et nostrum primum non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum interesset.
They marched for about fifteen days so that there was no more than five or six miles between the enemy's rear and our van.