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Crash Course US history, Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9

Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9

Hi, I'm John Green, and this is Crash Course U.S. History, and now that we have a Constitution, it's actually United States history.

Today we're going to look at the birth of America's pastime.

No, Stan, not baseball. Not football. Not eating.

I mean politics, which in America has been adversarial since its very beginnings, despite what the founders wanted.

[Theme Music]

We looked at the first big conflict in American politics last week: Constitution or Articles of Confederation?

I hope that I convinced you we made the correct choice, but regardless, we made it; the constitution passed.

But immediately following the passage of the constitution a pretty fundamental conflict came up:

what kind of a country should we be?

Mr Green, Mr Green!

The US is supposed to be the policeman of the world and keep the people in the green parts of Not-America from hurting themselves.

Oh, Me From The Past, we don't get into that stuff until 1823.

[Patriotic Rock Music]

So, one vision of America was put forward by Alexander Hamilton, who'd served in the war as Washington's top aide and would go on to be his first Secretary of the Treasury

and probably would have been President himself, had he not been born in the British West Indies.

Hamilton had a strong personality, and as you can see, the beautiful wavy hair of a Caribbean god, and he had very definite ideas about what he wanted the future of America to look like:

First, Hamilton wanted the country to be mercantile, which means that he believed that we should be deeply involved in world trade.

Second, he wanted the U.S. to be a manufacturing powerhouse.

We wouldn't just buy and sell stuff; we would make it too.

He even invested in a plan to make Patterson, New Jersey, a manufacturing hub, which of course ultimately failed, because New Jersey.

But to make a manufacturing giant, he needed a strong government that could build infrastructure and protect patents.

But you already knew that he was in favor of a strong government because, of course, he wrote so many of the Federalist Papers.

Hamilton also envisioned an America that was governed primarily by the elite.

His party, which came to be known as the Federalist Party, would be the one of “the rich, the able and the well-born.”

I mean, just think if the federalist party had survived, we might have had a bunch of like, Bushes and Kennedys as president.

Hamilton wanted America to be firmly affiliated with Great Britain.

Which isn't surprising, given his passion for elitism and trade.

But there was an opposing view of what America should look like, and it is most associated with Thomas Jefferson.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

Jefferson wanted an America that was predominantly agrarian, with most people being small scale subsistence level farmers.

Maybe they would produce a little surplus for local markets, but certainly not for international consumers.

There would be no international trade.

And he didn't want manufacturing either.

This small scale local economy could best be served by a small scale, local government.

It's not a surprise to find that Jefferson's sympathies lay with the anti-federalists, even though he benefited from the new constitution a little bit, since he eventually got to be president and everything.

Unlike the elitist Hamilton, Jefferson was an avowed democrat, which meant that he distrusted concentrated power and privilege and believed that the masses could basically govern themselves.

To him, government and concentrated economic power were greater threats to liberty than a tyrannical majority.

Jefferson was a big fan of the French, and not only because he spent a fair amount of time in Paris as our ambassador there.

He also liked the French because they fought with us in the war of independence against the British.

And because, after 1789, he liked the way the French treated their aristocrats – that is, brutally.

In general, Jefferson and his partisans who called themselves Republicans

(although some current textbooks call them Democratic-Republicans just to make things incredibly confusing)

preferred France just as the Hamiltonians preferred Britain.

And this was a bit of a problem since France and England were pretty much constantly at war between 1740 and 1815.

Thanks, Thought Bubble.

So linked to these imagined Americas were the questions of how democratic we should be and how much free speech we should have.

Jefferson and the Republicans wanted more democracy and more free speech, well, sort of

I mean, during Washington's presidency, Democratic-Republican Societies sprang up, the first opposition political parties.

And in 1794, the Democratic-Republican society of Pennsylvania published an address which made the point that,

“Freedom of thought, and a free communication of opinions by speech or through the medium of the press, are the safeguards of our Liberties.”

The Federalists on the other hand saw too much free speech and democracy as a threat.

And from this it sounds like the Republicans were “better democrats”, but it's a lot more complicated than that.

I mean, for one thing many Republicans, including Thomas Jefferson, were slaveholders, and slavery is kind of the opposite of Democracy.

And for another, many were supporters of the French Revolution, and supporting the French Revolution after 1793 is pretty problematic.

Because as you'll remember from Crash Course World History, Robespierre was guillotining everyone, up until the point where he himself was guillotined.

OK, so in the first real American presidential election there weren't any political parties.

There wasn't even a campaign.

The election was uncontested and George Washington won.

He didn't even have to run for office; he stood for it.

Washington's presidency is important for a number of precedents that he set, including the notion that a president should only serve two terms and the idea that even if he was a general the president should wear civilian clothing.

But he wasn't the real policy brains. Hamilton was.

Washington probably wouldn't have called himself a Federalist, but he backed Hamilton's plan for a stronger nation.

And to that end, Hamilton began the great American tradition of having a 5 point plan:

Point 1: Establish the nation's credit-worthiness.

Hamilton realized that if the new nation wanted to be taken seriously it had to pay off its debts, most of which had come during the war.

And to do this Hamilton proposed that the U.S. government assume the debts that the states had amassed.

Point 2: Create a national debt.

That's something you don't hear politicians say these days.

Hamilton wanted to create new interest bearing bonds, hoping to give the rich people a stake in our nation's success.

Point 3: Create a Bank of the United States.

This bank would be private and it would turn a profit for its shareholders but it would hold public funds and issue notes that would circulate as currency.

And the bank would definitely be needed to house all the money that was expected to be raised from:

Point 4: A Whiskey tax.

Then, as now, Americans liked to drink.

And one sure way to raise money was to set an excise tax on whiskey, which might reduce drinking on the margins or cause people to switch to beer.

But what it would definitely do is hurt small farmers, who found the most profitable use of their grain was to distill it into sweet, sweet whiskey.

So the Whiskey Tax really upset small farmers, as we will see in a moment.

Point 5: Encourage domestic industrial manufacturing by imposing a tariff.

For those of you who think that the U.S. was founded on free trade principles, think again.

Now you will remember that the Republicans wanted an agrarian republic with freer trade, so they disliked pretty much all of Hamilton's plan.

They also argued that none of this was in the Constitution, and they were right.

This position of expecting government to be limited by the text of the constitution came to be known as strict construction.

But the Republicans lacked a five point plan of their own, so their only hope of success was to shave Hamilton's five point plan down to four points, which is what they did.

In 1790, many of the Republicans, who were Southerners like Jefferson, struck a bargain.

They agreed to points 1-4 of Hamilton's plan in exchange for a permanent capital on the Potomac

(in the South as opposed to the first two temporary capitals of the US in New York and Philadelphia).

So the Hamiltonian economy won out. For a while.

Probably the most immediately controversial aspect of Hamilton's program was the whiskey tax, and not just because people loved to drink.

But also because farmers love to turn their rye into whiskey, into profits.

In 1794, western Pennsylvania farmers even took up arms to protest the tax, and that clearly could not stand.

Washington actually led (at least for part of the way) a force of 13,000 men to put down this Whiskey Rebellion, becoming the only sitting president to lead troops in the field,

and America continued to tax booze, as it does to this day.

On the subject of foreign affairs, there was much more agreement. Just kidding.

Hamilton wanted the U.S. to have close ties to Britain for commercial reasons, but Britain was perpetually at war with France, which whom the U.S. technically had a perpetual alliance.

You know, because they helped us with the American Revolution, they gave us the Statue of Liberty, and Marion Cotillard, etc.

And the French revolution made things even more complicated, because Republicans liked it but Federalists, being somewhat conservative and elitist, were afraid of it.

This was especially true when French emissary Citizen Genet showed up in 1793 and started hiring American ships to attack British ones.

Britain in response began impressing American sailors, which sounds fun, but it isn't.

It doesn't mean the British sailors wowed Americans with their awesome mermaid tattoos, it means they kidnapped them and forced them to serve in the British navy.

Washington dispatched secretary of state John Jay to deal with the impressment issue and he negotiated the boringly named Jay Treaty,

which improved trade relations between the U.S. and Britain and said absolutely nothing about impressment or American shipping rights.

For the rest of his term, Washington just tried to ignore the problem, thereby inaugurating another presidential tradition:

kicking big foreign policy problems down the line for future presidents.

By the end of his presidency, George Washington was somewhat disillusioned by politics.

His famous call for unity said that “with slight shades of difference, you Americans have the same religion, manners, habits and political principles,”

Washington warned against the “baneful effects of the spirit of party generally,”

saying that “it agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms;

kindles the animosity of one part against another; foments occasionally riot and insurrection.

It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption.”

Still, by the time the diminutive John Adams took over as the second president, Americans had already divided themselves into two groups:

elitist Federalist and Republicans who stood for freedom and equality and…

Oh, It's time for the Mystery Document?

The rules here are simple: I guess the author of the mystery document.

If am right, I do not get shocked; if I am wrong, I do get shocked.

All right, let's give it a go.

“Yes, ye lordly, ye haughty sex, our souls are by nature equal to yours; the same breath of God animates, enlivens, and invigorates us;

Were we to grant that animal strength proved any thing, taking into consideration the accustomed impartiality of nature,

we should be induced to imagine, that she had invested the female mind with superior strength as an equivalent for the bodily powers of man.

But waiving this however palpable advantage, for equality only we wish to contend.”

So the author of the Mystery Document is a badass woman.

So we have here an argument, and a bit of a snarky one, for equality between men and women.


Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9 Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9

Hi, I'm John Green, and this is Crash Course U.S. History, and now that we have a Constitution, it's actually United States history. Saluton, mi estas John Green, kaj ĉi tio estas Crash Course U.S. History, kaj nun, ke ni havas Konstitucion, efektive Usono historio.

Today we're going to look at the birth of America's pastime. Hodiaŭ ni rigardos la naskiĝon de la pasatiempo de Ameriko.

No, Stan, not baseball. Not football. Not eating. Ne, Stan, ne bazpilkado. Ne futbalo. Ne manĝado.

I mean politics, which in America has been adversarial since its very beginnings, despite what the founders wanted. Mi parolas pri politiko, kiu en Usono kontraŭstaris ekde ĝiaj komencoj, malgraŭ tio, kion la fondintoj deziris.

[Theme Music] [Temo Muziko]

We looked at the first big conflict in American politics last week: Constitution or Articles of Confederation? Ni rigardis la unuan grandan konflikton en usona politiko la pasintsemajne: Konstitucio aŭ Artikoloj de Konfederacio?

I hope that I convinced you we made the correct choice, but regardless, we made it; the constitution passed. Mi esperas, ke mi konvinkis vin, ke ni faris la ĝustan elekton, sed sendepende ni faris ĝin; la konstitucio pasis.

But immediately following the passage of the constitution a pretty fundamental conflict came up: Sed tuj post la paŝo de la konstitucio sufiĉe fundamenta konflikto venis:

what kind of a country should we be? kia lando ni devas esti?

Mr Green, Mr Green! Sinjoro Green, Sinjoro Green!

The US is supposed to be the policeman of the world and keep the people in the green parts of Not-America from hurting themselves. Usono supozas esti la polico de la mondo kaj konservas la homojn en la verdaj partoj de Ne-Ameriko difektante sin.

Oh, Me From The Past, we don't get into that stuff until 1823. Ho, mi de la pasinteco, ni ne atingas tion ĝis 1823.

[Patriotic Rock Music] [Patriotisma Rokenrola Muziko]

So, one vision of America was put forward by Alexander Hamilton, who'd served in the war as Washington's top aide and would go on to be his first Secretary of the Treasury Tiel, unu vizio de Usono estis antaŭenigita fare de Alexander Hamilton, kiu servis en la milito kiel la plej alta helpo de Vaŝingtono kaj daŭrigus esti sia unua Sekretario de la Trezoro

and probably would have been President himself, had he not been born in the British West Indies. kaj verŝajne estus Prezidanto mem, se li ne naskiĝis en la Britaj okcidentaj Indioj.

Hamilton had a strong personality, and as you can see, the beautiful wavy hair of a Caribbean god, and he had very definite ideas about what he wanted the future of America to look like: Hamilton havis fortan personecon, kaj kiel vi povas vidi, la bela mararmega haro de Karibio dio, kaj li havis tre difinitajn ideojn pri tio, kion li volis, ke la estonteco de Usono aspektas kiel:

First, Hamilton wanted the country to be mercantile, which means that he believed that we should be deeply involved in world trade. Unue, Hamilton deziris la landon esti mercantile, kio signifas, ke li kredis, ke ni devas profunde partopreni en monda komerco.

Second, he wanted the U.S. to be a manufacturing powerhouse. Due li volis, ke Usono estu fabrikanta potenco.

We wouldn't just buy and sell stuff; we would make it too. Ni ne simple aĉetos kaj vendos aferojn; Ni ankaŭ farus ĝin.

He even invested in a plan to make Patterson, New Jersey, a manufacturing hub, which of course ultimately failed, because New Jersey. Li eĉ investis planon por krei Patterson, Nov-Ĵerzejon, fabrikadon, kiu kompreneble malsukcesis, ĉar Nov-Ĵerzejo.

But to make a manufacturing giant, he needed a strong government that could build infrastructure and protect patents. Sed por fabriki giganton, li bezonis fortan registaron, kiu povus konstrui infrastrukturon kaj protekti patentojn.

But you already knew that he was in favor of a strong government because, of course, he wrote so many of the Federalist Papers. Sed vi jam sciis, ke li estis al favoro de forta registaro ĉar, kompreneble, li skribis tiom multe da la Federismaj Paperoj.

Hamilton also envisioned an America that was governed primarily by the elite. Hamilton ankaŭ antaŭvidis Amerikon kiu estis regita ĉefe de la elito.

His party, which came to be known as the Federalist Party, would be the one of “the rich, the able and the well-born.” Lia partio, kiu estis nomata la Federacia Partio, estus la "riĉulo, kapabla kaj bone-naskita".

I mean, just think if the federalist party had survived, we might have had a bunch of like, Bushes and Kennedys as president. Mi pensas, nur pensu, ĉu la federacia partio postvivis, ni eble havus multajn ŝatojn, Bushes kaj Kennedys kiel prezidanto.

Hamilton wanted America to be firmly affiliated with Great Britain. Hamilton volis Usono esti firme ligita al Britio.

Which isn't surprising, given his passion for elitism and trade. Kiu ne estas mirinda, donita sian pasion por elitismo kaj komerco.

But there was an opposing view of what America should look like, and it is most associated with Thomas Jefferson. Sed estis kontraŭa opinio pri kio Usono aspektas, kaj ĝi estas plejparte ligita al Thomas Jefferson.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble. Ni iru al la Pensa Bobelo.

Jefferson wanted an America that was predominantly agrarian, with most people being small scale subsistence level farmers. Jefferson volis Amerikon, kiu estis plejparte agrara, kun plej multaj homoj, kiuj estis malgrandaj-skalaj subsistentecaj kamparanoj.

Maybe they would produce a little surplus for local markets, but certainly not for international consumers. Eble ili produktus iom troan por lokaj merkatoj, sed certe ne por internaciaj konsumantoj.

There would be no international trade. Ne estus internacia komerco.

And he didn't want manufacturing either. Kaj li ankaŭ ne deziris fabrikadon.

This small scale local economy could best be served by a small scale, local government. Ĉi tiu malgranda skala loka ekonomio povus plej bone servi per malgranda skalo, loka registaro.

It's not a surprise to find that Jefferson's sympathies lay with the anti-federalists, even though he benefited from the new constitution a little bit, since he eventually got to be president and everything. Ne estas surprizo trovi, ke la simpatioj de Jefferson kuŝis kun la kontraŭfederismanoj, kvankam li iomete profitigis la novan konstitucion, ĉar li fine alvenis al esti prezidanto kaj ĉio.

Unlike the elitist Hamilton, Jefferson was an avowed democrat, which meant that he distrusted concentrated power and privilege and believed that the masses could basically govern themselves. Kontraste kun la elitista Hamilton, Jefferson estis avokita demokrato, kio signifis, ke li malfidis koncentrita potencon kaj privilegion kaj kredis, ke la masoj povus regike regi sin.

To him, government and concentrated economic power were greater threats to liberty than a tyrannical majority. Al li, registaro kaj koncentrita ekonomia potenco estis pli grandaj minacoj al libereco ol tiranea plimulto.

Jefferson was a big fan of the French, and not only because he spent a fair amount of time in Paris as our ambassador there. Jefferson estis granda fervorulo de la francoj, kaj ne nur pro tio, ke tie li pasigis sufiĉe da tempo en Parizo kiel nia ambasadoro tie.

He also liked the French because they fought with us in the war of independence against the British. Li ankaŭ ŝatis la francan ĉar ili batalis kun ni en la milito de sendependeco kontraŭ la Britoj.

And because, after 1789, he liked the way the French treated their aristocrats – that is, brutally. Kaj ĉar, post 1789, li ŝatis la vojon, kiun la francoj traktis siajn aristokratojn - tio estas brutale.

In general, Jefferson and his partisans who called themselves Republicans Ĝenerale, Jefferson kaj liaj partianoj, kiuj nomis sin mem respublikanoj

(although some current textbooks call them Democratic-Republicans just to make things incredibly confusing) (kvankam iuj nunaj libroj de libroj nomas ilin Demokrat-Respublikanoj nur por fari aferojn nekredeble konfuzantaj)

preferred France just as the Hamiltonians preferred Britain. preferis Francion ĝuste kiel la hamiltonanoj preferis Brition.

And this was a bit of a problem since France and England were pretty much constantly at war between 1740 and 1815. Kaj tio estis iom da problemo, ĉar Francio kaj Anglio estis preskaŭ senĉese en milito inter 1740 kaj 1815.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. Dankon, Pensa Bobelo [Thought Bubble].

So linked to these imagined Americas were the questions of how democratic we should be and how much free speech we should have. Do ligitaj al ĉi tiuj imagitaj Amerikoj estis la demandoj pri kiel demokratiaj ni devus esti kaj kiom da libera parolado ni devus havi.

Jefferson and the Republicans wanted more democracy and more free speech, well, sort of Jefferson kaj la respublikanoj volis pli da demokratio kaj pli liberaj paroloj, nu, iomete

I mean, during Washington's presidency, Democratic-Republican Societies sprang up, the first opposition political parties. Mi volas diri, dum la prezidanteco de Vaŝingtono, la Demokratiaj-Respublikaj Socioj eksaltis, la unuaj opoziciaj partioj.

And in 1794, the Democratic-Republican society of Pennsylvania published an address which made the point that, Kaj en 1794, la Demokratia-Respublikana socio de Pensilvanio publikigis adreson kiu faris la punkton, ke,

“Freedom of thought, and a free communication of opinions by speech or through the medium of the press, are the safeguards of our Liberties.” "Libereco de penso, kaj senpaga komunikado de opinioj per parolado aŭ per la gazetaro, estas la protektatoj de niaj Liberecoj".

The Federalists on the other hand saw too much free speech and democracy as a threat. Aliflanke, la federistoj vidis tro da senpaga parolado kaj demokratio kiel minaco.

And from this it sounds like the Republicans were “better democrats”, but it's a lot more complicated than that. Kaj de ĉi tio ĝi sonas, ke la respublikanoj estis "pli bonaj demokratoj", sed ĝi estas multe pli komplika ol tio.

I mean, for one thing many Republicans, including Thomas Jefferson, were slaveholders, and slavery is kind of the opposite of Democracy. Mi volas diri, por unu afero multaj respublikanoj, inkluzive de Thomas Jefferson, estis sklavposedantoj, kaj sklaveco estas afabla kontraŭe de la demokratio.

And for another, many were supporters of the French Revolution, and supporting the French Revolution after 1793 is pretty problematic. Kaj por alia, multaj estis subtenantoj de la Franca Revolucio, kaj subtenante la Francan Revolucion post 1793 estas sufiĉe malfacila.

Because as you'll remember from Crash Course World History, Robespierre was guillotining everyone, up until the point where he himself was guillotined. Ĉar kiel vi memoros de Crash Course World History, Robespierre gvidis ĉiujn, ĝis la punkto kie li mem estis gilotinita.

OK, so in the first real American presidential election there weren't any political parties. Bone, do en la unuaj realaj prezidantaj elektoj de Usono ne estis politikaj partioj.

There wasn't even a campaign. Ne estis eĉ kampanjo.

The election was uncontested and George Washington won. La elekto estis nekontestita kaj George Washington gajnis.

He didn't even have to run for office; he stood for it. Li eĉ ne devis kuri por oficejo; li staris por ĝi.

Washington's presidency is important for a number of precedents that he set, including the notion that a president should only serve two terms and the idea that even if he was a general the president should wear civilian clothing. La prezidanteco de Vaŝingtono estas grava por kelkaj precedencoj, kiujn li starigis, inkluzive de la nocio, ke prezidanto nur servu du termojn kaj la ideon, ke eĉ se li estus ĝenerala, la prezidanto devus porti civitan vestojn.

But he wasn't the real policy brains. Hamilton was. Sed li ne estis la vera politika cerbo. Hamilton estis.

Washington probably wouldn't have called himself a Federalist, but he backed Hamilton's plan for a stronger nation. Vaŝingtono verŝajne ne nomus sin kiel federisto, sed li subtenis la planon de Hamilton por pli forta nacio.

And to that end, Hamilton began the great American tradition of having a 5 point plan: Kaj por tio, Hamilton komencis la grandan usonan tradicion de havi 5-punktan planon:

Point 1: Establish the nation's credit-worthiness. Punkto 1: Establi la kredito-indecon de la nacio.

Hamilton realized that if the new nation wanted to be taken seriously it had to pay off its debts, most of which had come during the war. Hamilton rimarkis, ke se la nova nacio volis esti prenita serioze, ĝi devis pagi siajn ŝuldojn, plej multaj el kiuj venis dum la milito.

And to do this Hamilton proposed that the U.S. government assume the debts that the states had amassed. Kaj por fari tion Hamilton proponis, ke la usona registaro supozas la ŝuldojn, kiujn la ŝtatoj arigis.

Point 2: Create a national debt. Punkto 2: Krei nacia ŝuldo.

That's something you don't hear politicians say these days. Tio estas io, kion vi ne aŭdas politikistoj diras ĉi tage.

Hamilton wanted to create new interest bearing bonds, hoping to give the rich people a stake in our nation's success. Hamilton volis krei novajn interesajn ligojn, esperante doni al la riĉuloj intereson en la sukceso de nia nacio.

Point 3: Create a Bank of the United States. Punkto 3: Krei Bankon de Usono.

This bank would be private and it would turn a profit for its shareholders but it would hold public funds and issue notes that would circulate as currency. Ĉi tiu banko estus privata kaj ĝi farus profiton por siaj akciuloj, sed ĝi tenus publikajn fundojn kaj aferojn, kiuj cirkulus kiel monero.

And the bank would definitely be needed to house all the money that was expected to be raised from: Kaj la datenbanko certe estus necesa por loĝigi la tutan monon, kiu atendis esti levita de:

Point 4: A Whiskey tax. Punkto 4: Imposto de viskio.

Then, as now, Americans liked to drink. Tiam, kiel nun, usonanoj ŝatis trinki.

And one sure way to raise money was to set an excise tax on whiskey, which might reduce drinking on the margins or cause people to switch to beer. Kaj unu certa maniero por enspezi monon estis starigi ekscizan imposton sur viskio, kiu povus redukti trinki sur la randoj aŭ kaŭzi homojn ŝanĝi al biero.

But what it would definitely do is hurt small farmers, who found the most profitable use of their grain was to distill it into sweet, sweet whiskey. Sed tio, kion ĝi certe farus, estas vundi malgrandajn kamparanojn, kiuj trovis la plej profitodonan uzon de ilia greno, por distili ĝin en dolĉan, dolĉan viskion.

So the Whiskey Tax really upset small farmers, as we will see in a moment. Do la Viskio-Impostoj vere renversis malgrandajn kamparanojn, kiel ni vidos en momento.

Point 5: Encourage domestic industrial manufacturing by imposing a tariff. Punkto 5: Kuraĝigi hejman industrian fabrikadon postulante tarifon.

For those of you who think that the U.S. was founded on free trade principles, think again. Por tiuj el vi, kiuj pensas, ke Usono estas fondita en liberaj komercaj principoj, pensu denove.

Now you will remember that the Republicans wanted an agrarian republic with freer trade, so they disliked pretty much all of Hamilton's plan. Nun vi memoros, ke la respublikanoj volis agraran respublikon kun pli freŝa komerco, do ili malŝatis la tutan planon de Hamilton.

They also argued that none of this was in the Constitution, and they were right. Ili ankaŭ argumentis, ke neniu el ĉi tio estis en la Konstitucio, kaj ili pravas.

This position of expecting government to be limited by the text of the constitution came to be known as strict construction. Ĉi tiu pozicio de atendanta registaro limigita de la teksto de la konstitucio estis konata kiel strikta konstruo.

But the Republicans lacked a five point plan of their own, so their only hope of success was to shave Hamilton's five point plan down to four points, which is what they did. Sed la respublikanoj malhavis de sia punkta plano, tial ilia sola espero de sukceso estis ŝvebi la kvin-punktan planon de Hamilton malsupren al kvar poentoj, kio estas kion ili faris.

In 1790, many of the Republicans, who were Southerners like Jefferson, struck a bargain. En 1790, multaj el la respublikanoj, kiuj estis suduloj kiel Jefferson, frapis negocon.

They agreed to points 1-4 of Hamilton's plan in exchange for a permanent capital on the Potomac Ili konsentis punktojn 1-4 de la plano de Hamilton kontraŭ permanenta ĉefurbo sur la Potomac

(in the South as opposed to the first two temporary capitals of the US in New York and Philadelphia). (en la Sudo kontraŭe al la du unuaj provizoraj ĉefurboj de Usono en Novjorko kaj Filadelfio).

So the Hamiltonian economy won out. For a while. Do la hamiltonia ekonomio venkis. Dum kelka tempo.

Probably the most immediately controversial aspect of Hamilton's program was the whiskey tax, and not just because people loved to drink. Probable la plej polemika aspekto de la programo de Hamilton estis la viska imposto, kaj ne nur ĉar homoj amis trinki.

But also because farmers love to turn their rye into whiskey, into profits. Sed ankaŭ ĉar kamparanoj amas igi sian sekiĝon al viskio, en profitojn.

In 1794, western Pennsylvania farmers even took up arms to protest the tax, and that clearly could not stand. En 1794, okcidentaj Pensilvanaj kamparanoj eĉ ekprenis armilojn por protesti la imposton, kaj tio klare ne povis stari.

Washington actually led (at least for part of the way) a force of 13,000 men to put down this Whiskey Rebellion, becoming the only sitting president to lead troops in the field, Vaŝingtono efektive kondukis (almenaŭ por parto de la vojo) forto de 13,000 viroj por submeti ĉi tiun Viskan Ribelon, iĝante la sola sidanta prezidanto por gvidi trupojn en la kampo,

and America continued to tax booze, as it does to this day. kaj Usono daŭre impostis vinon, kiel ĝi faras ĝis nun.

On the subject of foreign affairs, there was much more agreement. Just kidding. Pri la afero pri eksterlandaj aferoj, multe pli da interkonsento. Mi nur ŝercas.

Hamilton wanted the U.S. to have close ties to Britain for commercial reasons, but Britain was perpetually at war with France, which whom the U.S. technically had a perpetual alliance. Hamilton volis, ke Usono devas fermi ligojn al Britio pro komercaj kialoj, sed Britujo estis eterne en milito kun Francio, kun kiu la usonano teknike havis eternan aliancon.

You know, because they helped us with the American Revolution, they gave us the Statue of Liberty, and Marion Cotillard, etc. Vi scias, ĉar ili helpis nin kun la Usona Revolucio, ili donis al ni la Statuon de Libereco, kaj Marion Cotillard, ktp.

And the French revolution made things even more complicated, because Republicans liked it but Federalists, being somewhat conservative and elitist, were afraid of it. Kaj la franca revolucio faris eĉ pli komplikajn aĵojn, ĉar respublikanoj ŝatis ĝin, sed federistoj, estante iom konservativaj kaj elitistaj, timis ĝin.

This was especially true when French emissary Citizen Genet showed up in 1793 and started hiring American ships to attack British ones. Ĉi tio estis precipe vera kiam la franca ekspreso Civitana Geneto aperis en 1793 kaj komencis kontrakti usonajn ŝipojn por ataki britajn.

Britain in response began impressing American sailors, which sounds fun, but it isn't. Britujo en respondo komencis impresi usonajn maristojn, kiuj amas amuzon, sed ne.

It doesn't mean the British sailors wowed Americans with their awesome mermaid tattoos, it means they kidnapped them and forced them to serve in the British navy. Ĝi ne signifas, ke la britaj maristoj vokis usonanoj kun siaj timindaj sirenaj tatuoj, signifas, ke ili forrabis ilin kaj devigis ilin servi en la brita mararmeo.

Washington dispatched secretary of state John Jay to deal with the impressment issue and he negotiated the boringly named Jay Treaty, Vaŝingtono sendis la sekretarion de ŝtato John Jay por trakti la impresan aferon kaj li negocis la abomenan nomitan Ĝej-Traktaton,

which improved trade relations between the U.S. and Britain and said absolutely nothing about impressment or American shipping rights. kiu plibonigis komercajn rilatojn inter Usono kaj Britio kaj diris tute nenion pri impreso aŭ usonaj ekspediciaj rajtoj.

For the rest of his term, Washington just tried to ignore the problem, thereby inaugurating another presidential tradition: Dum la resto de sia termino, Vaŝingtono nur provis ignori la problemon, tiel inaŭgurante alian prezidantan tradicion:

kicking big foreign policy problems down the line for future presidents. piedbatante grandajn eksterajn politikajn problemojn malsupren la linio por estontaj prezidantoj.

By the end of his presidency, George Washington was somewhat disillusioned by politics. Antaŭ la fino de sia prezidanteco, George Vaŝingtono iomete seniluziigita de la politiko.

His famous call for unity said that “with slight shades of difference, you Americans have the same religion, manners, habits and political principles,” Lia fama alvoko pri unueco diris, ke "kun malgravaj ombroj de diferenco, vi Usonanoj havas saman religion, kutimojn, kutimojn kaj politikajn principojn,"

Washington warned against the “baneful effects of the spirit of party generally,” Vaŝingtono avertis kontraŭ la "malpuraj efikoj de la spirito de la partio ĝenerale",

saying that “it agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; dirante, ke "ĝi agitas la komunumon kun malfondaj zorgoj kaj falsaj alarmoj;

kindles the animosity of one part against another; foments occasionally riot and insurrection. ekklamas la animon de unu parto kontraŭ alia; Fomentoj foje ribelo kaj insurekto .

It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption.” Ĝi malfermas la pordon al fremda influo kaj korupteco."

Still, by the time the diminutive John Adams took over as the second president, Americans had already divided themselves into two groups: "Ankoraŭ, kiam la malgranda John Adams transprenis kiel la dua prezidanto, la Usonanoj jam dividis sin en du grupojn:

elitist Federalist and Republicans who stood for freedom and equality and… elitismaj Federalistj kaj Respublikanistoj, kiuj staris por libereco kaj egaleco kaj ...

Oh, It's time for the Mystery Document? Ho, Estas tempo por la Mistero-Dokumento?

The rules here are simple: I guess the author of the mystery document. La reguloj ĉi tie estas simplaj: mi konjektas, kiu estas la aŭtoro de la mistero dokumento.

If am right, I do not get shocked; if I am wrong, I do get shocked. Se mi pravas, mi ne estos ŝokita; Se mi estas malpravas, mi estos ŝokita.

All right, let's give it a go. Bone, ni komencu.

“Yes, ye lordly, ye haughty sex, our souls are by nature equal to yours; the same breath of God animates, enlivens, and invigorates us; "Jes, vi diaj sinjoroj, vi fiera sekso, niaj animoj estas laŭ naturo egalaj al viaj; la sama spiro de Dio animas, vivigas kaj vigligas nin;

Were we to grant that animal strength proved any thing, taking into consideration the accustomed impartiality of nature, Ĉu ni donu ke ĉi tiu besto pruvis iun ajn, konsiderante la kutimatan senpartiecon de la naturo,

we should be induced to imagine, that she had invested the female mind with superior strength as an equivalent for the bodily powers of man. ni devas esti induktitaj imagi, ke ŝi investis la inan menson kun pli alta forto kiel ekvivalenta por la korpaj potencoj de homo.

But waiving this however palpable advantage, for equality only we wish to contend.” Sed rezignante ĉi tiun tamen palpeblan avantaĝon, por egaleco nur ni deziras disputi.

So the author of the Mystery Document is a badass woman. Do la aŭtoro de la Mistero-Dokumento estas mojosa virino.

So we have here an argument, and a bit of a snarky one, for equality between men and women. Do ni havas ĉi tie argumenton, kaj iom da akratono, por egaleco inter viroj kaj virinoj.