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Crash Course US history, The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3

The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3

Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course US History and today we're going to talk about one of the worst relationships in American history.

No Thought Bubble, not my college girlfriend and me.

Mr. Green, Mr. Green! Your relationship with your high school girlfriend?

Oh Me From The Past, you and I both know that I didn't have a high school girlfriend.

No, I'm talking about the relationship between Native Americans and English Settlers.

[Theme Music]

So as you'll no doubt remember from last week, the first English settlers came to the Chesapeake area – now Virginia – in 1607.

The land the English found was, of course, already inhabited by Indian tribes unified under the leadership of Chief Wahunsenacawh, and I will remind you that mispronouncing things is my thing!

The English called this Chief Powhatan because, of course, mispronouncing things was also their thing.

Powhatan was actually his title and the name of his tribe, but to say that the English lacked cultural sensitivity would be an understatement.

So Powhatan didn't get to be leader of over 30 tribes by being a dummy and he quickly realized that:

1. The English were pretty clueless, when it came to not dying of starvation, and 2. They were useful – because they had guns. So he decided to help them and the English were indeed grateful.

In fact, colony leader John Smith went so far as to order the colonists to stop stealing food from the Indians.

Aaauugh, in the book business this is known as foreshadowing.

So as previously noted, relationships, whether between individuals or collectives, tend to go well when they are mutually beneficial, and for a while, both the English and the Indians were better off for these interactions.

I mean, you know, post-smallpox.

The Virginia Company existed to make money, and since the Chesapeake lacked gold or silver, making money required trade.

OK, let's go to the Thought Bubble:

We tend to think of trade between Europeans and Natives as being a one-way exchange, like savvy, exploitative Europeans tricking primitive, pure, indigenous people into unfair deals.

But that isn't quite accurate.

Both sides traded goods that they had in surplus for those they did not.

The English were happy to give up iron utensils, tools, guns, woven cloth in exchange for furs and, especially in the early days, food, which the Indians could easily part with because they had plenty.

Soon, though, there were problems.

In order to keep up trade relations, Indian men devoted more time to hunting and less to agriculture which upset traditional gender balance in their society.

And European ideas about land use started to overcome traditional Indian ways of life, and that led to conflict.

The English liked to fence in some of their land, which kept the Indians off it, and also the English let their pigs and cattle roam freely and the animals would eat Natives' crops.

And as Europeans' appetite for furs grew, Indian tribes began to fight with each other over access to the best hunting grounds, leading to inter-tribal warfare, which suddenly included guns.

But this was still a relatively calm time.

Yes, at one point John Smith was captured by the Indians and had to be "saved" by Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas, but this was probably all a ritual planned by Powhatan to demonstrate his dominance over the English.

Pocahontas never married John Smith by the way, but she was kidnapped by the English and held for ransom in 1613, and she did eventually marry another Englishman, John Rolfe.

She converted to Christianity and went to England, where she became a sensation and died of disease.

Stupid disease always deciding the course of human history.

Anyway, despite not marrying Pocahontas, John Smith is still important to this story because when he left Virginia for England after being injured in a gunpowder explosion, things between the Native Americans and the English immediately began to deteriorate.

How?

Well, the English went back to stealing Indians' crops and also began stealing their lives via massacres.

Thanks, Thought Bubble – man, you guys sure know how to end on a downer.

Although to be fair, there are not a lot of uppers in this story.

So after a period of peace following Pocahontas' marriage to John Rolfe in 1614, dramatized here, things finally came to a head in 1622, when Chief Opechancanough led a rebellion against the English.

It had become abundantly clear that more and more English were going to show up and they weren't just there to trade.

They wanted to take Indian land.

But the English struck back, as empires will, and the uprising of 1622 ultimately failed.

And after another failed uprising in 1644, the 2,000 remaining Native Americans were forced to sign a treaty that consigned them to reservations in the West.

Well, the west of Virginia, at least.

But the 1622 uprising was the final nail in the coffin of the Virginia Company, which was a failure in every way.

It never turned a profit, and despite sponsoring 6,000 colonists, by 1644 when Virginia became a royal colony, only 1,200 of those people were still alive, proving once again that governments are better at governing than corporations.

Up in New England, you'll recall that the Pilgrims probably wouldn't have survived their first winter without help from the Native Americans, which of course led to the first Thanksgiving, and then centuries of mutually beneficial trade and generosity– just kidding.

While some of the Puritans that settled in New England – notably Roger Williams – tried to treat the Indians fairly, in general it was very similar to what we saw in the Chesapeake.

Settlers thought Native Americans could be replaced because they weren't "properly using the land."

Now John Winthrop, who you'll remember from last week, at least realized that it was better to buy land from Indians than just take it.

But Puritan land purchases usually came with strings attached.

The main string being that the Native Americans had to submit to English authority.

Now, the Puritans had a rather conflicted view of the Indians.

On the one hand, they saw natives as heathens in need of salvation, as evidenced by the Massachusetts seal, which features an Indian saying "Come over and help us."

On the other hand, they recognized that the Native American way of life – with its relative abundance and equality, especially when it came to women – might be tempting to some people, who might want to go native.

This was such a concern that in 1642, the Massachusetts General Court prescribed a sentence of three years hard labor for anyone who left the colony and went to live with the indigenous people.

There was even anti-Indian propaganda in the form of books.

Captivity narratives, in which Europeans recounted their desire to return to Christian society after living with the Indians, were quite popular.

Even though some, like the famous Sovereignty and Goodness of God by Mary Rowlandson, did admit that the Indians often treated their European captives quite well.

New England's native population lacked an overarching leader like Powhatan, but by 1637, the inevitable conflict between the English and the Indians did happen.

It was called the Pequot War.

After some Pequots killed an English fur trader, soldiers from Massachusetts, the newly-formed colony of Connecticut, and some Narragansett Indians, who saw an opportunity to gain an upper hand over the Pequots, attacked a Pequot village at Mystic, burning it and massacring over 500 people.

The war continued for a few months after this, but to call it a war is, in a way, to give it too much credit.

The Indians were over-matched from the beginning, and by the end, almost all of them had been massacred or sold into slavery in the Caribbean.

The War opened up the Connecticut River to further settlement.

It also showed that Native Americans were going to have a tough time resisting, because they were outnumbered and they had inferior weapons.

But the brutality of the massacre in Mystic shocked even some Puritans, like William Bradford, who wrote, "It was a fearful sight to see them frying in the fire."

But despite the odds, New England natives continued to resist the English.

In 1675, Native Americans launched their biggest attack on New England colonists in what would come to be known as King Philip's War.

It was led by a Wampanoag chief named Metacom, which was why it is also sometimes called Metacom's War.

The English called Metacom "King Philip" due to their fantastic cultural sensitivity.

The conflict was marked by brutality on both sides and it nearly ended English settlements in the northeast.

The fighting itself lasted 2 years.

Indians attacked half of the 90 towns the English had founded, and 12 of those towns were destroyed.

About 1,000 of the 52,000 Europeans and 3,000 of the 20,000 Indians involved died in the War.

As I mentioned before, the War was particularly brutal.

The Battle of the Great Swamp was really just a massacre of Indians by the English.

And when King Philip was finally killed, ending the War, his decapitated head was placed on a stake in the Plymouth town square, where it remained for decades.

And on the other side?

Well, to quote Nathaniel Saltonstall, who lived through the war,

"The heathen rarely [gave] quarter to those that they take, but if they were women, they first forced them to satisfy their filthy lusts and then murdered them."

Saltonstall went on to describe a particularly brutal way that natives would kill colonists' cows:

by cutting "their bellies and letting them go several days trailing their guts after them."

That indigenous people would reserve such brutality for livestock says something really important about this war.

The Indians correctly saw European colonization as a threat to their way of life, and that included the animals who trampled Indians' land and whose grazing patterns required the English to take more and more territory.

Some of the stories told about Native American brutality also suggest the symbolic nature of this war.

Like, one English colonist was disemboweled and had a Bible stuck in his body cavity.

Supposedly, the natives who buried him explained, "You English, since you came into this country have grown exceedingly above the ground.

Let us see how well you grow when planted into the ground."

But it wasn't just the Indians who felt their way of life being threatened.

It's time for this week's Mystery Document!

The rules here are simple.

I read the Mystery Document. I try to guess its author.

If I'm right, I don't get shocked with the shock pen. If I'm wrong, I do.

"The righteous god hath heightened our calamity and given commission to the barbarous heathen to rise up against us

and to become a smart rod and a severe scourge to us in burning and depopulating several hopeful plantations, murdering many of our people of all sorts and seeming as it were to cast us off

hereby speaking aloud to us to search and try out our ways and turn again unto the Lord

our God from whom we have departed with a great backsliding."

OK, I don't know this one, so I'm going to have to piece it together.

Uh, we have a plural narrator, that's important.

Seemingly monotheistic, feels like the heathens in this context – likely the Native Americans

– have been sent as a scourge [scorge], or scourge [scurge], as it is apparently properly pronounced.

What, I'm from Alabama, I don't know how to say a ton of words.

I mean, I just recently learned that you don't check your Ya-HOO! mail, you check your YA-hoo! mail, and Yahoo!'s over already!

All right so plural narrator, scourge, great backsliding uhh Stan, you're going to get to shock me this time, who is it? [Buzzing Sound]

The Laws of War passed by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1675. Are you kidding?

From now on, the Mystery Document must always be written by a single human person!

I hate this. I hate this so much.

It's worse now, because I've had it before, so I know it's gonna – GAHHHHHH!!!

This shows us the way the Puritans understand the world, but it also show us that within 50 years of its founding, Puritans already felt that the mission of their colony – to be a great Christian community – was already kind of a failure.

If they'd been as righteous as they were supposed to be, God wouldn't have sent the Indians to burn their homes and kill them.

So it's important to understand that this was a war to preserve a way of life for both the Indians and the English.

And that brings us to another question: What's the point of even telling these bloody stories about massacres and atrocities.

One point is to remind ourselves that much of what we learn about American history, like all history, has been cleaned up to conform to our mythological view of ourselves.

Native Americans have been so successfully marginalized, both geographically and metaphorically, that it's easy to either forget about them or else to view them merely as people to be pitied or reviled.

But it's important to know the ways that they resisted colonization, because it reminds us that Native Americans were people who acted in history, not just people who were acted upon by it.

And it also reminds us that the history of Indigenous people on this land mass isn't separate from American history; it's an essential part of it.

Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week.

Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, our script supervisor is Meredith Danko, the associate producer is Danica Johnson, and the show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer and myself.

Our graphics team is Thought Bubble.

If you have questions about today's video, please ask them in comments.

They will be answered by our team of crack historians.

By the way, our team of crack historians is a team of excellent historians, not a team of historians who study crack cocaine.

Thanks for watching. As we say in my hometown, don't forget to be awesome.


The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3

Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course US History and today we're going to talk about one of the worst relationships in American history.

No Thought Bubble, not my college girlfriend and me. Ne, Pensa Bobelo, ne mia kolegia koramikino kaj mi.

Mr. Green, Mr. Green! Your relationship with your high school girlfriend? Sinjoro Green, Sinjoro Green! Via rilato kun via mezlerneja koramikino? Sr. Green, Sr. Green! Su relación con su alta novia de la escuela? Bay Green, Bay Green! Ile ilişkiniz Lise kız arkadaşın?

Oh Me From The Past, you and I both know that I didn't have a high school girlfriend. Ho, Mi de la Pastinteco, vi kaj mi ambaŭ scias, ke mi ne havis mezlernejan koramikinon.

No, I'm talking about the relationship between Native Americans and English Settlers. Ne, mi parolas pri la rilato inter Indiĝenaj Usonanoj kaj Anglaj Koloniantoj. Estoy hablando de la relación entre Nativos americanos y los ingleses colonos. Ben arasındaki ilişki bahsediyorum Yerli Amerikalılar ve İngilizce Settlers.

[Theme Music] [Tema Muzkio]

So as you'll no doubt remember from last week, the first English settlers came to the Chesapeake area – now Virginia – in 1607. Do kiel vi sendube memoros de la pasinta semajno, la unuaj Anglaj Kolonianoj venis al la Chesapeake areo - nun Virginio - en 1607.

The land the English found was, of course, already inhabited by Indian tribes unified under the leadership of Chief Wahunsenacawh, and I will remind you that mispronouncing things is my thing! La lando, kiun la angla trovis, estis, kompreneble, jam loĝata de Indianaj triboj unuigitaj sub la gvidado de la estro Wahunsenacawh, kaj mi memorigos vin, ke misprononcado de aferoj estas mia forto!

The English called this Chief Powhatan because, of course, mispronouncing things was also their thing. La Angloj nomis ĉi tiun estron Powhatan ĉar, kompreneble, misprononcado de aferoj ankaŭ estis ilia forto.

Powhatan was actually his title and the name of his tribe, but to say that the English lacked cultural sensitivity would be an understatement. Powhatan fakte estis lia titolo kaj la nomo de sia tribo, sed diri, ke la Angloj malhavis kulturan sentemon estus litoto.

So Powhatan didn't get to be leader of over 30 tribes by being a dummy and he quickly realized that: Do Powhatan ne iĝis la gvidanto de pli ol 30 triboj, estante stulta kaj li rapide rimarkis ke:

1\\. The English were pretty clueless, when it came to not dying of starvation, and 1\\. La Angloj estis senideaj, pri ne mortado pro malsato, kaj 1\\. El Inglés eran bastante cruel 1\\. İngilizce, zaman oldukça clueless o açlıktan ölmüyor geldi ve 2\\. They were useful – because they had guns. 2\\. Ili estis utilaj - ĉar ili havis pafilojn. 2\\. Ellos eran útiles - porque tenían armas. 2\\. Onlar yararlı - onlar silahları vardı çünkü. So he decided to help them and the English were indeed grateful. Do li decidis helpi ilin kaj la Angloj ja estis dankemaj. Así que decidió ayudar a ellos, y el Inglés estaban muy agradecidos. De hecho, el líder de la colonia Bu yüzden onlara yardım etmeye karar verdi ve İngilizce Gerçekten minnettarım. Aslında, koloni lideri

In fact, colony leader John Smith went so far as to order the colonists to stop stealing food from the Indians. Fakte, la ĉefo de la kolonio John Smith eĉ ordonis la kolonianojn ĉesi ŝteli manĝaĵon de la Indianoj.

Aaauugh, in the book business this is known as foreshadowing. Aaauugh, en la libro-komerco ĉi tio estas konata kiel antaŭsigno.

So as previously noted, relationships, whether between individuals or collectives, tend to go well when they are mutually beneficial, and for a while, both the English and the Indians were better off for these interactions. Do kiel antaŭe rimarkita, rilatoj, ĉu inter individuoj aŭ kolektivoj, emas boniĝi kiam ili estas reciproke utilaj, kaj dum kelka tempo, ambaŭ Angloj kaj Indianoj estis pli bonaj por ĉi tiuj interagoj. Así como se ha señalado anteriormente, las relaciones, ya sea entre individuos o colectivos, tienden a Bu yüzden, daha önce de belirtildiği gibi, ilişkiler, ister bireyler ya da kolektifler arasındaki eğilimi

I mean, you know, post-smallpox. Mi volas diri, vi scias, post-viruelo.

The Virginia Company existed to make money, and since the Chesapeake lacked gold or silver, making money required trade. La Virginia Kompanio ekzistis por gajni monon, kaj ĉar la Chesapeake malhavis de oro aŭ arĝento, gajnado de mono bezonis komercon. La Compañía de Virginia existía para hacer dinero, y puesto que el Chesapeake carecía de oro o plata, Virginia Company, para kazanmak için var ve Chesapeake, altın veya gümüş yoksun beri

OK, let's go to the Thought Bubble: OK, ni iru al la Pensa Bobelo [Thought Bubble]:

We tend to think of trade between Europeans and Natives as being a one-way exchange, like savvy, exploitative Europeans tricking primitive, pure, indigenous people into unfair deals. Ni emas pripensi komercadon inter Eŭropanoj kaj Indiĝenoj kiel unu-vojan interŝanĝon, kiel ruzaj, ekspluataj Eŭropanoj trompantaj primitivajn, purajn, Indiĝenajn homojn en maljustaj interkonsentoj. Tendemos a pensar en el comercio entre los europeos y los nativos como un cambio de sentido único, al igual que Biz Avrupalılar arasındaki ticaretin düşünmek eğilimindedir ve Yerliler gibi tek yönlü bir değişimi olarak

But that isn't quite accurate. Sed tio ne tute pravas. Pero eso no es del todo exacto. Ambos lados bienes transables que tenían en excedente para Ama bu oldukça doğru değildir. İki taraf da onlar için fazlalık vardı işlem gören mallar

Both sides traded goods that they had in surplus for those they did not. Ambaŭ partioj komercis varojn, kiujn ili havis en troo por tiuj, kiujn ili ne havis.

The English were happy to give up iron utensils, tools, guns, woven cloth in exchange for furs and, especially in the early days, food, which the Indians could easily part with because they had plenty. La Angloj estis feliĉaj forlasi ferajn uzaĵojn, ilojn, pafilojn, teksitajn ŝtofojn kontraŭ pikiloj kaj, precipe en la fruaj tagoj, manĝaĵo, kiun la Indianoj facile povis parti, ĉar ili havis multajn.

Soon, though, there were problems. Baldaŭ, tamen, estis problemoj. Pronto, sin embargo, hubo problemas. En orden para mantener las relaciones comerciales, los hombres indios dedican Yakında olsa da, sorunları vardı. Sırayla ticari ilişkiler tutmak için, Hintli erkeklerin adamış

In order to keep up trade relations, Indian men devoted more time to hunting and less to agriculture which upset traditional gender balance in their society. Por subteni komercajn rilatojn, Indianaj viroj dediĉis pli da tempo al ĉasado kaj malpli al agrikulturo, kiu malobservis tradician seksan ekvilibron en sia socio.

And European ideas about land use started to overcome traditional Indian ways of life, and that led to conflict. Kaj Eŭropaj ideoj pri landa uzo komencis superi tradiciajn Indianajn vivmanierojn, kaj tio kaŭzis konflikton.

The English liked to fence in some of their land, which kept the Indians off it, and also the English let their pigs and cattle roam freely and the animals would eat Natives' crops. La Angloj ŝatis bari en iu parto de ilia lando, kiu forigis la Indianojn, kaj ankaŭ la Angloj lasis siajn porkojn kaj brutojn vagi libere kaj la bestoj manĝis la kulturojn de la Indiĝenoj.

And as Europeans' appetite for furs grew, Indian tribes began to fight with each other over access to the best hunting grounds, leading to inter-tribal warfare, which suddenly included guns. Kaj dum la Eŭropa apetito por pikoj kreskis, Indianaj triboj komencis batali inter si por aliro al la plej bonaj ĉasaj teroj, kondukante al inter-triba militado, kiu subite inkludis pafilojn.

But this was still a relatively calm time. Sed tiam ankoraŭ estis relative trankvila. Pero esto era todavía un tiempo de relativa calma. Sí, en un momento John Smith fue capturado Ama bu yine de nispeten sakin bir zaman oldu. Evet, bir noktada John Smith yakalandı

Yes, at one point John Smith was captured by the Indians and had to be "saved" by Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas, but this was probably all a ritual planned by Powhatan to demonstrate his dominance over the English. Jes, en unu momento John Smith estis kaptita de la Indianoj kaj devis esti "savita" fare de la filino de Powhatan, Pocahontas, sed ĉi tio estis verŝajne rito planita de Powhatan por pruvi sian regadon super la Angloj.

Pocahontas never married John Smith by the way, but she was kidnapped by the English and held for ransom in 1613, and she did eventually marry another Englishman, John Rolfe. Pocahontas neniam edziĝis kun John Smith parenteze, sed ŝi ja estis forrabita de la Angloj kaj tenis por elaĉeto en 1613, kaj ŝi poste geedziĝis kun alia Angla John Rolfe. Nunca se casó con John Smith, por cierto, pero ella fue secuestrado por el Inglés y se mantuvo durante Asla bu arada John Smith ile evlendi, ama o İngilizler tarafından kaçırılan ve düzenlenen

She converted to Christianity and went to England, where she became a sensation and died of disease. Ŝi transformiĝis al Kristaneco kaj iris al Anglujo, kie ŝi iĝis sensacio kaj mortis pro malsano.

Stupid disease always deciding the course of human history. Diabla malsano ĉiam decidas la kurson de homa historio. Enfermedad estúpido siempre decidir el curso de la historia humana. Aptal bir hastalık daima kursu karar İnsanlık tarihinin.

Anyway, despite not marrying Pocahontas, John Smith is still important to this story because when he left Virginia for England after being injured in a gunpowder explosion, things between the Native Americans and the English immediately began to deteriorate. Iamaniere, malgraŭ ne geedziĝi kun Pocahontas, John Smith ankoraŭ estas grava por ĉi tiu rakonto ĉar kiam li forlasis Virginion por Anglio post esti vundita de pulvo, la rilato inter la indiĝenoj kaj la Angloj tuj komencis difekti. De todos modos, a pesar de no casarse con Pocahontas, John Smith sigue siendo importante para esta historia porque Neyse, Pocahontas, John ile evlenmek değil rağmen Smith hala bu hikayenin nedeniyle önemlidir

How? Kiel?

Well, the English went back to stealing Indians' crops and also began stealing their lives via massacres. Nu, la Angloj revenis por ŝteli kultivojn de Indianoj kaj ankaŭ komencis ŝtelante siajn vivojn per masakroj. volvió a robar cultivos indios y también comenzó robando sus vidas por las masacres. Gracias, Ayrıca Kızılderililerin 'ekinleri çalmak ve geri döndü katliamlarla hayatlarını çalmak başladılar. Teşekkürler,

Thanks, Thought Bubble – man, you guys sure know how to end on a downer. Dankon, Pensa Bubble - ŭaŭ , vi certe scias kiel fini negative.

Although to be fair, there are not a lot of uppers in this story. Kvankam por esti justa, ne estas multaj de pozitivaj aĵoj en ĉi tiu rakonto.

So after a period of peace following Pocahontas' marriage to John Rolfe in 1614, dramatized here, things finally came to a head in 1622, when Chief Opechancanough led a rebellion against the English. Post la periodo de paco post la geedzeco de Pocahontas al John Rolfe en 1614, dramatigita ĉi tie, aferoj fine kulmnis en 1622, kiam Chief Opechancanough kaŭzis ribelon kontraŭ la Angloj. Así que después de un período de paz siguiente Pocahontas ' matrimonio con John Rolfe en 1614 dramatizó Yani bir barış döneminden sonra 'Pocahontas aşağıdaki 1614 yılında, John Rolfe evlilik dramatize

It had become abundantly clear that more and more English were going to show up and they weren't just there to trade. Estis tre klare ke pli kaj pli da Angloj aperos kaj ili ne estis tie nur por komerci.

They wanted to take Indian land. Ili volis preni Indianan landon.

But the English struck back, as empires will, and the uprising of 1622 ultimately failed. Sed la Angloj rebatis, kiel imperioj faros, kaj la ribelo de 1622 finfine malsukcesis. el Inglés devolvió el golpe, como los imperios voluntad, y el levantamiento de 1622 finalmente fracasó. imparatorluklar gibi olacak İngilizce, geri vurdu ve 1622 ayaklanması sonunda başarısız oldu.

And after another failed uprising in 1644, the 2,000 remaining Native Americans were forced to sign a treaty that consigned them to reservations in the West. Kaj post alia malsukcesa ribelo en 1644, la 2,000 ceteraj Indiĝenanoj estis devigitaj subskribi traktaton kiu ilin konfirmis al rezervoj en la Okcidento. Y después de otro fallido levantamiento en 1644, los 2.000 restantes nativos americanos eran Ve birbiri ardına, 1644 yılında ayaklanma başarısız 2000 Kalan Yerli Amerikalılar vardı

Well, the west of Virginia, at least. Nu, almenaŭ okcidente de Virginio. de Virginia, por lo menos. Virginia, en azından.

But the 1622 uprising was the final nail in the coffin of the Virginia Company, which was a failure in every way. Sed la ribelo de 1622 estis la fina najlo en la ĉerko de la Virginio Kompanio, kiu ĉiel estis malsukceso.

It never turned a profit, and despite sponsoring 6,000 colonists, by 1644 when Virginia became a royal colony, only 1,200 of those people were still alive, proving once again that governments are better at governing than corporations. Ĝi neniam sukcesis, kaj malgraŭ gajnado de 6,000 kolonianoj, en1644 kiam Virginio fariĝis reĝa kolonio, nur 1,200 el tiuj homoj ankoraŭ vivis, provante denove, ke registaroj pli bone regas ol korporacioj,

Up in New England, you'll recall that the Pilgrims probably wouldn't have survived their first winter without help from the Native Americans, which of course led to the first Thanksgiving, and then centuries of mutually beneficial trade and generosity– just kidding. Supre en Novanglio, vi memoros, ke la pilgrimantoj probable ne pluvivus sian unuan vintron sen helpo de la Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj, kio kompreneble kondukis al la unua Dankofesto kaj poste jarcentoj da reciproke komerca komerco kaj generoso - nur ŝercante. Hasta en Nueva Inglaterra, usted recordará que el Peregrinos probablemente no habrían sobrevivido su New England, bunu Hatırlayacaksınız Hacılar, muhtemelen hayatta olmazdı onların

While some of the Puritans that settled in New England – notably Roger Williams – tried to treat the Indians fairly, in general it was very similar to what we saw in the Chesapeake. Dum kelkaj el la Puritanoj, kiuj setlis en Novanglio, precipe Roger Williams - provis trakti la Indianojn, ĝenerale ĝi estis tre simila al tio, kion ni vidis en la Chesapeake.

Settlers thought Native Americans could be replaced because they weren't "properly using the land." Koloniantoj pensis ke Indiĝenaj Usonanoj povus esti anstataŭigitaj ĉar ili ne "konvene uzis la landon". Los colonos pensaban los nativos americanos podría ser sustituido porque no estaban "correctamente utilizando Settlers Yerli Amerikalılar olabileceğini düşündüm düzgün kullanarak "değildi çünkü değiştirilmesi

Now John Winthrop, who you'll remember from last week, at least realized that it was better to buy land from Indians than just take it. Nun John Winthrop, kiun vi memoros de la pasinta semajno, almenaŭ konsciis, ke estis pli bona aĉeti landon de Indianoj ol nur preni ĝin.

But Puritan land purchases usually came with strings attached. Sed Puritan-landaj aĉetoj kutime venis kun "ŝnuroj kunigitaj".

The main string being that the Native Americans had to submit to English authority. La ĉefa ĉeno estas, ke la Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj devis submetiĝi al la Angla aŭtoritato.

Now, the Puritans had a rather conflicted view of the Indians. Nun, la Puritanoj havis konfliktan perspektivon de la Indianoj.

On the one hand, they saw natives as heathens in need of salvation, as evidenced by the Massachusetts seal, which features an Indian saying "Come over and help us." Unuflanke, ili vidis Indiĝenojn kiel homoj bezonataj de savo, kiel montris la Masaĉuseca stampo, kiu havas Indianan diron "Venu kaj helpu nin". vio nativos como paganos en necesidad de salvación, como se evidencia por el sello Massachusetts, que kurtuluş muhtaç putperestlerin olarak yerlileri gördüm Massachusetts mühür, kanıtladığı gibi hangi

On the other hand, they recognized that the Native American way of life – with its relative abundance and equality, especially when it came to women – might be tempting to some people, who might want to go native. Aliflanke, ili rekonis, ke la vivmaniero-Indiĝena - kun ĝia relativa abundeco kaj egaleco, precipe kiam ĝi rilatis al virinoj - povus tenti al iuj homoj, kiuj eble volas iĝi Indiĝenaj.

This was such a concern that in 1642, the Massachusetts General Court prescribed a sentence of three years hard labor for anyone who left the colony and went to live with the indigenous people. Ĉi tio estis tia maltrankvilo, ke en 1642, la Masaĉuseca Ĝenerala Kortumo preskribis juĝan decidon de tri jaroj malfacila laboro por iu ajn, kiu forlasis la kolonion kaj iris vivi kun la Indiĝenaj homoj. Esta fue una preocupación de tal manera que en 1642, el Corte General de Massachusetts prescribe una sentencia Bu oldu, böyle bir endişe olduğunu 1642, yılında Massachusetts General Mahkemesi bir cümle reçete

There was even anti-Indian propaganda in the form of books. Estis eĉ kontraŭindiana propagando en la formo de libroj.

Captivity narratives, in which Europeans recounted their desire to return to Christian society after living with the Indians, were quite popular. Kaptivaj rakontoj, en kiuj Eŭropanoj rakontis sian deziron reveni al Kristana socio post vivado kun la Indianoj, estis sufiĉe popularaj. narraciones, en las que los europeos relató su el deseo de volver a la sociedad cristiana después anlatılar, hangi Avrupalılar anlattı onların sonra Hıristiyan toplumuna geri dönmek isteyen

Even though some, like the famous Sovereignty and Goodness of God by Mary Rowlandson, did admit that the Indians often treated their European captives quite well. Eĉ kvankam iuj, kiel la fama Suvereneco kaj Boneco de Dio fare de Mary Rowlandson, akceptis, ke la Indianoj ofte traktis siajn Eŭropajn kaptitojn tre bone.

New England's native population lacked an overarching leader like Powhatan, but by 1637, the inevitable conflict between the English and the Indians did happen. La población nativa de Nueva Inglaterra carecía de un overarching líder como Powhatan, pero por 1637, New England'ın yerli nüfus, bir yoksun Powhatan gibi lider kapsayıcı ancak 1637 ile

It was called the Pequot War. Ĝi estis nomita la Pequot-Milito.

After some Pequots killed an English fur trader, soldiers from Massachusetts, the newly-formed colony of Connecticut, and some Narragansett Indians, who saw an opportunity to gain an upper hand over the Pequots, attacked a Pequot village at Mystic, burning it and massacring over 500 people. Post kelkaj da Pequotoj mortigis Anglan felon-komerciston, soldatojn de Masaĉuseco, la ĵus formitan kolonion de Konektikuto, kaj iuj Narragansett-Indianoj, kiuj vidis ŝancon akiri superan manieron super la Pequotoj, atakis Pequot-vilaĝon ĉe Mystico, bruligante ĝin kaj masakante pli ol 500 homoj.

The war continued for a few months after this, but to call it a war is, in a way, to give it too much credit. La milito daŭris kelkajn monatojn post tio, sed alvoki ĝin milito estas, kvazaŭ, doni ĝin tro multe da kredito.

The Indians were over-matched from the beginning, and by the end, almost all of them had been massacred or sold into slavery in the Caribbean. La Indianoj estis superfiksitaj de la komenco, kaj fine, preskaŭ ĉiuj de ili estis masakitaj aŭ venditaj en sklavecon en Karibio.

The War opened up the Connecticut River to further settlement. La Milito malfermis la Konektikan Riveron por plua setlado. La guerra abrió el río Connecticut a su posterior asentamiento. También mostró que Nativo Savaş için Connecticut Nehri açtı Daha fazla yerleşim. Ayrıca yerli olduğunu gösterdi

It also showed that Native Americans were going to have a tough time resisting, because they were outnumbered and they had inferior weapons. Ĝi ankaŭ montris, ke indiĝenaj amerikanoj havos malfacilan tempon rezistante, ĉar ili estis nombraj kaj ili havis malsuperajn armilojn.

But the brutality of the massacre in Mystic shocked even some Puritans, like William Bradford, who wrote, "It was a fearful sight to see them frying in the fire." Sed la brutaleco de la masakro en Mystika ŝokis eĉ iujn Puritanojn, kiel William Bradford, kiu skribis: "Estis timoplena vidado, ke ili frotas en la fajro."

But despite the odds, New England natives continued to resist the English. Sed malgraŭ la malfacilaĵoj, Indiĝenoj de Novanglio daŭre rezistis la Anglan. Pero a pesar de las probabilidades, los nativos de Nueva Inglaterra seguido resistir al Inglés. En 1675, Ama şeye rağmen, New England yerliler İngilizce direnmeye devam etti. 1675 yılında,

In 1675, Native Americans launched their biggest attack on New England colonists in what would come to be known as King Philip's War. En 1675, Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj lanĉis sian plej grandan atakon sur Novangliaj kolonianoj en kio venus esti konata kiel la Milito de Reĝo Filipo.

It was led by a Wampanoag chief named Metacom, which was why it is also sometimes called Metacom's War. Ĝi estis gvidata fare de Wampanoag-estro nomata Metacom, tial ĝi ankaŭ estas nomata Milito de Metacom.

The English called Metacom "King Philip" due to their fantastic cultural sensitivity. La Angloj nomis Metacom "Reĝo Filipo" pro ilia mirinda kultura sentemo.

The conflict was marked by brutality on both sides and it nearly ended English settlements in the northeast. La konflikto estis markita de brutaleco en ambaŭ flankoj kaj preskaŭ finiĝis Anglaj kolonioj en la nordoriento.

The fighting itself lasted 2 years. La batalado mem daŭris 2 jarojn.

Indians attacked half of the 90 towns the English had founded, and 12 of those towns were destroyed. Indianoj atakis la duonon de la 90 urboj, kiujn la Angloj fondis, kaj 12 el tiuj urboj estis detruitaj.

About 1,000 of the 52,000 Europeans and 3,000 of the 20,000 Indians involved died in the War. Ĉirkaŭ 1,000 el la 52,000 Eŭropanoj kaj 3,000 el la 20,000 Indianoj implikitaj mortis en la milito. fueron destruidos. Acerca de 1000 del 52000 Los europeos y los 3.000 de los 20.000 indios yıkıldı. Yaklaşık 1.000 52.000 Avrupalılar ve 20.000 Kızılderililerin 3000

As I mentioned before, the War was particularly brutal. Kiel mi menciis antaŭe, la Milito estis aparte brutala.

The Battle of the Great Swamp was really just a massacre of Indians by the English. La Batalo de la Granda Marĉo estis vere nur masakro de Indianoj fare de la Angloj.

And when King Philip was finally killed, ending the War, his decapitated head was placed on a stake in the Plymouth town square, where it remained for decades. Kaj kiam la Reĝo Filipo estis finfine mortigita, finante la Militon, lia senkapigita kapo estis metita sur stagon en la placo de Plymouth, kie ĝi restis dum jardekoj.

And on the other side? Kaj aliflanke? Y en el otro lado? Bueno, para citar a Nathaniel Saltonstall, que vivieron la guerra, "El Ve diğer tarafta? Peki, Nathaniel alıntı Savaş boyunca yaşadığı Saltonstall, "

Well, to quote Nathaniel Saltonstall, who lived through the war, Nu, por citi Nathaniel Saltonstall, kiu vivis tra la milito,

"The heathen rarely [gave] quarter to those that they take, but if they were women, they first forced them to satisfy their filthy lusts and then murdered them." "La nacioj malofte transdonis kvaronon al tiuj, kiujn ili prenas, sed se ili estus virinoj, ili unue devigis ilin kontentigi siajn malpurajn dezirojn kaj poste murdi ilin." paganos raramente [dio] trimestre a los que que tomen, pero si eran mujeres, ellas primero dinsiz nadiren olanlara çeyrek [verdi] O aldıkları, ancak kadınları olsaydı, ilk

Saltonstall went on to describe a particularly brutal way that natives would kill colonists' cows: Saltonstall daŭris priskribi aparte brutalan vojon, ke Indiĝenoj mortigos la bovinojn de kolonianoj:

by cutting "their bellies and letting them go several days trailing their guts after them." tranĉante "siajn sorĉojn kaj lasante ilin iri kelkajn tagojn traŝovante iliajn vostojn post ili." "sus vientres y dejarlos ir varias día arrastrando sus intestinos después de ellos ". Eso "onların karınlarını ve onları birkaç gitmesine izin gün sonra da onların cesareti firar. "Bu

That indigenous people would reserve such brutality for livestock says something really important about this war. Ke Indiĝenaj homoj rezervus tian brutaleco por brutaro diras ion vere gravan pri ĉi tiu milito.

The Indians correctly saw European colonization as a threat to their way of life, and that included the animals who trampled Indians' land and whose grazing patterns required the English to take more and more territory. La Indiananoj ĝuste vidis Eŭropan kolonigon kiel minacon al sia vivmaniero, kaj tio inkluzivis la bestojn kiuj piedpremis la terenojn de Indiĝenoj kaj kies pastorejaj ŝablonoj bezonis la Anglan pli kaj pli da teritorio.

Some of the stories told about Native American brutality also suggest the symbolic nature of this war. Iuj el la rakontoj rakontitaj pri Indiĝena Amerika brutaleco ankaŭ sugestas la simbolan naturon de ĉi tiu milito.

Like, one English colonist was disemboweled and had a Bible stuck in his body cavity. Ekzemple, unu Angla koloniano estis disemelita kaj havis Biblion enŝovitan en sia korpa kavo. Colono Inglés fue destripado y tenía una Biblia atrapado en su cavidad corporal. Según cabe suponer, İngiliz sömürgeci boşaltıldı ve vardı İncil onun vücut boşluğunda sıkışmış. Güya,

Supposedly, the natives who buried him explained, "You English, since you came into this country have grown exceedingly above the ground. Supozeble, la Indiĝenoj, kiuj enterigis lin klarigis, "Vi Angloj, kiam vi venis en ĉi tiun landon, kreskis treege super la tero.

Let us see how well you grow when planted into the ground." Ni vidu, kiom bone vi kreskas, kiam vi estas plantita en la tero. "

But it wasn't just the Indians who felt their way of life being threatened. Sed ne nur la Indianoj, kiuj sentis sian vivmanieron minacitan.

It's time for this week's Mystery Document! Estas tempo por la Misteran Dokumento (Mystery Document) de ĉi tiu semajno! Es hora de que esta semana Misterio Documento! Bu haftaki Gizem Belgesi zamanı!

The rules here are simple. La reguloj ĉi tie estas simplaj.

I read the Mystery Document. I try to guess its author. Mi legis la Misteran Dokumenton. Mi provas diveni sian aŭtoron.

If I'm right, I don't get shocked with the shock pen. If I'm wrong, I do. Se mi pravas, mi ne ŝokas min per la ŝoko. Se mi estas malĝusta, mi ja estas ŝokita. bien, yo no lo entiendo sorprendida con el choque bolígrafo. Si estoy equivocado, lo hago. Tamam, ben şok şok alamadım kalem. Eğer yanılıyorsam, yapmam.

"The righteous god hath heightened our calamity and given commission to the barbarous heathen to rise up against us "La justa dio altigis nian malfeliĉon kaj donis komision al la barbaraj malpiuloj leviĝi kontraŭ ni

and to become a smart rod and a severe scourge to us in burning and depopulating several hopeful plantations, murdering many of our people of all sorts and seeming as it were to cast us off kaj igi inteligentan vergon kaj severan skurĝon al ni en bruligado kaj senpopulanta plurajn esperplenajn plantejojn, mortigante multajn el niaj homoj de ĉiuj specoj kaj ŝajnas, ke ĝi forĵetas nin

hereby speaking aloud to us to search and try out our ways and turn again unto the Lord per tio paroli laŭte al ni serĉi kaj provi niajn vojojn kaj reiri al la Sinjoro

our God from whom we have departed with a great backsliding." nia Dio, de kiu ni foriris kun granda defalto. "

OK, I don't know this one, so I'm going to have to piece it together. Bone, mi ne scias ĉi tiun, do mi devos disigi ĝin kune. reincidencia." kötüleştiğini. "

Uh, we have a plural narrator, that's important. Nu, ni havas pluran rakontanton, tio estas grava.

Seemingly monotheistic, feels like the heathens in this context – likely the Native Americans Ŝajne monoteisma, ĝi sentas kiel la malpiuloj en ĉi tiu kunteksto - verŝajne la Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj

– have been sent as a scourge [scorge], or scourge [scurge], as it is apparently properly pronounced. - estis senditaj kiel skurgo[scorge], aŭ skurĝo[scurge], kiel ŝajne ĝuste prononciĝas.

What, I'm from Alabama, I don't know how to say a ton of words. Kio, mi estas el Alabamo, mi ne scias kiel diri tiom da vortoj.

I mean, I just recently learned that you don't check your Ya-HOO! mail, you check your YA-hoo! mail, and Yahoo!'s over already! Mi volas diri, mi ĵus lernis, ke vi ne kontrolas vian Ya-HOO (ja-HUU-an)! poŝto, vi kontrolu vian YA-hoo (JA-huu-an)! poŝto, kaj Yahoo! jam finiĝis! de palabras. Quiero decir, yo hace poco aprendí que no comprueba el correo de Yahoo!, kelime. Ben sadece son zamanlarda öğrendim, demek Yahoo! postanızı kontrol yok ki sen

All right so plural narrator, scourge, great backsliding uhh Stan, you're going to get to shock me this time, who is it? [Buzzing Sound] OK, do la plura rakontisto, skurgo, granda defalto, Stan, povos ŝoki min ĉi-foje, kiu ĝi estas? [Zuma Sono] Bien narrador tan plural, flagelo, grande retroceso ... uhh ... Stan, vas a Tamam bu kadar çoğul anlatıcı, belası, büyük kötüleştiğini ... uhh ... Stan, gidiyoruz

The Laws of War passed by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1675. Are you kidding? La Leĝoj de Milito regulis de la Ĝenerala Kortumo de Masaĉuseco en 1675. Ĉu vi ŝercas?

From now on, the Mystery Document must always be written by a single human person! De nun, la Mistero-Dokumento devas ĉiam esti skribita de unun homa persono!

I hate this. I hate this so much. Mi malamas ĉi tion. Mi tre malamas ĉi tion.

It's worse now, because I've had it before, so I know it's gonna – GAHHHHHH!!! Ĝi estas plimalbona nun, ĉar mi antaŭe havis ĝin, do mi scias, ke ĝi estos - GAHHHHH !!!

This shows us the way the Puritans understand the world, but it also show us that within 50 years of its founding, Puritans already felt that the mission of their colony – to be a great Christian community – was already kind of a failure. Ĉi tio montras al ni la vojon, kiam la Puritanoj komprenas la mondon, sed ankaŭ montras al ni, ke dum 50 jaroj de sia fondo, Puritanoj jam sentis, ke la misio de ilia kolonio - esti granda Kristana komunumo - jam estis malsukceso. Esto nos muestra la forma en que los puritanos entienden el mundo, sino que también nos muestra que dentro de Bu bize Püritenler anlama yol gösterir Dünya, ama aynı zamanda içinde olduğunu bize gösteriyor

If they'd been as righteous as they were supposed to be, God wouldn't have sent the Indians to burn their homes and kill them. Se ili estus tiel pravaj kiel ili supozus, Dio ne sendis la Indianojn bruligi siajn hejmojn kaj mortigi ilin.

So it's important to understand that this was a war to preserve a way of life for both the Indians and the English. Do gravas kompreni, ke tio estis milito por konservi vivmanieron por la Indianoj kaj la Angloj. y los matará. Así que es importante entender que esta era una guerra para preservar una forma de vida ve onları öldürmek. Yani bunu anlamak önemlidir Bu yaşamın yolunu korumak için savaştı

And that brings us to another question: What's the point of even telling these bloody stories about massacres and atrocities. Kaj tio alportas al ni alian demandon: Kio estas la punkto de eĉ rakonti ĉi tiujn sangajn rakontojn pri masakroj kaj brutalaĵoj.

One point is to remind ourselves that much of what we learn about American history, like all history, has been cleaned up to conform to our mythological view of ourselves. Unu punkto estas memorigi nin, ke multe da kion ni lernas pri Amerika historio, kiel la tuta historio, estis purigita laŭforme al nia vidpunkto mitologia de ni mem.

Native Americans have been so successfully marginalized, both geographically and metaphorically, that it's easy to either forget about them or else to view them merely as people to be pitied or reviled. Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj tiel sukcese marĝenis, geografie kaj metafore, ke ĝi estas facile aŭ forgesi pri ili aŭ alimente vidi ilin nur kiel homoj ĝenata aŭ malbenita.

But it's important to know the ways that they resisted colonization, because it reminds us that Native Americans were people who acted in history, not just people who were acted upon by it. Sed gravas scii kiel ili rezistis al koloniigo, ĉar ĝi memorigas nin, ke Indiĝenaj Amerikanoj estis homoj, kiuj agis en la historio, ne nur homoj, kiujn estis agita de ĝi. importante conocer las formas en que se resistían colonización, porque nos recuerda que Nativo Onlar direndiler yollarını bilmek önemlidir kolonizasyon, bizi hatırlatıyor çünkü Yerli

And it also reminds us that the history of Indigenous people on this land mass isn't separate from American history; it's an essential part of it. Kaj ĝi ankaŭ memorigas nin, ke la historio de Indiĝenaj homoj sur ĉi tiu tera maso ne apartigas de Amerika historio; ĝi estas esenca parto de ĝi. Y también nos recuerda que la historia de Los pueblos indígenas en esta masa de tierra no es Ve aynı zamanda tarihinin bize hatırlatıyor Yerli kişi bu kara kütlesi değil, üzerinde

Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week. Dankon por spekti. Mi vidos vin venontsemajne. Gracias por mirar. Nos vemos la semana que viene. İzlediğiniz için teşekkürler. Haftaya görüşürüz.

Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, our script supervisor is Meredith Danko, the associate producer is Danica Johnson, and the show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer and myself. Crash Course estas produktita kaj direktita de Stan Muller. Nia skripta kontrolisto estas Meredith Danko.La asocia produktanto estas Danica Johnson.La prezentado estas skribita de mia mezlerneja historio majstro, Raoul Meyer, kaj mi mem. Crash Course es producida y dirigida por Stan Muller, nuestro supervisor guionista es Meredith Crash Course üretilen ve Stan tarafından yönlendirilir Muller bizim senaryo süpervizörü Meredith

Our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Nia grafika teamo estas Pensita Bubble.

If you have questions about today's video, please ask them in comments. Se vi havas demandojn pri la hodiaŭa video, demandu ilin en la komentoj. preguntas sobre el vídeo de hoy, por favor pregunte en los comentarios. Ellos serán respondidas por Bugünün video hakkında sorular isteyin yorumlarda bunları. Onlar tarafından cevap verilecektir

They will be answered by our team of crack historians. Ili estos respondita de nia teamo de historiistoj de "crack" (narkoto).

By the way, our team of crack historians is a team of excellent historians, not a team of historians who study crack cocaine. Parenteze, nia teamo de historiistoj de"crack" estas teamo de bonegaj historiistoj, ne teamo de historiistoj kiuj studas "crack cocaine".

Thanks for watching. As we say in my hometown, don't forget to be awesome. Dankon por spekti. Kaj kiel ni diras en mia hejmurbeto, Ne Forgesu Esti Mirinda. Gracias por su atención y, como decimos en mi casa la ciudad, no se olvide de ser impresionante. Biz Evimde dediği gibi, izlemek ve için teşekkürler Kasaba, müthiş olmak unutmayın.