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Crash Course US history, Taxes & Smuggling - Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6

Taxes & Smuggling - Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6

Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course: US History, and today we begin discussing the American Revolution.

So two things to keep in mind here:

One, the American Revolution and the American War for Independence are not the same thing.

And two, while I know this will upset some of you, the American Revolution was not really about taxes.

Mr. Green, Mr. Green! It was about tea, right?

Also, it was not about tea.

The Boston Tea party was about taxes and our God-given right to smuggle.

It's a little confusing, me from the past, but that's why Crash Course is here!

[Theme Music]

So as you'll recall, the Seven Years War ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which made the colonists cranky because it limited their ability to take land from the Indians, and it also left them holding the bag for a lot of war debt.

Wars, as you may have noticed, are expensive, and the British government had to borrow 150,000,000 pounds, and the interest payments on that money ate up half of the national budget.

So in order to pay for the war, the British decided to raise taxes.

And since the primary beneficiaries of the war had been the American colonists, the British government felt it was only fair if some of the burden fell to them.

Now, taxes on colonial trade were nothing new.

The British government had placed taxes on a bunch of items in order to reduce competition with Britain, including wool and hats and “mole-asses.”

Why did they place a tax on mole-asses?

It doesn't seem like that would be a huge market.

Oh, molasses. Right, of course.

But those taxes were about trying to regulate trade in a mercantilist way more than trying to pay back war debt.

And also they were easy to avoid via smuggling, which we did because this is America!

[Patriotic Rock Music]

But mostly the colonists were angry because they didn't have any say about the new taxes that Britain was imposing.

I mean after all, by 1760, some colonies had been setting their own taxes through their own legislatures for 100 years.

So the taxes themselves weren't really the problem; it was their lack of Parliamentary representation.

The first purportedly oppressive tax, the Sugar Act of 1764, extended the Molasses Act by changing the tax on imports from the Caribbean from 6 cents per gallon all the way up to 3 cents per gallon.

So they actually cut the tax, but they decided to start enforcing it by stamping out smuggling.

And to that end, the Act also gave British courts the right to try colonial smugglers, taking that power away from colonial courts,

which had been notoriously lenient when it came to smuggling on account of how they enjoyed smuggled rum as much as the next guy.

But those initial acts weren't nearly as annoying as the Stamp Act passed in 1765.

The Stamp Act declared that all printed material had to carry a stamp.

Unsurprisingly, that stamp was not free.

This was purely to gain revenue for Britain, and it mostly affected people who used a lot of paper.

You know, like newspaper printers and lawyers.

Just the kind of people you want to anger about taxes!

So in October, protesters organized the Stamp Act Congress, which after a meeting, decided to boycott British goods.

And this was the first major coordinated action by the colonies together, and it might be the first time that we can speak of the colonies acting in a united way.

Almost like, say, a government.

Committees of correspondence, which had been created to encourage opposition to earlier acts, now grew to coordinate the boycott efforts, and they helped people become aware of their "liberties."

And they also spurred street actions that occasionally became violent.

These direct actions were organized by groups calling themselves the Sons of Liberty, and guess what?

Coordinated action worked!

The British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, but they did pass the Declaratory Act which was all like,

“Listen, you're not the boss of us. We can tax you.

We don't want to tax you right now as it happens, but we could if we wanted to.

But we won't, but we could!”

So the repeal of the Stamp Act was seen by many in the colonies as a huge victory, but most of the people organizing the protests were elites.

You know, the kind of people who use paper.

But once you start talking about the idea of representation, everybody wants in.

Meanwhile, Great Britain still needed money, so Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend got Parliament to pass new taxes in 1767.

The so called “Townshend Acts” also created a new board of customs to stop smuggling which we didn't like one bit.

You don't like it when I say we? Well tough luck, I'm an American.

Bring back the libertage, Stan!

[Patriotic Rock Music]

Many colonists again responded with a boycott, and women got in on the act this time, with the Daughters of Liberty, encouraging homespun clothes to replace British ones.

But not all the states were on board, like artisans loved the boycotts because they got more money.

But merchants from cities like Philadelphia and New York weren't so happy, because they made their livings by importing and selling the very goods that were now being boycotted.

On occasion, protests did get out of hand as in the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770, which, while it was not much of a massacre, was definitely the worst outcome of a snowball fight in American history.

I mean five colonists were killed, including most famously Crispus Attucks, a sailor of mixed race ancestry.

And then of the nine British soldiers put on trial, 7 were acquitted and 2 were convicted only of manslaughter, thanks to the top-notch lawyering of one John Adams.

Don't worry though, that guy comes around to the American cause.

But overall boycotts and protests were effective, and British merchants pushed for the repeal of these acts, leaving only a tax on tea.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

The 1773 Tea Act offered tax exemptions and rebates for tea coming in from the British-East India Company, which allowed them to dump cheap tea on the colonies, which actually lowered the price of tea.

So why were the colonists so mad that on December 16, 1773 they dressed up as Indians and dumped enough tea into Boston Harbor to cause the modern equivalent of a $4,000,000 loss?

Some colonists were upset that cheap tea would cut into the profits of smugglers and established tea merchants, but most were just angry on principle.

To our great national shame, tea was at the time as important a beverage in the colonies as it was to Brits living in Britain,

and to allow the British to tax a near universal product set a precedent that Britain could tax whatever they wanted.

But the tea partiers miscalculated, thinking that the British would back down in response to their protest.

Instead, the British responded by passing a series of acts that colonists came to call the “Intolerable Acts.”

The Massachusetts Government Act curtailed self-government there.

The Quartering Act forced colonists to house British soldiers in their homes when ordered to.

The Quebec Act extended the southern boundary of Quebec and granted religious toleration to Catholics, which was none too popular with the Great Awakening crowd, having recently awoken.

The colonial response to these acts is really the start of the American Revolution.

First Massachusetts passed a set of resolutions calling for colonists to: one, disobey the Intolerable Acts, two, stop paying taxes, and three, prepare for war.

And in September 1774, a group of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies – Georgia! – met in Philadelphia to coordinate the resistance of the Intolerable Acts.

This was the First Continental Congress, which in setting up the continental association to police the boycott and encourage domestic manufacturing, was the first real colony-wide government in British America.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. So this sort of phenomenon is known by historians as kind of a big deal.

I mean coordinating action to achieve some end is what governments do, so it's not an exaggeration to say that the First Continental Congress was the first government of America.

You might even say that sending delegates to Philadelphia in 1774 was the first truly revolutionary act of the American Revolution, but it was not a call for independence.

However, there was a change in attitude among many colonists because rather than seeing themselves as standing up for their rights as English people, they began to make claims based on abstract ideas about freedom and natural rights.

In this respect, the Continental Congress was between worlds, because it justified its actions as liberties of free and natural-born subjects within the realm of England.

But it also talked about immutable laws of nature.

And this idea that all humans have certain rights derived from natural law has become a pretty big deal, not just in the United States, but also in the green lands of “not-America.”

I mean these days “human rights” is a phrase that we bandy about with – Putin!

Do you show up every time the words “human rights” are mentioned to make sure that we're talking about China and not you?

And this brings me back to an important point: although we tend to equate the two, the American Revolution and the American War for Independence were not the same thing.

I mean for one thing, the fighting started 15 months before the Declaration of Independence.

For another, simply declaring independence does not make you an independent nation, as I will now demonstrate.

I hereby declare this studio the independent nation of John Green-sylvania!

Yeah, see nothing happened.

The war between colonists and Britain began in 1775 – on April 19th to be exact – when fighting broke out between the British soldiers and Massachusetts militiamen, the minutemen, at Concord and Lexington.

Or Lexington and Concord, depending on whether you live in Lexington or Concord.

This was the famous “shot heard around the world” immortalized in Longfellow's poem "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere."

So while the colonists actually lost the famous battle of Bunker Hill, which was technically fought on Breeds Hill, the British suffered such heavy casualties that soon thereafter they were forced to abandon Boston.

But then they got some revenge by taking over New York, which they held for most of the rest of the war.

But in thinking about the war, it's very important to understand that not all colonists were pro-independence.

Like elites in colonies like New York and Pennsylvania were very nervous about all this revolutionary fervor that was whipping up artisans and small-time farmers to think that they deserve to have say in the political process.

Oh it's time for the Mystery Document? Awesome, I love getting shocked.

The rules here are simple: if I guess the author of the Mystery Document correctly, I do not get the shock pen.

If I'm wrong, I do get the shock pen.

All right, let's see what we got here. [clears throat]

"The Americans are properly Britons.

They have the manners, habits, and ideas of Britons; and have been accustomed to a similar form of government.

But Britons could never bear the extremes, either of monarchy or republicanism.

Some of their kings have aimed at despotism; but always failed.

Repeated efforts have been made towards democracy, and they equally failed.

If we may judge of future events by past transactions, in similar circumstances, this would most probably be the case in America, were a republican form of government adopted in our present ferment."

Hmm.

All right, so we've got an educated person who thinks that Americans are Britons who will inevitably want to walk a middle path between republicanism and monarchy and therefore that the revolution is not a good idea.

I know it's a colonist, because of the reference to “our present ferment.”

All right, I'm going to guess that it is Ben Franklin's son William Franklin.

[Buzzing Noise] Ahhh! Dang it! Who is it?

Who the hell is Charles Ingles?

Charles Ingles? Charles freaking Ingles?

I've never even heard of that guy! It's not fair!

[Sigh] [Shock Noise] Ahh! Oh I hate that.

Apparently he's a bishop or something.

Anyway, people like Ingles reminds us that not everyone in the colonies was all fired up to be an independent nation.

In fact, in July of 1775, the Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III suggesting that Americans were loyal British subjects who wanted reconciliation with the mother country.

But then along came Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense.

Why couldn't that have been the Mystery Document?

Common Sense appeared in January of 1776 and it was like the Harry Potter of its time, only with liberty instead of wizard school.

Written in relatively straightforward English, the pamphlet contains many powerful rhetorical arguments like:

“of more worth is one honest man to society and in the sight of God than all the crowned ruffians that ever lived.”

Others were just common sense, like this nugget:

“There is something absurd in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island.”

Pow!

Also there is the beautiful sentiment: "The weapon we have is love.”

Oh that's from Harry Potter? I told you they were similar.

Ultimately Paine's arguments all contributed to the idea that America is somehow special, even exceptional.

I mean, talking about independence and freedom he said, “The cause of America is in great measure: the cause of all mankind.”

That's powerful stuff, and Paine's pamphlets sold 150 thousand copies, and it was extremely widely read.

By the way, he still managed to die penniless, and only 8 people attended his funeral because of his vitriolic ridicule of Christianity.

But anyway America eventually declared independence for many reasons, but Paine's persuasive arguments were one important reason.

And it marks a moment when the pen truly was, if not more powerful, then at least more important, than the sword.

I mean, within 6 months of the publication of Common Sense, the Second Continental Congress had declared independence and signed one of the most important documents in the history of the world.

Which is where we'll pick up next week. Thanks for watching!

Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller.

Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko.

The associate producer is Danica Johnson.

The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself.

And our graphics team is Thought Bubble.

If you have questions about today's video or anything from American history, good news!

You can ask them in comments, where they will be answered by our team of historians.

Thanks for watching Crash Course.

If you liked today's video make sure you subscribe to our channel.

And as we say in my hometown, don't forget to be awesome!


Taxes & Smuggling - Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6

Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course: US History, and today we begin discussing the American Revolution.

So two things to keep in mind here: حتى شيئين أن نأخذ في الاعتبار هنا: واحد، الثورة الأمريكية والحرب الأمريكية ل Do du aferojn memoru ĉi tie: 잠깐 2가지 먼저 짚을 것이 있습니다. 첫째, '미국 혁명'과 '미국 독립전쟁'은

One, the American Revolution and the American War for Independence are not the same thing. Unu, la Usona Revolucio kaj la Usona Milito por Sendependeco ne estas samaj. Kaj du, dum mi scias, ke ĉi tio ĝenas iujn el vi, la Usona Revolucio ne vere estis la samaj aferoj.

And two, while I know this will upset some of you, the American Revolution was not really about taxes. Kaj du, dum mi scias, ke ĉi tio ĝenas iujn el vi, la Usona Revolucio ne vere estis pri impostoj.

Mr. Green, Mr. Green! It was about tea, right? جون من الماضي: السيد الأخضر، السيد الأخضر! وكان نحو الشاي، أليس كذلك؟ Sinjoro Green, sinjoro Verdo! Ĝi estis pri teo, ĉu ne? 과거의 존 그린: 그린 선생님! 그린 선생님! 차( 茶) 때문에 벌어진거라고 말씀하시려는 거죠?

Also, it was not about tea. جون: أيضا، لم يكن عن الشاي. بوسطن وكان حزب الشاي حول الضرائب، وهبها الله لنا Ankaŭ ĝi ne temis pri teo. 존: 차 때문도 아닙니다. 비록 '보스턴 티파티'는 세금 때문이기는 했지만 또한 신께서 우리에게 부여하신

The Boston Tea party was about taxes and our God-given right to smuggle. La Boston Tea Party estis pri impostoj kaj nia Dio-donita rajto kontrabligi.

It's a little confusing, me from the past, but that's why Crash Course is here! الحق في تهريب. انها مربكة قليلا، لي من الماضي، ولكن هذا بالطبع سبب تحطم Ĝi estas iom konfuza, mi de la pasinteco, sed tial Crash Course estas ĉi tie! 권리인 밀수를 위한 것이었습니다. "과거의 존씨"는 좀 이해못할 부분이겠지만

[Theme Music] [Tema Muziko]

So as you'll recall, the Seven Years War ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which made the colonists cranky because it limited their ability to take land from the Indians, and it also left them holding the bag for a lot of war debt. Tiel, kiel vi memoros, la Sep Jaraj Millito finis kun la Traktaĵo de Parizo en 1763, kiu igis la kolonianojn kruele ĉar ĝi limigis sian kapablon preni teron de la Indianoj, kaj ĝi ankaŭ lasis ilin tenante la sakon por multe da milito-ŝuldo .

Wars, as you may have noticed, are expensive, and the British government had to borrow 150,000,000 pounds, and the interest payments on that money ate up half of the national budget. Militoj, kiel vi eble rimarkis, estas multekostaj, kaj la Brita registaro devis prunti 150 milionojn da funtoj, kaj la interesaj pagoj de tiu mono manĝis duonon de la nacia buĝeto.

So in order to pay for the war, the British decided to raise taxes. للحرب، قرر البريطانيون لرفع الضرائب، ومنذ المستفيدين الرئيسيين Do por pagi por la militon, la Britoj decidis levi impostojn. 영국은 세금을 올리기로 결정하는데, 지난 전쟁에서 가장 수혜를 본것이

And since the primary beneficiaries of the war had been the American colonists, the British government felt it was only fair if some of the burden fell to them. Kaj pro tio ke la primaraj profituloj de la milito estis la Usonaj kolonianoj, la brita registaro sentis, ke ĝi estis nur justa se iom de la ŝarĝo falis al ili.

Now, taxes on colonial trade were nothing new. الآن كانت الضرائب على التجارة الاستعمارية شيئا جديدا - الحكومة البريطانية قد وضعت الضرائب Nun impostoj pri kolonia komerco estis nenio nova 식민지 무역에 세금을 부과한 것은 사실 이번이 처음은 아니었습니다. 영국 정부는 이미 예전에

The British government had placed taxes on a bunch of items in order to reduce competition with Britain, including wool and hats and “mole-asses.” La Brita registaro metis impostojn pri amaso da eroj por redukti konkuradon kun Britujo, inkluzive de lano kaj ĉapeloj kaj “mole-asses”.

Why did they place a tax on mole-asses? Kial ili metis imposton sur "mole-asses"?

It doesn't seem like that would be a huge market. Ĝi ne ŝajnas, ke tio estus grandega merkato.

Oh, molasses. Right, of course. Oh, melaso. Ĝuste, kompreneble.

But those taxes were about trying to regulate trade in a mercantilist way more than trying to pay back war debt. Sed tiuj impostoj klopodis reguligi komercadon en mercantilista maniero pli ol provi pagi la milit-ŝuldon.

And also they were easy to avoid via smuggling, which we did because this is America! Kaj ankaŭ ili facile evitis per kontrabandadoi, kion ni faris, ĉar tio estas Usono!

[Patriotic Rock Music] [Patriotisma Rokenrola Muziko]

But mostly the colonists were angry because they didn't have any say about the new taxes that Britain was imposing. ولكن في الغالب كانت المستعمرين غاضب بسبب لم يكن لديهم أي قول حول الضرائب الجديدة Sed plejparte la kolonianoj koleris ĉar ili ne povis diri ion pri la novaj impostoj, kiujn Britio imponis. 하지만 대부분의 식민지인들이 분노한 부분은 이렇게 영국이 새롭게 세금을 부과하는 동안 자신들의 목소리는

I mean after all, by 1760, some colonies had been setting their own taxes through their own legislatures for 100 years. Mi volas diri, post ĉio, en 1760, iuj kolonioj starigis siajn proprajn impostojn per siaj propraj leĝdonaj periodoj dum 100 jaroj.

So the taxes themselves weren't really the problem; it was their lack of Parliamentary representation. Do la impostoj mem ne vere estis la problemo; ĝi estis ilia manko de parlamenta reprezento.

The first purportedly oppressive tax, the Sugar Act of 1764, extended the Molasses Act by changing the tax on imports from the Caribbean from 6 cents per gallon all the way up to 3 cents per gallon. La unua supozeble subpremata imposto, la Sugar-Leĝo de 1764, etendis la Melaso-Akton ŝanĝante la imposton pri importadoj de Karibio de 6 centonoj per galono ĝis la 3 centonoj da galono.

So they actually cut the tax, but they decided to start enforcing it by stamping out smuggling. حتى قطعوا في الواقع الضريبة، لكنها قررت لبدء تطبيق من قبل القضاء على التهريب. Do ili efektive tranĉis la imposton, sed ili decidis komenci plenumi ĝin per frapanta kontrabandado. 세율은 이렇듯 실제로는 인하가 된것이었지만, 이 때부터 영국 정부는 밀수를 막기위해 인장을 찍는 방법을 도입합니다.

And to that end, the Act also gave British courts the right to try colonial smugglers, taking that power away from colonial courts, وتحقيقا لهذه الغاية، كما أعطى القانون البريطاني المحاكم الحق في محاكمة المهربين الاستعماري، Kaj por tio, la Akto ankaŭ donis al la Britaj tribunaloj la rajton provi koloniajn kontrabandistojn, prenante tiun povon for de koloniaj tribunaloj, 그리고 이 '설탕세 법'은 영국 법원으로 하여금 식민지 법원으로 부터 식민지의 밀수꾼들을 재판할 권한을

which had been notoriously lenient when it came to smuggling on account of how they enjoyed smuggled rum as much as the next guy. kiu estis indulga kiam ĝi trafis kontrabandadon pro tio, kiel ili ĝuis kontraban rumon tiel kiel la venonta ulo.

But those initial acts weren't nearly as annoying as the Stamp Act passed in 1765. Sed tiuj komencaj agoj ne estis preskaŭ tiel ĝenaj kiel la Stampa Leĝo aprobita en 1765.

The Stamp Act declared that all printed material had to carry a stamp. أعلن قانون قسائم أن جميع المواد المطبوعة كان عليه أن يحمل الطابع. مما لا يثير الدهشة، أن La Stampa Leĝo deklaris, ke ĉiu presita materialo devis porti stampon. '인장세 법'은 모든 상품에 인장을 붙이게 했는데, 당연하게도 이러한

Unsurprisingly, that stamp was not free. Antaŭvideble, tiu stampo ne estis senpaga.

This was purely to gain revenue for Britain, and it mostly affected people who used a lot of paper. Ĉi tio simple akiris enspezon por Britio, kaj ĝi plejparte influis homojn, kiuj uzis multan paperon.

You know, like newspaper printers and lawyers. Vi scias, kiel ĵurnalpresistoj kaj advokatoj.

Just the kind of people you want to anger about taxes! هذا النوع من الناس تريد الغضب حول الضرائب! Nur la homojn, kiujn vi volas kolerigi pri impostoj! 세금에 가장 분노할 법한 그런 사람들 말입니다.

So in October, protesters organized the Stamp Act Congress, which after a meeting, decided to boycott British goods. Do en Oktobro, protestantoj organizis la Stamp Act Congress, kiu post renkontiĝo decidis boicoteki britajn varojn.

And this was the first major coordinated action by the colonies together, and it might be the first time that we can speak of the colonies acting in a united way. Kaj ĉi tio estis la unua plej granda kunordigita agado de la kolonioj kune, kaj eble la unua fojo, ke ni povas paroli pri la kolonioj agante unuflanke.

Almost like, say, a government. الطريقة. تقريبا مثل، ويقول، حكومة. Preskaŭ kiel regulo. 거의 뭐, 하나의 정부 같이요.

Committees of correspondence, which had been created to encourage opposition to earlier acts, now grew to coordinate the boycott efforts, and they helped people become aware of their "liberties." Komitatoj de respondeco, kreitaj por instigi opozicion al pli fruaj aktoj, nun kreskis por kunordigi la boikotajn penojn, kaj ili helpis homojn ekkonsciigi siajn "liberecojn".

And they also spurred street actions that occasionally became violent. "الحريات". وأنها حفزت أيضا الشارع الإجراءات التي أصبحت في بعض الأحيان عنيفة. Kaj ili ankaŭ spuris stratajn agojn, kiuj foje fariĝis perfortaj. "자유"가 무엇인지 설파하기 시작했습니다. 그리고 앞으로 자주 폭력으로 번질 시위 운동을 주도합니다.

These direct actions were organized by groups calling themselves the Sons of Liberty, and guess what? وقد نظمت هذه الإجراءات المباشرة من قبل الجماعات يطلقون على أنفسهم أبناء الحرية، و Ĉi tiuj rekta agoj estis organizitaj de grupoj nomantaj sin mem al la Sons of Liberty, kaj diveni tion? 이러한 직접행동들은 스스로를 자유의 아들들이라 칭하는 집단에 의해서 이루어지는데,

Coordinated action worked! Kunordigita agado funkciis!

The British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, but they did pass the Declaratory Act which was all like, ألغى البرلمان البريطاني ختم قانون، لكنهم لم تمرير قانون تفسيري La Brita Parlamento ripetis la Stampan Akton, sed ili transiris la Deklaran Akton, kiu diris 영국의회는 인장세 법안을 잠시 접었는데, 하지만 대신에 '선언 법'을 내놓습니다.

“Listen, you're not the boss of us. We can tax you. "Aŭskultu, vi ne estas nia estro. Ni povas imposti vin.

We don't want to tax you right now as it happens, but we could if we wanted to. Ni ne volas imposti vin nun kiel ĝi okazas, sed ni povus, se ni volus.

But we won't, but we could!” ولكن نستطيع! "ولذا فإن إلغاء الطابع كان ينظر فعل الكثيرون في المستعمرات باعتباره Sed ni ne volas, sed ni povus! " 하지만 못하는게 아니라고!" 일단 식민지인들은 인장세 관한건은 자신들의

So the repeal of the Stamp Act was seen by many in the colonies as a huge victory, but most of the people organizing the protests were elites. Tiel la revokado de la Stampa Ago estis vidita de multaj en la kolonioj kiel grandega venko, sed la plej multaj homoj organizantaj la protestojn estis elitoj.

You know, the kind of people who use paper. من الناس الذين يستخدمون ورقة. ولكن بمجرد أن تبدأ الحديث عن فكرة التمثيل، Vi scias, la speco de homoj, kiuj uzas paperon. 종이를 많이 쓸법한 그런 사람들 말입니다. 그런데 일단 대표 어쩌고하기 시작하니

But once you start talking about the idea of representation, everybody wants in. Sed iam vi komencas paroli pri la ideo de reprezento, kiun ĉiuj volas eniri.

Meanwhile, Great Britain still needed money, so Chancellor of the Exchequer Charles Townshend got Parliament to pass new taxes in 1767. وفي الوقت نفسه، بريطانيا العظمى لا تزال هناك حاجة المال، حتى وزير الخزانة تشارلز تاونسند Dume, Britio ankoraŭ bezonis monon, do Kanceliero de la Exchequer Charles Townshend akiris Parlamenton por pasi novajn impostojn en 1767. 그러는 동안 영국은 여전히 돈이 필요했고, 그래서 재무부 장관이었던 찰스 타운젠드는

The so called “Townshend Acts” also created a new board of customs to stop smuggling which we didn't like one bit. La tiel nomataj "Townshend Acts" ankaŭ kreis novan tabulon de kutimoj por halti kontrabandadon, kiun ni ne ŝatis.

You don't like it when I say we? Well tough luck, I'm an American. Ĉu vi ne ŝatas ĝin, kiam mi diras "ni"? Nu domaĝe, mi estas usonano.

Bring back the libertage, Stan! Revenigu la liberec-montraĵo, Stan!

[Patriotic Rock Music] [Patriotisma Rokenrola Musiko]

Many colonists again responded with a boycott, and women got in on the act this time, with the Daughters of Liberty, encouraging homespun clothes to replace British ones. وردت العديد من المستعمرين مرة أخرى مع المقاطعة، وحصلت النساء على العمل في هذا الوقت، مع Multaj kolonianoj denove respondis kun bojkoto, kaj virinoj ekkaptis ĉi tiun fojon, kun la Filinoj de Libereco, kuraĝigante domojn por anstataŭigi Britajn. 많은 식민지 인들은 다시 불매운동을 시작합니다. 이번에는 여성들도 나서서

But not all the states were on board, like artisans loved the boycotts because they got more money. Sed ne ĉiuj ŝtatoj estis surŝipe, ekzemple metiistoj amis la boikotojn ĉar ili akiris pli da mono.

But merchants from cities like Philadelphia and New York weren't so happy, because they made their livings by importing and selling the very goods that were now being boycotted. Sed komercistoj de urboj kiel Filadelfio kaj Novjorko ne estis tiel feliĉaj, ĉar ili faris siajn vivojn per importado kaj vendado de la tre bonaj produktoj, kiuj nun estis boikotitaj.

On occasion, protests did get out of hand as in the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770, which, while it was not much of a massacre, was definitely the worst outcome of a snowball fight in American history. Kelkfoje, protestoj eliris el la mano kiel en la Masakro de Bostono la 5-an de Marto 1770, kiu, dum ĝi ne estis multe da masakro, estis sendube la plej malbona rezulto de neĝobula batalo en Amerika historio.

I mean five colonists were killed, including most famously Crispus Attucks, a sailor of mixed race ancestry. أعني ان خمسة قتلوا المستعمرين، بما في ذلك أشهرها كريسبوس Attucks، بحار من Mi parolas, ke kvin kolonianoj estis mortigitaj, inkluzive plej famaj, Crispus Attucks, maristo de miksita rasa praaveco. 5명이 죽었잖아요. 기억할 점은 그 중 하나는 크리스퍼스 애턱스라는 혼혈의 선원이었다는 것입니다(흑인이 미국의 시작에서부터 기여해왔다는 근거로 자주 언급됨).

And then of the nine British soldiers put on trial, 7 were acquitted and 2 were convicted only of manslaughter, thanks to the top-notch lawyering of one John Adams. Kaj tiam el la naŭ Britaj soldatoj enjuĝiĝis, 7 estis absolvitaj kaj 2 estis kondamnitaj nur de mortigo, danke al la plej alta spektaklo de unu John Adams.

Don't worry though, that guy comes around to the American cause. Ne maltrankviliĝu, tiu knabo proksimiĝas al la Usona kaŭzo.

But overall boycotts and protests were effective, and British merchants pushed for the repeal of these acts, leaving only a tax on tea. ولكن المقاطعة الشاملة والاحتجاجات كانت فعالة، والتجار البريطانيين دفع إلى إلغاء Sed ĝeneralaj bojkotoj kaj protestoj estis efikaj, kaj Britaj komercistoj puŝis pro la malakcepto de ĉi tiuj agoj, lasante nur imposton pri teo. 어찌되었든 불매운동과 시위는 효과적이었고, 영국상인들은 의회에 세금법안들을 무르도록 요구합니다.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble. Ni iru al la Pensa Bobelo [Thought Bubble].

The 1773 Tea Act offered tax exemptions and rebates for tea coming in from the British-East India Company, which allowed them to dump cheap tea on the colonies, which actually lowered the price of tea. عرضت قانون الشاي 1773 الإعفاءات الضريبية و حسومات لتناول الشاي القادمة من منطقة الشرق البريطانية La 1773 Tea Akto proponis malpermesojn kaj rabatojn por teo envenanta de la Brita Orienta Barato-Firmao, kiu permesis al ili forpeli malmultekostan teon en la kolonioj, kio efektive malpliigis la prezon de la teo. 1773년 차 법은 영국의 동인도 회사가 수입하는 차에 관해서는 세금을

So why were the colonists so mad that on December 16, 1773 they dressed up as Indians and dumped enough tea into Boston Harbor to cause the modern equivalent of a $4,000,000 loss? فلماذا كان المستعمرين جنون بحيث ديسمبر 16 1773 حيث ارتدى بعضهم ملابس الهنود وملقاة Do kial la kolonianoj tiom koleris, ke la 16-an de decembro 1773 ili vestis sin kiel Indianoj kaj disŝiris sufiĉe teon en Bostono Haveno por kaŭzi la modernan ekvivalenton de 4,000,000 dolaroj? 그럼 도대체 왜 1773년 12월 16일에 식민지인들이 분노에 차서 인디언 복장을 하고서

Some colonists were upset that cheap tea would cut into the profits of smugglers and established tea merchants, but most were just angry on principle. الخسارة؟ تم يخل بعض المستعمرين أن رخيصة أن الشاي يقتطع من أرباح المهربين Iuj kolonianoj konfuziĝis, ke malmultekosta teo tranĉus en la profitojn de kontrabandistoj kaj establitaj komercistoj de teo, sed plej multaj nur koleris pri principo. 몇몇 식민지인들은 싼값의 차가 밀수꾼들과 기존 상인들의 이익을 해쳐서 화냈지만

To our great national shame, tea was at the time as important a beverage in the colonies as it was to Brits living in Britain, لدينا عار وطني كبير، وكان الشاي في الوقت مهم المشروبات في المستعمرات Al nia granda nacia honto, teo estis tiam grava gravego en la kolonioj kiel ĝi estis al Britoj loĝantaj en Britio, 당시 식민지에서 차는 영국에서 만큼이나 중요한 음료수 였는데,

and to allow the British to tax a near universal product set a precedent that Britain could tax whatever they wanted. kaj permesi al la Britoj imposti proksiman universalan produkton starigi precedencon, ke Britio povus imposti ĉion, kion ili volis.

But the tea partiers miscalculated, thinking that the British would back down in response to their protest. لكن حزب الشاي أخطأت، والتفكير أن البريطانيين سوف تتراجع في الرد Sed la teaj partianoj miscalkalkulis, pensante, ke la Britoj redonus en respondo al sia protesto. 다만 보스턴 티파티 참가자들이 약간 잘못 계산한 것이, 자신들의 행동을 보면 영국이 다시 물러날줄 안 것이죠.

Instead, the British responded by passing a series of acts that colonists came to call the “Intolerable Acts.” Anstataŭe, la Britoj respondis pasante serion da agoj, kiujn kolonianoj venis alvoki la "Netolerebla Aktojn".

The Massachusetts Government Act curtailed self-government there. La Masaĉuseca Registaro Akto malfortigis sin memregistarecon tie.

The Quartering Act forced colonists to house British soldiers in their homes when ordered to. The Ĉambrado Akto devigis kolonianojn al domo Britaj soldatoj en siaj hejmoj kiam ordonita.

The Quebec Act extended the southern boundary of Quebec and granted religious toleration to Catholics, which was none too popular with the Great Awakening crowd, having recently awoken. La Akto de Quebec etendis la sudan limon de Kebekio kaj koncedis religian tolerecon al katolikoj, kiu estis nenio populara kun la Granda Vigla homamaso, ĵus vekiĝinta.

The colonial response to these acts is really the start of the American Revolution. رد الاستعمارية لهذه الأعمال هي حقا بداية الثورة الأمريكية. أولا La kolonia respondo al ĉi tiuj aktoj estas vere la komenco de la Amerika Revolucio. 식민지인들이 이러한 법안들에 저항하는 것이 미국 혁명의 진짜 시작이라고 할 수 있습니다.

First Massachusetts passed a set of resolutions calling for colonists to: one, disobey the Intolerable Acts, two, stop paying taxes, and three, prepare for war. مرت ماساتشوستس مجموعة من القرارات يدعو المستعمرين إلى: واحد، عصيان Unue, Masaĉuseco pasis serion de rezolucioj petante al kolonianoj: unu, malobei la Netolerebla Aktojn, due, ĉesi pagi impostojn, kaj tri, prepari por milito. 메사추세츠가 가장 처음으로 일련의 결의안들을 통과시켰는데 내용의 첫째는 참을수 없는 법안들에 대한 불복종,

And in September 1774, a group of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies – Georgia! – met in Philadelphia to coordinate the resistance of the Intolerable Acts. وفي سبتمبر 1774، مجموعة من المندوبين من اثني عشر من المستعمرات الثلاثة عشر - جورجيا! Kaj en Septembro 1774, grupo de delegitoj el 12 el la 13 kolonioj - Kartvelio! - renkontis en Filadelfio por kunordigi la reziston de la Netolereblaj Aktoj. 그리고 1774년 9월에 13개 주 중에 12개 주의 대표들은 - 조지아! (가장 늦게 참여하는 식민지 주)

This was the First Continental Congress, which in setting up the continental association to police the boycott and encourage domestic manufacturing, was the first real colony-wide government in British America. Ĉi tiu estis la Unua Kontinenta Kongreso, kiu starigis la kontinentan asocion por policiigi bojkoton kaj kuraĝigi hejman fabrikadon, estis la unua reala kolonia registaro en Brita Ameriko.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. So this sort of phenomenon is known by historians as kind of a big deal. Dankon, Pensa Bobelo. Do ĉi tiu speco de fenomeno estas konata de historiistoj kiel speco de gravaĵo.

I mean coordinating action to achieve some end is what governments do, so it's not an exaggeration to say that the First Continental Congress was the first government of America. Mi volas diri, ke kunordigi agojn por atingi iun finon estas, kion registaroj faras, do ĝi ne estas troigo diri, ke la Unua Kontinenta Kongreso estis la unua registaro de Ameriko.

You might even say that sending delegates to Philadelphia in 1774 was the first truly revolutionary act of the American Revolution, but it was not a call for independence. Vi povus eĉ diri, ke sendado de delegitoj al Filadelfia en 1774 estis la unua vere revolucia agado de la Amerika Revolucio, sed ĝi ne estis voko por sendependeco.

However, there was a change in attitude among many colonists because rather than seeing themselves as standing up for their rights as English people, they began to make claims based on abstract ideas about freedom and natural rights. ومع ذلك، كان هناك تغيير في الموقف بين العديد من المستعمرين بسبب بدلا من رؤية Tamen, estis ŝanĝiĝema sinteno inter multaj kolonianoj, ĉar oni ne vidis, ke ili staras pro siaj rajtoj kiel Anglaj homoj, ili komencis fari reklamojn bazitajn sur abstraktaj ideoj pri libereco kaj naturaj rajtoj. 다만 이쯤에서 분위기의 변화가 감지되는데, 많은 식민지인들이 스스로를

In this respect, the Continental Congress was between worlds, because it justified its actions as liberties of free and natural-born subjects within the realm of England. Ĉi-rilate, la Kontinenta Kongreso estis inter mondoj, ĉar ĝi pravigis siajn agojn kiel liberecoj de liberaj kaj naturaj aferoj en la regno de Anglio.

But it also talked about immutable laws of nature. Sed ĝi ankaŭ parolis pri neŝanĝeblaj leĝoj de naturo.

And this idea that all humans have certain rights derived from natural law has become a pretty big deal, not just in the United States, but also in the green lands of “not-America.” وهذه الفكرة أن جميع البشر لديهم معين حقوق المستمدة من القانون الطبيعي أصبح Kaj ĉi tiu ideo, ke ĉiuj homoj havas iujn rajtojn derivitajn de naturaj leĝoj fariĝis sufiĉe granda interkonsento, ne nur en Usono, sed ankaŭ en la verdaj landoj de "ne-Ameriko". 모든 사람은 특정한 권리를 자연법으로부터 부여받는다는 이 사상은

I mean these days “human rights” is a phrase that we bandy about with – Putin! أعني هذه الأيام "حقوق الإنسان" هي العبارة التي نحن متقوس حوالي مع - بوتين! فعل Mi diras, ke ĉi tiuj tagoj "homaj rajtoj" estas frazo, kiun ni diskutas - Putin! 현대에 있어서 '인권'이란 말은 여기저기다 흔히 가져다 붙일 정도로 일상적인- 푸틴!

Do you show up every time the words “human rights” are mentioned to make sure that we're talking about China and not you? كنت تظهر في كل مرة عبارة "الإنسان الحقوق "المذكورة للتأكد من أن Ĉu vi aperas ĉiun fojon la vortojn "homaj rajtoj" menciitaj por certigi, ke ni parolas pri Ĉinio kaj ne vi? 인권이란 말이 나오면 항상 이렇게 나타나 우리가 당신이 아니라 중국에 대해서만 말하도록

And this brings me back to an important point: although we tend to equate the two, the American Revolution and the American War for Independence were not the same thing. وهذا يعيدني إلى نقطة مهمة: على الرغم من أننا نميل إلى مساواة، وهما الأمريكية Kaj ĉi tio revenigas min al grava punkto: kvankam ni inklinas egali la du, la Usona Revolucio kaj la Usona Milito por Sendependeco ne estis samaj. 이것은 한가지 중요한 점을 다시 생각하게 하는데, 바로 미국 혁명과 미국 독립전쟁은 결코

I mean for one thing, the fighting started 15 months before the Declaration of Independence. Mi volas diri pri unu afero, la batalado komencis 15 monatojn antaŭ la Deklaro de Sendependeco.

For another, simply declaring independence does not make you an independent nation, as I will now demonstrate. Por alia, simple deklarante sendependecon ne faras vin sendependa nacio, kiel mi nun pruvos.

I hereby declare this studio the independent nation of John Green-sylvania! وبهذا أصرح هذا الاستوديو المستقلة أمة من جون الأخضر سيلفانيا! Mi nun deklaras ĉi tiun studon la sendependan nacion de John Green-sylvania! 내가 여기 선언하오니 이제부터 이 스튜디오는 독립국가 존 그린-슬라바니아 이다!

Yeah, see nothing happened. Jes, vidu nenion okazis.

The war between colonists and Britain began in 1775 – on April 19th to be exact – when fighting broke out between the British soldiers and Massachusetts militiamen, the minutemen, at Concord and Lexington. La milito inter kolonianoj kaj Britujo komenciĝis en 1775 - la 19-an de aprilo por esti ekzakta - kiam batalado eksplodis inter la Britaj soldatoj kaj Massachusetts-milicianoj, la "minutemen", ĉe Konkordo kaj Leksingtono.

Or Lexington and Concord, depending on whether you live in Lexington or Concord. Aŭ Leksingtono kaj Konkordo, depende ĉu vi vivas en Leksingtono aŭ Konkordo.

This was the famous “shot heard around the world” immortalized in Longfellow's poem "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere." وكانت هذه الطلقة الشهير "سمعت حول العالم "خلد في قصيدة نجفيلو ل Ĉi tiu estis la fama "pafo aŭdita ĉirkaŭ la mondo" senmortigita en la poemo de Longfellow "La Meznokto Rajdo de Paul Revere." 이 충돌은 "총성이 전 세계에 울렸다"는 유명한 구절로 롱펠로우의 시인

So while the colonists actually lost the famous battle of Bunker Hill, which was technically fought on Breeds Hill, the British suffered such heavy casualties that soon thereafter they were forced to abandon Boston. Do dum la kolonianoj vere perdis la faman batalon de Bunker Hill, kiu teknike batalis sur Breeds Hill, la Britoj suferis tiajn pezajn viktimojn, kiuj baldaŭ poste devigis forlasi Bostonon.

But then they got some revenge by taking over New York, which they held for most of the rest of the war. Sed tiam ili ricevis venĝon prenante Nov-Jorkon, kiun ili tenis dum la plej granda parto de la resto de la milito.

But in thinking about the war, it's very important to understand that not all colonists were pro-independence. بقية الحرب. ولكن في التفكير في الحرب، من المهم جدا أن نفهم أن Sed pensante pri la milito, estas tre grave kompreni, ke ne ĉiuj kolonianoj estis sendepende. 이곳을 유지합니다. 그러나 이 전쟁에 대해서 알아야할 아주 중요한 사실은

Like elites in colonies like New York and Pennsylvania were very nervous about all this revolutionary fervor that was whipping up artisans and small-time farmers to think that they deserve to have say in the political process. Same kiel elitoj en kolonioj kiel Novjorko kaj Pensilvanio tre nervis pri ĉi tiu revolucia fervoro, kiu skurĝis al metiistoj kaj malgrandaj tempoj kreditojn, ke ili meritas diri en la politika procezo.

Oh it's time for the Mystery Document? Awesome, I love getting shocked. يا حان الوقت لوثيقة الغموض؟ رائع، أنا أحب تصاب بصدمة. قواعد هنا Ho estas tempo por la Mistero-Dokumento? Imponega, mi amas esti ŝokita. 아 미스터리 문서 시간인가요? 좋아요, 난 전기충격 받기를 사랑하거든요. 규칙은 간단합니다:

The rules here are simple: if I guess the author of the Mystery Document correctly, I do not get the shock pen. La reguloj ĉi tie estas simplaj: se mi pravas pri la aŭtoro de la Mistero-Dokumento, mi ne estas ŝokita .

If I'm wrong, I do get the shock pen. القلم. إذا كنت مخطئا، وأنا لا تحصل على ركلة جزاء الصدمة. حسنا، دعونا نرى ما وصلنا إلى هنا. مهم. Se mi malpravas, mi ja estas ŝokita. 만약에 틀리면 전기충격을 받습니다. 그래요 어디 뭔가 보죠.

All right, let's see what we got here. [clears throat] Bone, ni vidu, kion ni havas ĉi tie. [klaras gorĝon]

"The Americans are properly Britons. "إن الأميركيين بشكل صحيح البريطانيين وهم لديهم أخلاق، والعادات، والأفكار من البريطانيين. "La usonanoj estas dece britoj. 미국인들은 엄연히 브리톤인들(영국인을 칭하는 옜날 표현)이다. 그들의 매너, 습관, 사상은 브리톤의 것이다.

They have the manners, habits, and ideas of Britons; and have been accustomed to a similar form of government. Ili havas la maneriojn, kutimojn kaj ideojn de Britoj; kaj kutimis similan formon de registaro.

But Britons could never bear the extremes, either of monarchy or republicanism. Sed la Britoj neniam povus toleri la ekstremojn, ĉu pri monarkio aŭ respublikismo.

Some of their kings have aimed at despotism; but always failed. Kelkaj el iliaj reĝoj celis despotismon; sed ĉiam malsukcesis.

Repeated efforts have been made towards democracy, and they equally failed. Ripetitaj klopodoj estis faritaj al demokratio, kaj ili same malsukcesis.

If we may judge of future events by past transactions, in similar circumstances, this would most probably be the case in America, were a republican form of government adopted in our present ferment." واذا كنا قد حكم على الأحداث المستقبلية من خلال المعاملات الماضية، في ظروف مماثلة، وهذا من شأنه الأكثر Se ni povas juĝi pri estontaj eventoj per pasintaj transakcioj, en similaj cirkonstancoj, ĉi tio verŝajne estus la kazo en Usono, estis respublika formo de registaro adoptita en nia nuna fermento. " 만약 우리가 장래의 일을 이러한 과거를 통해 짐작해본다면, 미국에서도 상황이 비슷한 만큼

Hmm. هم. حسنا، لذلك لدينا متعلما الذي يعتقد أن الأميركيين هم البريطانيين الذين Hmm. 흠. 좋아요. 교육을 꽤나 받은 사람인데 미국인이 브리톤인이라고 생각하고,

All right, so we've got an educated person who thinks that Americans are Britons who will inevitably want to walk a middle path between republicanism and monarchy and therefore that the revolution is not a good idea. Bone, do ni havas edukitan personon, kiu pensas, ke Usonanoj estas Britoj, kiuj neeviteble volas marŝi mezan vojon inter republicanismo kaj monarkio kaj sekve, ke la revolucio ne estas bona ideo.

I know it's a colonist, because of the reference to “our present ferment.” Mi scias, ke ĝi estas koloniano, pro la referenco al "nia nuna fermentado".

All right, I'm going to guess that it is Ben Franklin's son William Franklin. Bone, mi pensos, ke ĝi estas la filo de Ben Franklin, William Franklin.

[Buzzing Noise] Ahhh! Dang it! Who is it? [Zumado] Ahhh! Diable! Kiu estas?

Who the hell is Charles Ingles? Kiu estas Karlo Ingles?

Charles Ingles? Charles freaking Ingles? Karlo Ingles? Karlo Ingles?

I've never even heard of that guy! It's not fair! Mi ne eĉ aŭdis pri tiu ulo! Ĝi ne justas!

[Sigh] [Shock Noise] Ahh! Oh I hate that. [ekĝemas] [Elektroŝoka Sono] Ahh! Oh mi malamas tion.

Apparently he's a bishop or something. Ŝajne li estas episkopo aŭ io.

Anyway, people like Ingles reminds us that not everyone in the colonies was all fired up to be an independent nation. على أي حال، والناس مثل إنغلز يذكرنا بأن ليس الجميع في المستعمرات كان كل اطلقت Ĉiuokaze, homoj kiel Ingles memorigas al ni, ke ne ĉiuj en la kolonioj ĉio ekflamis kiel sendependa nacio. 어찌되었든지, 잉글리스와 같은 사람들이 보여주듯이 식민지의 모든 사람들이 다 같이

In fact, in July of 1775, the Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III suggesting that Americans were loyal British subjects who wanted reconciliation with the mother country. Fakte, en Julio de 1775, la Kontinenta Kongreso sendis la Petrolon de Oliva Branĉo al Reĝo Georgo 3a sugestante, ke Usonanoj estis lojalaj Britaj aferoj, kiuj volis repaciĝi kun la patrujo.

But then along came Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense. Sed poste venis la pamfleto de Thomas Paine nomata Komuna Sento("Common Sense").

Why couldn't that have been the Mystery Document? Kial tio ne povis esti la Mistero-Dokumento?

Common Sense appeared in January of 1776 and it was like the Harry Potter of its time, only with liberty instead of wizard school. يبدو الحس السليم في يناير كانون الثاني 1776 و كان مثل هاري بوتر من وقته، Komuna Sento aperis en Januaro de 1776 kaj ĝi estis kiel la Harry Potter de sia tempo, nur kun libereco anstataŭ sorĉistlernejo. 상식은 1776년 1월에 출판되었는데 이건 이 시대의 해리포터와도 같았습니다.

Written in relatively straightforward English, the pamphlet contains many powerful rhetorical arguments like: Skribita en relative simpla angla, la broŝuro enhavas multajn potencajn retorikajn argumentojn kiel:

“of more worth is one honest man to society and in the sight of God than all the crowned ruffians that ever lived.” "Pli valora estas honesta homo al la socio kaj antaŭ la okuloj de Dio ol ĉiuj kronaj ruĝanoj, kiuj iam vivis".

Others were just common sense, like this nugget: وكان آخرون مجرد الحس السليم، مثل هذا كتلة صلبة. "هناك شيء عبثي في ​​لنفترض Aliaj estis nur oftaj sentoj, kiel ĉi tiu ero: 어떤것은 그냥 상식적인 내용들 이었죠. "불과 조그만한 일개 섬이 하나의 대륙을

“There is something absurd in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island.” "Estas io absurda en supozi kontinenton esti ĉiam regita de insulo."

Pow! Paŭ!

Also there is the beautiful sentiment: "The weapon we have is love.” Ankaŭ estas la bela sento: "La armilo, kiun ni havas, estas amo."

Oh that's from Harry Potter? I told you they were similar. Ho tio de Harry Potter? Mi diris al vi, ke ili estas similaj.

Ultimately Paine's arguments all contributed to the idea that America is somehow special, even exceptional. في نهاية المطاف الحجج باين ساهم كل على فكرة أن أمريكا هي خاصة إلى حد ما، Finfine la argumentoj de Paine ĉiuj kontribuis al la ideo, ke Usono estas iel speciala, eĉ escepta. 궁극적으로 페인의 주장은 미국은 어딘가 특별하다는 생각을 심어줬고,

I mean, talking about independence and freedom he said, “The cause of America is in great measure: the cause of all mankind.” Mi parolas pri parolado pri sendependeco kaj libereco, li diris: "La kaŭzo de Usono estas tre granda: la kaŭzo de la tuta homaro".

That's powerful stuff, and Paine's pamphlets sold 150 thousand copies, and it was extremely widely read. Tio estas potenca afero, kaj la broŝuroj de Paine vendis 150 mil kopiojn, kaj ĝi estis ekstreme vaste legita.

By the way, he still managed to die penniless, and only 8 people attended his funeral because of his vitriolic ridicule of Christianity. Parenteze, li ankoraŭ sukcesis morti senfruktaj, kaj nur 8 homoj ĉeestis sian funebrecon pro sia vitriiga ridindaĵo de la Kristaneco.

But anyway America eventually declared independence for many reasons, but Paine's persuasive arguments were one important reason. ولكن على أي حال الأمريكية أعلنت في نهاية المطاف الاستقلال لأسباب كثيرة، ولكن مقنعة في باين Sed ĉiuokaze Usono poste deklaris sendependecon pro multaj kialoj, sed la persvadaj argumentoj de Paine estis unu grava kialo. 어찌했든지 미국은 이후에 이런저런 이유로 독립을 선언을 하게 되었지만, 그중에서도 페인의 이 강력한 주장은

And it marks a moment when the pen truly was, if not more powerful, then at least more important, than the sword. Kaj ĝi rimarkas momenton, kiam la plumo vere estis, se ne pli potenca, tiam almenaŭ pli grava ol la glavo.

I mean, within 6 months of the publication of Common Sense, the Second Continental Congress had declared independence and signed one of the most important documents in the history of the world. Mi volas diri, ene de 6 monatoj de la publikigado de Komuna Sento, la Dua Kontinenta Kongreso deklaris sendependecon kaj subskribis unu el la plej gravaj dokumentoj en la historio de la mondo.

Which is where we'll pick up next week. Thanks for watching! سنقوم التقاط الاسبوع المقبل. Kiu estas kie ni reprenos venontsemajne. Dankon por rigardi! 이건 다음주에 다루겠습니다.

Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. يتم إنتاج دورة مكثفة وإخراج ستان مولر. لدينا المشرف السيناريو هو ميريديث Crash Course estas produktita kaj direktita de Stan Muller. 벼락치기 강의는 스탠 밀러가 감독했고, 스크립트 담당에 메레디스 단코

Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Nia skripta kontrolisto estas Meredith Danko.

The associate producer is Danica Johnson. دانكو. المنتج المشارك هو دانيكا جونسون. هو مكتوب المعرض من قبل بلدي التاريخ في المدرسة الثانوية La asociita produktanto estas Danica Johnson. 부감독에 데니카 존슨입니다. 이 쇼는 저의 고등학교 역사 선생님이었던

The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. La spektaklo estas skribita de mia mezlerneja historio majstro, Raoul Meyer, kaj mi mem.

And our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Kaj nia grafika teamo estas Thought Bubble.

If you have questions about today's video or anything from American history, good news! إذا كان لديك أسئلة حول فيديو اليوم أو أي شيء من التاريخ الأمريكي، والأخبار الجيدة! Se vi havas demandojn pri hodiaŭa video aŭ io ajn de la Usona historio, bonaj novaĵoj! 오늘 비디오 또는 미국사에 질문이 있다면 좋은 소식이 있습니다!

You can ask them in comments, where they will be answered by our team of historians. يمكنك أن تطلب منهم في التعليقات، حيث أنها سوف إجابة من قبل لدينا فريق من المؤرخين. Vi povas demandi ilin en komentoj, kie ili estos respondataj de nia teamo de historiistoj. 댓글로 질문을 하시면 팀의 역사가들이 답변을 해줄 것입니다.

Thanks for watching Crash Course. شكرا لمشاهدة تحطم دورة. إذا حببت فيديو اليوم تأكد من الاشتراك في موقعنا Dankon pro rigardado de Crash Course. 벼락치기 강의를 봐주셔서 감사합니다. 만약 오늘 비디오가 마음에 드시면 우리채널을 구독해주세요.

If you liked today's video make sure you subscribe to our channel. Se vi ŝatis la hodiaŭan filmon certigu, ke vi aboni al nia kanalo.

And as we say in my hometown, don't forget to be awesome! قناة وكما نقول في مسقط رأسي، لا تنسى أن تكون رهيبة! Kaj kiel ni diras en mia hejmurbo, ne forgesu esti timinda! 그리고 제 고향 사람들이 말하듯이, Don't forget to be awesome!