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Crash Course, Pragmatics: Crash Course Linguistics #6

Pragmatics: Crash Course Linguistics #6

Hello, I'm Taylor and welcome to Crash Course Linguistics!

Sometimes we don't say exactly what we mean, and yet we still manage to understand each other.

If you ask, “Is it raining?” when I come inside soaking wet and I say, "Great job, Sherlock",

you'll probably assume that I'm being sarcastic rather than giving you a compliment.

Or if you ask me "Can you close the window?"

I'll probably interpret your question as a polite request, rather than a question about my physical ability.

The reason we can figure out what's going on is because we don't just look at words and sentences for meaning — we also look at context.

The area of linguistics that puts meaning into context is called pragmatics.

[THEME MUSIC]

We don't have 100 percent complete information about everything that's going on when we're talking to people,

so we often need to make some assumptions about the context in order to understand each other.

There are four main assumptions that pragmaticists talk about when it comes to communication.

Let's start with "Great job, Sherlock".

In some contexts, that could be a statement of admiration at your friend's deductive powers.

But in other contexts, like if your friend has done something especially… unwise,

calling them "Sherlock" actually illustrates how much they're NOT like Sherlock Holmes.

That's because most of the time, we assume that people are trying to communicate high-quality information.

We know that people can lie, but we usually assume that they're telling the truth.

So when the context and the words clearly don't match, we can deduce a more subtle truth, like sarcasm.

Let's move on to a second assumption.

Here's a gif that floated around the internet a while back, with the caption "look at all these ducks there are at least ten."

This caption is technically true.

There are at least ten ducks, in fact there's a whole swarm of ducks, probably hundreds.

And "hundreds" is definitely consistent with “at least ten.”

But anyone who can see that there are at least ten ducks in this gif can also see that there are wayyyy more than ten ducks.

And there's something so funny about the way the caption goes against our assumptions about communication.

That assumption is that people are giving us a sufficient quantity of information.

Enough detail, but not too much.

The boring, consistent-with-our-assumption version of this caption would have been "look at all these ducks there are hundreds."

But that ordinary version wouldn't have been as funny, and probably wouldn't have gone viral.

Food labels also generally align with our third assumption.

For example, if a pack of gum says it's sugar-free, it's because gum does sometimes contain sugar.

We generally assume that people will tell us information that is of relevance, so the boring gum packaging checks out.

But our assumption about relevance can also be used for humor or to mislead — to imply that something is relevant when it actually is not.

Like, if an olive oil brand starts labeling its bottles “sugar-free olive oil” you might think, “Wait a sec, I didn't know olive oil ever contained sugar!”

That might convince you to avoid other brands of olive oil that don't say they're sugar free, even though none of them ever contained sugar.

That information actually isn't relevant!

Finally, let's say you're trying to figure out whether you want to take a particular class with a particular professor next year.

You ask one person for advice.

"Well, it certainly is a class," they say.

You ask someone else, who says, "Oh yeah, the professor shows up every week, and wears clothes,

and stands in front of the room, and talks to us, and gives assignments."

Both of these statements theoretically seem like they should be completely unremarkable.

Of course you'd expect a class to be a class, or a professor to show up and wear clothing and give assignments!

And yet, somehow when your friends give you way less detail than expected, or lots of detail about obvious things, it raises suspicions.

What on earth is going on with this class that they can't just tell you if it's good?

Our fourth assumption is that people will say things in a manner which is as straightforward as possible for the context.

If something is good, we can probably just say it's good.

If something is not so great, though, we might be reluctant to criticize it overtly.

So we sometimes say things in a less straightforward manner in order to be more diplomatic.

So when our friends say something that misaligns with our assumptions, that might tell us that something's up with that professor.

These four assumptions, that what someone says will be of sufficient quality, quantity, relevance and manner, can be summed up with one bigger idea:

that we assume people are generally trying to be cooperative with us.

So these assumptions are called the Cooperative Principle.

They were first described by the philosopher Paul Grice, so they're also sometimes known as Grice's Maxims.

But it's ok, we can use them too!

According to the cooperative principle, whenever someone says something that doesn't make sense at a literal level,

we can figure out, or infer, what else they could have meant,

assuming they're still trying to contribute in a cooperative way to the conversation.

Sometimes we assume cooperation so quickly that we don't even really notice it!

For instance, if I say, "Hey Gav, do you wanna have a picnic?" and Gav says, "It's raining," we can probably infer that Gav was declining my picnic suggestion.

But technically speaking, Gav didn't actually say yes or no.

If we were a computer program, or a lawyer, or someone else who cares about very strict literal interpretations,

we'd have to point out that the picnic sentence and the raining sentence don't have to be related.

It's only because we have an understanding of context and cooperation that we interpret them as related.

We know that picnics involve eating food outdoors, and that it's hard to eat outdoors in the rain.

This additional meaning layered on top of the words we're saying is known as an implicature.

Understanding how implicature works can help us make sense of the moments when someone says one thing and means another.

If Gav asks, "Can I have a cookie?" and I reply, "I don't know, can you?",

Gav will quite justifiably be annoyed at me, because I'm deliberately ignoring the implicature that this is a request. And if you watch enough YouTube videos, you know what the ‘subscribe button' looks like and that it sits below this video.

So if I turn to the camera and say “the subscribe button is below this video”, I'm not actually telling you new information.

I'm not even asking you to subscribe, but you might have thought about it.

In this context, pointing out the button is really saying “please subscribe!” without overtly saying “please subscribe!”

I'm using implicature to ask without asking.

It's a way of being polite by being indirect.

And languages have lots of other strategies for being polite.

Some languages add a short word, or particle, to make something polite, like please or sorry.

In Malay, you can add lah to a command, something like, “hand me that, la?”

That turns it from a demand into something more like “Would you please do that?”

In Mandarin, you tell a person to have a seat by just saying “Sit!” zuo4.

That probably sounds way too strong, like something you'd command your pet.

And it sounds strong to Mandarin speakers, too.

But instead of adding a “please,” they repeat the word: Zuo4 zuo4 or “Sit sit” which means something like “here, have a seat.”

Some languages have different forms of verbs or other words depending on the social status of the person you're talking to.

In French, the pronoun "tu" is informal and singular, and "vous" is formal and plural.

English actually also used to make this distinction with "thou" for the informal singular and "you" for the formal or plural version of the word.

Making something seem more question-like or tentative can also make it more polite.

In BSL, raised eyebrows are used both to indicate questions, and also as one way of making a request or an apology more polite.

While there's a wide variety of grammatical ways to show politeness across languages,

we also see a general tendency that adding qualifiers and caveats, known as hedges, to our replies tends to be seen as more polite.

So does being indirect, such as asking or even just hinting, rather than ordering.

So, if I want you to close the window because I'm freezing, it would be more polite to say

“Would you mind closing the window?”

or “Brr, it's chilly in here!”

than it would be to straight up tell you, “Close the window!”

We follow our culture and our language's norms of politeness

because it's part of the whole process by which we create meaning between us and the people we're talking to.

Both politeness and the Cooperative Principle are part of pragmatics.

They're part of our agreement about how we're going to talk to each other.

Pragmatics affects everything from our words to even the very way we have those conversations.

Let's step into the Thought Bubble for a chat.

The flow of words between people is known as turn taking.

I say something, you reply, I reply to that, back and forth.

There's a lot of variation across individuals and even across cultures as to who does more or less of the speaking,

how long they talk for, and how much overlap or silence there is between the people talking.

When it comes to overlap in conversation, we can think broadly about two different ends of a spectrum.

On one end we have a conversation style where people do a lot of overlapping, talk at the same time,

and don't leave much or any silence after the other person has finished speaking.

This is known as high-involvement interactional style.

On the other end, we have a conversational style where people do not overlap, and leave space after someone else is finished before beginning their turn.

This is known as high-considerateness interactional style.

You might tend to be more high-involvement and have a friend who is high-considerateness and it makes you feel like you're doing all the conversational heavy-lifting.

If you tend towards high-considerateness, you might feel like your friend doesn't let you get a word in edgewise.

There are some general trends in different areas, too.

Speakers of Tzeltal and Japanese tend to have more overlap than speakers of Lao and Danish.

Even within American English, New Yorkers tend to be more high-involvement and Californians tend to be more high-considerateness.

These differences are measured in just milliseconds, which shows how sensitive humans can be to turn-taking differences — and to all the other little pragmatic nuances that make up politeness.

Thanks, Thought Bubble.

I appreciate it.

So, when we look at how people use language in conversation,

we see that it's less like one person baking-in all the meaning they want to convey in their words and handing it over to another person,

and more like we're using context to bake a cake as a team.

And just like everyone has their own way of making a carrot cake,

the individual conversation styles and cultural norms mean each conversation or interaction can turn out a little bit differently.

Next time on Crash Course Linguistics, we'll look specifically at how your social reality affects your linguistic choices.

Thanks for watching this episode of Crash Course Linguistics.

If you want to help keep all Crash Coursefree for everybody, forever, you can join our community on Patreon.


Pragmatics: Crash Course Linguistics #6

Hello, I'm Taylor and welcome to Crash Course Linguistics! مرحباً، أنا تايلور

Sometimes we don't say exactly what we mean, and yet we still manage to understand each other. أحياناً نتفوّه بكلمات لم نقصد قولها،

If you ask, “Is it raining?” when I come inside soaking wet and I say, "Great job, Sherlock", إذا سألتني، "هل السماء تمطر؟" عندما أدخل مبلّلاً Если вы спросите: «Дождь идет?» когда я захожу насквозь промокший и говорю: «Отличная работа, Шерлок»,

you'll probably assume that I'm being sarcastic rather than giving you a compliment. ربما ستفترض أنّني أسخر منك بدلاً من مدحك. вы, вероятно, решите, что я саркастичен, а не сделаю вам комплимент.

Or if you ask me "Can you close the window?" أو إذا سألتني "هل تستطيع غلق النافذة؟".

I'll probably interpret your question as a polite request, rather than a question about my physical ability. ربما سأفهم سؤالك على أنّه طلب بلباقة،

The reason we can figure out what's going on is because we don't just look at words and sentences for meaning — we also look at context. السبب الذي يجعلنا نفهم معنى الكلام

The area of linguistics that puts meaning into context is called pragmatics. هذا الفرع من اللّغويات الذي يضع معنى لسياق الكلام يعرف بالتداولية.

[THEME MUSIC] [موسقى المقدمة]

We don't have 100 percent complete information about everything that's going on when we're talking to people, ليس لدينا معلومات كاملة حول كل شيء يحدث عندما نتحدث مع النّاس.

so we often need to make some assumptions about the context in order to understand each other. لذلك أحياناً يجب أن نفترض أمور

There are four main assumptions that pragmaticists talk about when it comes to communication. علم التداولية يتحدث عن أربع إفتراضات Er zijn vier belangrijke aannames waar pragmatici het over hebben als het gaat om communicatie.

Let's start with "Great job, Sherlock". لنبدأ بعبارة "أحسنت، شرلوك".

In some contexts, that could be a statement of admiration at your friend's deductive powers. في بعض السياقات، In sommige situaties kan dat een uiting van bewondering zijn voor de deductieve vermogens van je vriend.

But in other contexts, like if your friend has done something especially… unwise, لكن في سياقات أخرى،

calling them "Sherlock" actually illustrates how much they're NOT like Sherlock Holmes.

That's because most of the time, we assume that people are trying to communicate high-quality information.

We know that people can lie, but we usually assume that they're telling the truth. نعرف أن النّاس بإمكانهم الكذب،

So when the context and the words clearly don't match, we can deduce a more subtle truth, like sarcasm. لذلك لمّا سياق الكلام و الكلمات لا يتطابقان بشكل واضح، Поэтому, когда контекст и слова явно не совпадают, мы можем вывести более тонкую истину, например, сарказм.

Let's move on to a second assumption. لننتقل إلى الإفتراض الثاني

Here's a gif that floated around the internet a while back, with the caption "look at all these ducks there are at least ten." هذا gif إنتشر على الإنترنت قبل مدّة، Вот гифка, которая некоторое время назад распространилась по Интернету, с подписью «Посмотрите на всех этих уток, их как минимум десять».

This caption is technically true. تقنياً هذا العنوان صحيح.

There are at least ten ducks, in fact there's a whole swarm of ducks, probably hundreds. يوجد على الأقلّ عشرة بطّات،

And "hundreds" is definitely consistent with “at least ten.” و "مئات" طبعا متوافقة مع "على الأقلّ عشرة".

But anyone who can see that there are at least ten ducks in this gif can also see that there are wayyyy more than ten ducks.

And there's something so funny about the way the caption goes against our assumptions about communication. و يوجد شيء مضحك حول تعارض العنوان

That assumption is that people are giving us a sufficient quantity of information. Это предположение состоит в том, что люди предоставляют нам достаточное количество информации.

Enough detail, but not too much. تفاصيل كافية، لكن ليس فوق اللّازم.

The boring, consistent-with-our-assumption version of this caption would have been "look at all these ducks there are hundreds." نسخة العنوان المملة و المتوافقة مع إفتراضنا كانت لتكون

But that ordinary version wouldn't have been as funny, and probably wouldn't have gone viral. لكن النسخة العادية ما كانت لتكون مضحكة،

Food labels also generally align with our third assumption. ملصقات الأغذية عامة تتماشى مع إفتراضنا الثالث

For example, if a pack of gum says it's sugar-free, it's because gum does sometimes contain sugar. على سبيل المثال، إذا كُتِب على حزمة من العلكة "خالي من السّكر"،

We generally assume that people will tell us information that is of relevance, so the boring gum packaging checks out. عموماً نفترض أن النّاس سيخبروننا بمعلومات ذات أهمية،

But our assumption about relevance can also be used for humor or to mislead — to imply that something is relevant when it actually is not. لكن إفتراضنا حول أهمية المعلومة

Like, if an olive oil brand starts labeling its bottles “sugar-free olive oil” you might think, “Wait a sec, I didn't know olive oil ever contained sugar!” مثلاَّ، إذا أصبحت شركة لزيت الزيتون

That might convince you to avoid other brands of olive oil that don't say they're sugar free, even though none of them ever contained sugar. ربما سيقنعك هذا بتجنب شركات أخرى

That information actually isn't relevant! تلك المعلومة في الواقع ليس لها أهمية!

Finally, let's say you're trying to figure out whether you want to take a particular class with a particular professor next year. أخيرا،لنفترض أنك تحاول معرفة

You ask one person for advice. تسأل شخصاً ما لينصحك.

"Well, it certainly is a class," they say. فيقول، "إنّه فصل دراسي بالطّبع".

You ask someone else, who says, "Oh yeah, the professor shows up every week, and wears clothes, تسأل شخصا أخر، و يقول،

and stands in front of the room, and talks to us, and gives assignments." و يقف أمام الغرفة، و يتحدّث معنا، و يعطينا واجبات." и стоит перед комнатой, и разговаривает с нами, и дает задания ».

Both of these statements theoretically seem like they should be completely unremarkable.

Of course you'd expect a class to be a class, or a professor to show up and wear clothing and give assignments! طبعاً ستتوقع أن يكون الفصل فصلاَّ،

And yet, somehow when your friends give you way less detail than expected, or lots of detail about obvious things, it raises suspicions. و مع ذلك، بطريقة ما

What on earth is going on with this class that they can't just tell you if it's good? ماذا يحدث في هذا الفصل الدّراسي

Our fourth assumption is that people will say things in a manner which is as straightforward as possible for the context.

If something is good, we can probably just say it's good. إذا كان شيء ما جيد، نستطيع ببساطة قول أنّه جيّد.

If something is not so great, though, we might be reluctant to criticize it overtly. لكن إذا لم يكن شيء بتلك الروعة،

So we sometimes say things in a less straightforward manner in order to be more diplomatic. لذلك أحياناً نقول أشياء بأسلوب أقلّ صراحةً لنتصرّف بلباقة

So when our friends say something that misaligns with our assumptions, that might tell us that something's up with that professor. لما يقول أصدقائنا شيئاً غير متوافق مع إفتراضنا، Dus als onze vrienden iets zeggen dat niet strookt met onze veronderstellingen, kan dat ons vertellen dat er iets aan de hand is met die professor.

These four assumptions, that what someone says will be of sufficient quality, quantity, relevance and manner, can be summed up with one bigger idea: الإفتراضات الأربع هذه، أنّ ما يقوله شخص ما سيكون ذا جودة،

that we assume people are generally trying to be cooperative with us. هي أننا نتفرض أن الناس عامةً يحاولون أن يتعاونوا معنا

So these assumptions are called the Cooperative Principle. لذلك هذه الإفترضات يُطلق عليها اسم "مبدأ التّعاون".

They were first described by the philosopher Paul Grice, so they're also sometimes known as Grice's Maxims. تم وصفها لأول مرة من قبل الفيلسوف بول غرايس،

But it's ok, we can use them too! لكن لا بأس، بإمكاننا إستخدامها أيضاً!

According to the cooperative principle, whenever someone says something that doesn't make sense at a literal level, وفقاً لمبدأ التّعاون،

we can figure out, or infer, what else they could have meant, يمكننا معرفة، أو إستنتاج، ماذا كانوا يقصدون غير ذلك،

assuming they're still trying to contribute in a cooperative way to the conversation. إفتراضاً أنهم مازالوا يحاولون المساهمة بشكل تعاوني في المحادثة.

Sometimes we assume cooperation so quickly that we don't even really notice it! أحياناً نتعجّل في إفتراض أن المرء

For instance, if I say, "Hey Gav, do you wanna have a picnic?" and Gav says, "It's raining," we can probably infer that Gav was declining my picnic suggestion. مثلاً، إذا قلتُ، "مرحباً غاف، هل تريد الذّهاب في نزهة؟" Als ik bijvoorbeeld zeg: "Hé Gav, wil je picknicken?" en Gav zegt: "Het regent", kunnen we waarschijnlijk afleiden dat Gav mijn picknickvoorstel afwees.

But technically speaking, Gav didn't actually say yes or no. لكن تقنياً، غاف لم يقل حقّاً نعم أو لا.

If we were a computer program, or a lawyer, or someone else who cares about very strict literal interpretations, إذا كنا برنامج حاسوب، أو محامي،

we'd have to point out that the picnic sentence and the raining sentence don't have to be related. يجب أن نوضح أن جملة النزهة و جملة المطر

It's only because we have an understanding of context and cooperation that we interpret them as related. كوننا نفهم سياق الكلام و مبدأ التّعاون

We know that picnics involve eating food outdoors, and that it's hard to eat outdoors in the rain.

This additional meaning layered on top of the words we're saying is known as an implicature. هذا المعنى المخفي و الإضافي Deze extra betekenis gelaagd bovenop de woorden die we zeggen, staat bekend als een implicatuur.

Understanding how implicature works can help us make sense of the moments when someone says one thing and means another.

If Gav asks, "Can I have a cookie?" and I reply, "I don't know, can you?", إذا سأل غاف، "هل يمكنني الحصول على البسكويت؟"

Gav will quite justifiably be annoyed at me, because I'm deliberately ignoring the implicature that this is a request. سيكون غاف حقاً منزعجاً مني، And if you watch enough YouTube videos, you know what the ‘subscribe button' looks like and that it sits below this video. و إذا كنت تشاهد اليوتوب كثيراً،

So if I turn to the camera and say “the subscribe button is below this video”, I'm not actually telling you new information. فإذا نظرتُ إلى الكاميرا و قلتُ

I'm not even asking you to subscribe, but you might have thought about it. أنا لا أخبرك حتى أن تشترك، لكن ربما فكّرت في الأمر.

In this context, pointing out the button is really saying “please subscribe!” without overtly saying “please subscribe!” في هذا السّياق، الإشارة إلى الزرّ يشير إلى قولي

I'm using implicature to ask without asking. أنا أستعمل التّلميح لأسألك بدون أن أسألك في الحقيقة.

It's a way of being polite by being indirect. إنّها طريقة لتكون مُهذّباً

And languages have lots of other strategies for being polite. و اللّغات لديها الكثير من الإستراتجيات الأخرى لتكون مهذباً.

Some languages add a short word, or particle, to make something polite, like please or sorry.

In Malay, you can add lah to a command, something like, “hand me that, la?” في لغة الملايو، تستطيع إضافة كلمة "لاه" للأمر،

That turns it from a demand into something more like “Would you please do that?” هذا يُحول الجملة من أمر

In Mandarin, you tell a person to have a seat by just saying “Sit!” zuo4. تقول لشخص التفضّل بالجلوس بقولك "إجلس" أي "تزو".

That probably sounds way too strong, like something you'd command your pet.

And it sounds strong to Mandarin speakers, too. و يبدوا الأمر فظاً للماندريين أيضاً.

But instead of adding a “please,” they repeat the word: Zuo4 zuo4 or “Sit sit” which means something like “here, have a seat.”

Some languages have different forms of verbs or other words depending on the social status of the person you're talking to. لغات أخرى لديها نوع مختلف من الأفعال أو كلمات أخرى

In French, the pronoun "tu" is informal and singular, and "vous" is formal and plural. في اللغة الفرنسية، الضمير "tu--تو" غير رسمي وبصيغة المفرد،

English actually also used to make this distinction with "thou" for the informal singular and "you" for the formal or plural version of the word. اللغة الإنجليزية كانت في العادة تميز بين

Making something seem more question-like or tentative can also make it more polite. جعل الامر يبدو كأنه سؤال أو تردد

In BSL, raised eyebrows are used both to indicate questions, and also as one way of making a request or an apology more polite.

While there's a wide variety of grammatical ways to show politeness across languages, على رغم من وجود طرق نحوية متنوعة لإظهار الأدب في كل اللّغات،

we also see a general tendency that adding qualifiers and caveats, known as hedges, to our replies tends to be seen as more polite. نرى أيضا بصفة عامة أن إضاقة تحفظات، we zien ook een algemene tendens dat het toevoegen van kwalificaties en voorbehouden, ook wel hedges genoemd, aan onze antwoorden als beleefder wordt beschouwd.

So does being indirect, such as asking or even just hinting, rather than ordering. و أيضا التحدث بشكل غير ظاهر،

So, if I want you to close the window because I'm freezing, it would be more polite to say لذلك، إذا أردتُك أن تغلق النّافذة لأنني أشعر بالبرد الشديد،

“Would you mind closing the window?” "هل تمانع إذا أغلقتُ النافذة؟"

or “Brr, it's chilly in here!” أو "برر، الجو بارد جداً هنا!"

than it would be to straight up tell you, “Close the window!” بدل أن أقولها مباشرةً، "أغلق النافذة!"

We follow our culture and our language's norms of politeness نتبعُ ثقافتنا و قواعد الأدب في لغتنا

because it's part of the whole process by which we create meaning between us and the people we're talking to. لأنها جزء من العملية التي من خلالها

Both politeness and the Cooperative Principle are part of pragmatics. يُعتبر كِلاً من التهذيب و مبدأ التعاون جزءًا من التداولية.

They're part of our agreement about how we're going to talk to each other. إنهم جزء من إتفاقنا حول طريقة التحدث لبعضنا البعض.

Pragmatics affects everything from our words to even the very way we have those conversations. التداويلة تؤثر على كل شيء

Let's step into the Thought Bubble for a chat.

The flow of words between people is known as turn taking. تدفّق الكلمات بين الناس يعرف بأخذ الأدوار

I say something, you reply, I reply to that, back and forth. أقول شيئا، أنت ترد علي، و أنا أرد على ذلك، و هكذا.

There's a lot of variation across individuals and even across cultures as to who does more or less of the speaking, هناك كثير من الاختلافات بين الأفراد

how long they talk for, and how much overlap or silence there is between the people talking. كم من الوقت يتحدثون، و كمية التشابك أو الصمت بين المتحدثين.

When it comes to overlap in conversation, we can think broadly about two different ends of a spectrum. لما يتعلق الأمر بالتشابك في الكلام،

On one end we have a conversation style where people do a lot of overlapping, talk at the same time, من جهة لدينا أسلوب محادثة حيث يتشابك الأشخاص كثيراً،

and don't leave much or any silence after the other person has finished speaking. و قلة أو إنعدام الصّمت بعد أن ينتهي الشخص الآخر من التحدث.

This is known as high-involvement interactional style. يُعرف هذا بالأسلوب التفاعلي عالي الإنخراط

On the other end, we have a conversational style where people do not overlap, and leave space after someone else is finished before beginning their turn. من جهة أخرى،

This is known as high-considerateness interactional style. يعرف هذا بالأسلوب التفاعلي عالي المراعاة.

You might tend to be more high-involvement and have a friend who is high-considerateness and it makes you feel like you're doing all the conversational heavy-lifting. قد تميل إلى أن تكون أكثر انخراطاً

If you tend towards high-considerateness, you might feel like your friend doesn't let you get a word in edgewise. إذا كنت تميل إلى أسلوب المراعاة،

There are some general trends in different areas, too. هنالك ميولات عامة في مناطق مختلفة، أيضاً.

Speakers of Tzeltal and Japanese tend to have more overlap than speakers of Lao and Danish. يميلُ متحدثوا لغة التسيلتال و اليابانية إلى التّشابك أكثر Sprekers van Tzeltal en Japans hebben over het algemeen meer overlap dan sprekers van Lao en Deens.

Even within American English, New Yorkers tend to be more high-involvement and Californians tend to be more high-considerateness. حتى في لغة إنجليزية الأمريكية،

These differences are measured in just milliseconds, which shows how sensitive humans can be to turn-taking differences — and to all the other little pragmatic nuances that make up politeness. يتم قياس هذه الاختلافات في أجزاء من الثانية فقط،

Thanks, Thought Bubble. شكراً، فقاعة الأفكار.

I appreciate it. أُقدّر ذلك.

So, when we look at how people use language in conversation, لذلك، لمّا ننظر إلى كيفية إستعمال الّناس للّغة في محادثات،

we see that it's less like one person baking-in all the meaning they want to convey in their words and handing it over to another person, سترى أن أمر لا يقتصر على شخص واحد

and more like we're using context to bake a cake as a team. بل يقتصر الأمر على إستعمال سياق الكلام

And just like everyone has their own way of making a carrot cake,

the individual conversation styles and cultural norms mean each conversation or interaction can turn out a little bit differently. أساليب المحادثة الفردية

Next time on Crash Course Linguistics, we'll look specifically at how your social reality affects your linguistic choices.

Thanks for watching this episode of Crash Course Linguistics. شكرًا على مشاهدة هذه الحلقة من سلسلة اللّغويات لقناة "كراش كورس".

If you want to help keep all Crash Coursefree for everybody, forever, you can join our community on Patreon. إذا أردت أن تساعد في الحفاظ على مجانية فيديوهاتنا، للأبد،