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The history of William Wallace (Wikipedia)

The history of William Wallace (Wikipedia)

Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297. He was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians.

Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland. He is the protagonist of Blind Harry's 15th-century epic poem The Wallace and the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter, and of the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart.

William Wallace was a member of the lesser nobility, but little is definitely known of his family history or even his parentage. Blind Harry's late-15th-century poem gives his father as Sir Malcolm of Elderslie; however, William's own seal, found on a letter sent to the Hanse city of Lübeck in 1297, gives his father's name as Alan Wallace.

This Alan Wallace may be the same as the one listed in the 1296 Ragman Rolls as a crown tenant in Ayrshire, but there is no additional confirmation. Blind Harry's assertion that William was the son of Sir Malcolm of Elderslie has given rise to a tradition that William's birthplace was at Elderslie in Renfrewshire, and this is still the view of some historians, including the historical William Wallace Society itself. However, William's seal has given rise to a counterclaim of Ellerslie in Ayrshire. There is no contemporary evidence linking him with either location, although both areas had connections with the wider Wallace family.

Records show early members of the family as holding estates at Riccarton, Tarbolton, Auchincruive in Kyle and Stenton in East Lothian. They were vassals of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland as their lands fell within his territory. Wallace's brothers Malcolm and John are known from other sources.

The origins of the Wallace surname and its association with southwest Scotland are also far from certain, other than the name's being derived from the Old English wylisc (pronounced "wullish"), meaning "foreigner" or "Welshman". It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area were medieval immigrants from Wales, but as the term was also used for the Cumbric-speaking Strathclyde kingdom of the Celtic Britons, it seems equally likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as being "Welsh" due to their Cumbric language.

When Wallace was growing up, King Alexander III ruled Scotland. His reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, however, Alexander died after falling from his horse. The heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians. Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney in late September 1290. The lack of a clear heir led to a period known as the "Great Cause", with a total of thirteen contenders laying claim to the throne.

The most credible claims were John Balliol and Robert Bruce, grandfather of future king. With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgment was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law based on being senior in genealogical primogeniture even though not in proximity of blood.

Edward proceeded to take steps to progressively undermine John's authority, treating Scotland as a feudal vassal state, demanding homage be paid towards himself and military support in his war against France -- even summoning King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. The Scots soon tired of their deeply compromised king, and the direction of affairs was allegedly taken out of his hands by the leading men of the kingdom, who appointed a Council of Twelve--in practice, a new panel of Guardians--at Stirling in July 1295.

They went on to conclude a treaty of mutual assistance with France--known in later years as the Auld Alliance. In retaliation for Scotland's treaty with France, Edward I invaded, storming Berwick-upon-Tweed and commencing the Wars of Scottish Independence. The Scots were defeated at Dunbar and the English took Dunbar Castle on 27 April 1296.

Edward forced John to abdicate, which he did at Stracathro near Montrose on 10 July 1296. Here the arms of Scotland were formally torn from John's surcoat, giving him the abiding name of "Toom Tabard" (empty coat). By July, Edward had instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles (many of the rest being prisoners of war at that time).


The history of William Wallace (Wikipedia) Die Geschichte von William Wallace (Wikipedia) The history of William Wallace (Wikipedia) La historia de William Wallace (Wikipedia) L'histoire de William Wallace (Wikipedia) La storia di William Wallace (Wikipedia) ウィリアム・ウォレスの歴史(ウィキペディア) Williamo Wallace'o istorija (Vikipedija) De geschiedenis van William Wallace (Wikipedia) Historia Williama Wallace'a (Wikipedia) A história de William Wallace (Wikipedia) История Уильяма Уоллеса (Википедия) William Wallace'ın tarihi (Wikipedia) Історія Вільяма Воллеса (Вікіпедія) 威廉华莱士的历史(维基百科) 威廉華萊士的歷史(維基百科)

Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297. Avec Andrew Moray, Wallace a vaincu une armée anglaise à la bataille de Stirling Bridge en septembre 1297. アンドリュー・モレーとともに、ウォレスは1297年9月のスターリングブリッジの戦いでイギリス軍を破った。 He was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. 彼はスコットランド守護者に任命され、1298年7月のフォルカークの戦いで敗北するまで仕えました。 In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians. En août 1305, Wallace est capturé à Robroyston, près de Glasgow, et remis au roi Édouard Ier d'Angleterre, qui le fait pendre, écarteler et écarteler pour haute trahison et crimes contre les civils anglais. 1305年8月、ウォレスはグラスゴー近郊のロブロイストンで捕らえられ、イギリスのエドワード1世に引き渡されました。エドワード1世は、大逆罪とイギリスの民間人に対する犯罪のために首吊り、内臓摘出、四分の一にされました。

Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland. Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland. Depuis sa mort, Wallace a acquis un statut d'icône bien au-delà de son pays d'origine. He is the protagonist of Blind Harry's 15th-century epic poem The Wallace and the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter, and of the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart.

William Wallace was a member of the lesser nobility, but little is definitely known of his family history or even his parentage. William Wallace faisait partie de la petite noblesse, mais on ne sait pas grand-chose de son histoire familiale, ni même de sa filiation. Blind Harry's late-15th-century poem gives his father as Sir Malcolm of Elderslie; however, William's own seal, found on a letter sent to the Hanse city of Lübeck in 1297, gives his father's name as Alan Wallace. Le poème de Blind Harry, datant de la fin du XVe siècle, indique que son père est Sir Malcolm of Elderslie ; cependant, le sceau de William lui-même, trouvé sur une lettre envoyée à la ville hanséatique de Lübeck en 1297, indique que le nom de son père est Alan Wallace.

This Alan Wallace may be the same as the one listed in the 1296 Ragman Rolls as a crown tenant in Ayrshire, but there is no additional confirmation. Cet Alan Wallace est peut-être le même que celui qui figure dans les Ragman Rolls de 1296 en tant que locataire de la couronne dans l'Ayrshire, mais il n'y a pas de confirmation supplémentaire. Blind Harry's assertion that William was the son of Sir Malcolm of Elderslie has given rise to a tradition that William's birthplace was at Elderslie in Renfrewshire, and this is still the view of some historians, including the historical William Wallace Society itself. L'affirmation de Blind Harry selon laquelle William était le fils de Sir Malcolm of Elderslie a donné lieu à une tradition selon laquelle le lieu de naissance de William se trouvait à Elderslie, dans le Renfrewshire, et c'est toujours l'avis de certains historiens, y compris de la société historique William Wallace elle-même. However, William's seal has given rise to a counterclaim of Ellerslie in Ayrshire. Cependant, le sceau de William a donné lieu à une demande reconventionnelle de la part d'Ellerslie dans l'Ayrshire. There is no contemporary evidence linking him with either location, although both areas had connections with the wider Wallace family. Il n'existe aucune preuve contemporaine le reliant à l'une ou l'autre localité, bien que les deux régions aient eu des liens avec la famille Wallace au sens large.

Records show early members of the family as holding estates at Riccarton, Tarbolton, Auchincruive in Kyle and Stenton in East Lothian. Les archives montrent que les premiers membres de la famille possédaient des domaines à Riccarton, Tarbolton, Auchincruive in Kyle et Stenton in East Lothian. They were vassals of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland as their lands fell within his territory. Ils étaient les vassaux de James Stewart, 5e High Steward d'Écosse, car leurs terres se trouvaient sur son territoire. Wallace's brothers Malcolm and John are known from other sources. Les frères de Wallace, Malcolm et John, sont connus par d'autres sources.

The origins of the Wallace surname and its association with southwest Scotland are also far from certain, other than the name's being derived from the Old English wylisc (pronounced "wullish"), meaning "foreigner" or "Welshman". It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area were medieval immigrants from Wales, but as the term was also used for the Cumbric-speaking Strathclyde kingdom of the Celtic Britons, it seems equally likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as being "Welsh" due to their Cumbric language. Il est possible que tous les Wallace de la région de la Clyde aient été des immigrants médiévaux venus du Pays de Galles, mais comme le terme était également utilisé pour désigner le royaume de Strathclyde des Celtes britanniques parlant le cumbric, il semble tout aussi probable que le nom de famille désigne des personnes considérées comme "galloises" en raison de leur langue cumbric.

When Wallace was growing up, King Alexander III ruled Scotland. À l'époque où Wallace grandit, le roi Alexandre III règne sur l'Écosse. His reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, however, Alexander died after falling from his horse. The heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway. L'héritière du trône est la petite-fille d'Alexandre, Marguerite, demoiselle de Norvège. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians. Comme elle était encore une enfant et qu'elle se trouvait en Norvège, les seigneurs écossais ont mis en place un gouvernement de tuteurs. Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney in late September 1290. The lack of a clear heir led to a period known as the "Great Cause", with a total of thirteen contenders laying claim to the throne. L'absence d'un héritier clair a conduit à une période connue sous le nom de "Grande Cause", avec un total de treize prétendants au trône.

The most credible claims were John Balliol and Robert Bruce, grandfather of future king. With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. L'Écosse menaçant de sombrer dans la guerre civile, le roi Édouard Ier d'Angleterre est invité par la noblesse écossaise à jouer les arbitres. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgment was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law based on being senior in genealogical primogeniture even though not in proximity of blood. Au début du mois de novembre 1292, lors d'une grande cour féodale tenue au château de Berwick-upon-Tweed, un jugement a été rendu en faveur de John Balliol, qui avait la prétention la plus forte en droit, du fait qu'il était le plus ancien dans la primogéniture généalogique, même s'il n'était pas lié par le sang.

Edward proceeded to take steps to progressively undermine John's authority, treating Scotland as a feudal vassal state, demanding homage be paid towards himself and military support in his war against France -- even summoning King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. Édouard prend des mesures pour saper progressivement l'autorité de John, traitant l'Écosse comme un État féodal vassal, exigeant qu'on lui rende hommage et qu'on le soutienne militairement dans sa guerre contre la France, allant même jusqu'à convoquer le roi John Balliol devant la cour d'Angleterre en tant que plaignant ordinaire. The Scots soon tired of their deeply compromised king, and the direction of affairs was allegedly taken out of his hands by the leading men of the kingdom, who appointed a Council of Twelve--in practice, a new panel of Guardians--at Stirling in July 1295. Les Écossais se lassèrent rapidement de leur roi profondément compromis, et la direction des affaires lui fut prétendument retirée par les principaux hommes du royaume, qui nommèrent un Conseil des Douze - en pratique, un nouveau groupe de gardiens - à Stirling en juillet 1295.

They went on to conclude a treaty of mutual assistance with France--known in later years as the Auld Alliance. In retaliation for Scotland's treaty with France, Edward I invaded, storming Berwick-upon-Tweed and commencing the Wars of Scottish Independence. En représailles au traité conclu par l'Écosse avec la France, Édouard Ier l'envahit, prend d'assaut Berwick-upon-Tweed et déclenche les guerres d'indépendance écossaise. The Scots were defeated at Dunbar and the English took Dunbar Castle on 27 April 1296.

Edward forced John to abdicate, which he did at Stracathro near Montrose on 10 July 1296. Here the arms of Scotland were formally torn from John's surcoat, giving him the abiding name of "Toom Tabard" (empty coat). By July, Edward had instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles (many of the rest being prisoners of war at that time). En juillet, Édouard avait demandé à ses officiers de recevoir l'hommage officiel de quelque 1 800 nobles écossais (la plupart des autres étant alors prisonniers de guerre).