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English LingQ Podcast 1.0, Seventy-six: General Discussion about English. Part One

Seventy-six: General Discussion about English. Part One

Steve: Hi Jill. Jill: Hi Steve. Steve: You know, I'm sitting here at home in my home office, which is on the second floor of my house. I'm looking out the window and you're sitting in the office. Jill: Also looking out the window. Steve: Also looking out the window. Just as we were getting started you said that you had to go and get a battery; a battery for your computer and so that was a little bit surprising to me because I thought you would always be plugged in. Why would you have to go and get a battery? Jill: Because when I speak to people on Skype I don't do it at my desk because there is a lot of action, a lot of stuff going out of there, so I can't concentrate very well. It's a laptop, so I just brought it in this other room to use without bringing the battery. Steve: How much life does the battery have, typically? Jill: I have no clue because I don't use it without a battery for a long period of time. I think maybe typically they have a couple of hours, but I'm not sure. Steve: You know, I think today we're just going to have a free conversation on whatever we feel like talking about. I hope people will pick up on some of the phrases that we use like I think the word “typically” was used a few times here: typically, normally, usually… Jill: …often. Steve: I mean these words are sort of interchangeable. Different people like different words and so I think even someone who is learning the language, an advanced learner, and I think today our discussion is more for the advanced learners, they'll choose their favorite word or words or expressions in English for different situations. Jill: And it's a good idea also to know synonyms, to know more than one word, because it's redundant if you always use the same word. Sometimes you need to use the same word or a similar word in writing several times over and if you use the same word constantly it doesn't sound as good as using a different word. Steve: It's funny, you know, these are sort of conventions or standard practice in English. We were always taught at school, I think, amongst a few things that I remember from school, was that I was told to not repeat the same word, you know, in close proximity to, you know, a previous usage of the word, so we would tend to go into our thesaurus and find a synonym so that we could use a different word, even though we were expressing the exact same thought. It's funny, you know, I'm reading Tolstoy in Russian now.

He doesn't worry about that at all. Jill: He repeats himself often? Steve: Yeah and I can see that very easily because if I save a word in my WorkDesk at LingQ, all of a sudden six occurrences of the word will light up on the page in the same paragraph sometimes. Here again, something that we consider good practice in English, because we were taught to do this, may or may not be good practice in other languages; but there is no question that in English if you write, you know, we are always taught not to repeat the same word. If we say “typically” the first time then we can say “often” the second time and “usually” the third time so that we don't repeat the word typically. Jill: I mean, it doesn't mean too that you can never use the same word more than once, but, as you mentioned, it's generally not very good to use it within close proximity of another time when you used it. Steve: Right, but that's only because that's a convention; that's what we're taught. Jill: Yeah, but, I feel the same way. When I read something, even my own writing, if I'm sending an email and I use the same word twice in one paragraph or within a few sentences, I don't like the way it sounds. Steve: Oh yeah, I know we don't like it because we were taught that way, so we were taught to not like it. All I'm saying is that when I read now, in Russian for example, Tolstoy didn't go to the same school that we did, so he doesn't worry about it. All I'm saying is that different languages have different conventions. In English we are taught and therefore we become quite sensitive to it and so we don't like it when we see it in our own writing and probably we think less highly of someone who writes that way. Jill: Right. Steve: We're always trying to make sure that we change, you know, “on the other hand”… Jill: …“however”… Steve: …“however” and “furthermore” just to vary it. There's no real reason to do that. I mean some people like pink shirts and some people like blue shirts; both of them are going to keep you warm. Jill: That's right. Steve: So, you know, it works fine, but in English there's no question that we are…I mean, there are a number of things like that. Like I'm sure you were taught at school you're not supposed to begin a sentence with “and”. Jill: Or “but”. Steve: Or but; that is changing and a lot of people begin sentences with “and” and I do and sometimes for emphasis. Jill: Well yeah, that's when I actually do use it now at the beginning of a sentence is more for emphasis. Steve: What I find though is that I tend to get carried away with using “and” because when you are writing you say oh, I'm going to put some emphasis here, I'm going to put some emphasis there and then when I go back and sort of edit what I have written, I remove a lot of “ands”. That, in fact, does clean up the prose and makes it a little tighter. Jill: Yeah. Steve: You know, when I go back and edit something that I have written I remove “most”, “very”, “always”, “only”, all these words that are usually unnecessary and usually weaken what you are saying, you know? If you say, you know, I'm very hungry; I'm hungry.

Yeah, hungry is hungry. Maybe that's not a good example, but I know very often that more adverbs sometimes actually weakens the effect. Jill: I guess it is for emphasis though. If you're not just hungry, you're very hungry or really hungry, it's you're hungrier than just being hungry, but I guess you could choose to use a different word; to say “I'm famished” or “I'm ravenous” or something else instead of using the adverb. Steve: Right, but I find that when I write I'm going to say “very often”. Often when I've used “very”, in fact, the “very” wasn't necessary and it really didn't add anything and it almost…this particular case right now when I said very often. “Very often when I write I use too many adverbs.” “Often when I write I use too many adverbs.” Jill: You're right; you don't need “very”. Steve: You don't need very. There are all kinds of cases and so when I go back in to tighten up what I've written, I look for “most”, “much”, “very”, “all”, “almost”, you know, and normally you don't need them. Jill: Yeah, I would agree with that. Steve: “All people think that”…whatever. “People think”; you don't need “all”. Anyway, it's just a small thing. I find in the same way when I go back I often remove the “ands” that I've used to start sentences with. You know something Jill?

That brought to mind another thing that we were taught at school. You are taught that you're not supposed to end sentences with a preposition. Jill: That's right: on, in, at, etc., Steve: …with. Winston Churchill's famous saying “A preposition is a very bad thing to end a sentence with.” Jill: “With which to end a sentence”. Steve: Well that's right, but nobody writes that even. Jill: No, nobody speaks that way for sure. Steve: But, I think it's funny how some of these things that we learned at school stay with us. Fortunately, some of the things that we learned at school stay with us; otherwise, it would be a waste of time to go to school. But, yeah, this is true.


Seventy-six: General Discussion about English. Part One Seventy-six: General Discussion about English. Part One

Steve: Hi Jill. Jill: Hi Steve. Steve: You know, I’m sitting here at home in my home office, which is on the second floor of my house. I’m looking out the window and you’re sitting in the office. Ben pencereden dışarı bakıyorum ve sen ofiste oturuyorsun. Jill: Also looking out the window. Jill: Ayrıca pencereden dışarı bakıyorum. Steve: Also looking out the window. Just as we were getting started you said that you had to go and get a battery; a battery for your computer and so that was a little bit surprising to me because I thought you would always be plugged in. Tıpkı başladığımız gibi gidip bir batarya almanız gerektiğini söylediniz; Bilgisayarınız için bir pili ve bu yüzden biraz şaşırtıcıydı, çünkü her zaman takılacağını düşündüm. Why would you have to go and get a battery? Neden bir pil almak zorundasın? Jill: Because when I speak to people on Skype I don’t do it at my desk because there is a lot of action, a lot of stuff going out of there, so I can’t concentrate very well. It’s a laptop, so I just brought it in this other room to use without bringing the battery. Bu bir dizüstü bilgisayar, bu yüzden pili getirmeden kullanmak için bu diğer odaya getirdim. Steve: How much life does the battery have, typically? Jill: I have no clue because I don’t use it without a battery for a long period of time. Jill: Hiçbir fikrim yok çünkü uzun süre pilsiz kullanmıyorum. I think maybe typically they have a couple of hours, but I’m not sure. Bence genellikle birkaç saatleri vardır, ama emin değilim. Steve: You know, I think today we’re just going to have a free conversation on whatever we feel like talking about. Steve: Biliyor musun, bugün sanırım ne hakkında konuşmak istediğimiz hakkında ücretsiz bir konuşma yapacağız. I hope people will pick up on some of the phrases that we use like I think the word “typically” was used a few times here: typically, normally, usually… İnşallah, insanlar “tipik” kelimesinin burada birkaç kez kullanıldığını düşündüğüm gibi kullandığımız bazı ifadeleri kullanacaklardır: tipik, normal, genellikle… Jill: …often. Steve: I mean these words are sort of interchangeable. Steve: Demek istediğim bu kelimeler birbiriyle değiştirilebilir. Different people like different words and so I think even someone who is learning the language, an advanced learner, and I think today our discussion is more for the advanced learners, they’ll choose their favorite word or words or expressions in English for different situations. Farklı insanlar farklı kelimelerden hoşlanırlar ve bu yüzden dili öğrenen biri, ileri düzeyde öğrenen biri bile düşünüyorum ve bugün tartışmamızın ileri düzey öğrenciler için daha fazla olduğunu düşünüyorum, farklı durumlar için İngilizce'deki en sevdikleri kelime veya kelimeleri veya ifadelerini seçecekler. . Jill: And it’s a good idea also to know synonyms, to know more than one word, because it’s redundant if you always use the same word. Jill: Aynı zamanda eşanlamlıları bilmek, birden fazla kelime bilmek iyi bir fikirdir, çünkü her zaman aynı kelimeyi kullanırsanız gereksizdir. Sometimes you need to use the same word or a similar word in writing several times over and if you use the same word constantly it doesn’t sound as good as using a different word. Steve: It’s funny, you know, these are sort of conventions or standard practice in English. Steve: Komik, biliyorsunuz, bunlar bir tür sözleşme veya İngilizce'deki standart pratiktir. We were always taught at school, I think, amongst a few things that I remember from school, was that I was told to not repeat the same word, you know, in close proximity to, you know, a previous usage of the word, so we would tend to go into our thesaurus and find a synonym so that we could use a different word, even though we were expressing the exact same thought. Her zaman okulda okutulduk, sanırım, okuldan hatırladığım birkaç şey arasında, aynı kelimeyi tekrar etmemem söylendi, bilirsin, yakın bir zamanda, bilirsin, kelimenin önceki bir kullanımına. tam anlamıyla aynı düşünceyi ifade etmemize rağmen, eş anlamlılar sözlüğümüze girmeye ve eşanlamlı bulmaya çalışırdık. It’s funny, you know, I’m reading Tolstoy in Russian now.

He doesn’t worry about that at all. Hiç endişelenmiyor. Jill: He repeats himself often? Jill: Kendini sık sık tekrarlıyor mu? Steve: Yeah and I can see that very easily because if I save a word in my WorkDesk at LingQ, all of a sudden six occurrences of the word will light up on the page in the same paragraph sometimes. Steve: Evet ve bunu çok kolay bir şekilde görebiliyorum çünkü LingQ'daki WorkDesk'imdeki bir kelimeyi saklarsam, sözcüğün aniden altı tekrarı bazen aynı paragrafta sayfada yanacaktır. Here again, something that we consider good practice in English, because we were taught to do this, may or may not be good practice in other languages; but there is no question that in English if you write, you know, we are always taught not to repeat the same word. Burada yine İngilizce olarak iyi uygulama olarak düşündüğümüz bir şey var, çünkü bunu yapmamız öğretildi, diğer dillerde iyi bir uygulama olabilir veya olmayabilir; fakat İngilizce yazıyorsanız, bildiğiniz gibi, her zaman aynı kelimeyi tekrar etmememiz gerektiğini öğreten bir soru yoktur. If we say “typically” the first time then we can say “often” the second time and “usually” the third time so that we don’t repeat the word typically. Jill: I mean, it doesn’t mean too that you can never use the same word more than once, but, as you mentioned, it’s generally not very good to use it within close proximity of another time when you used it. Jill: Demek istediğim, aynı kelimeyi bir kereden fazla kullanmayacağınız anlamına gelmez, ama belirttiğiniz gibi, kullandığınızda başka bir zamanın yakınında kullanmak genellikle çok iyi değildir. Steve: Right, but that’s only because that’s a convention; that’s what we’re taught. Steve: Doğru, ama bunun nedeni sadece bir kongre; İşte biz buyuz. Jill: Yeah, but, I feel the same way. When I read something, even my own writing, if I’m sending an email and I use the same word twice in one paragraph or within a few sentences, I don’t like the way it sounds. Steve: Oh yeah, I know we don’t like it because we were taught that way, so we were taught to not like it. Steve: Ah evet, hoşuma gitmediğimizi biliyorum çünkü bu şekilde öğretildik, bu yüzden beğenmememiz öğretildi. All I’m saying is that when I read now, in Russian for example, Tolstoy didn’t go to the same school that we did, so he doesn’t worry about it. All I’m saying is that different languages have different conventions. In English we are taught and therefore we become quite sensitive to it and so we don’t like it when we see it in our own writing and probably we think less highly of someone who writes that way. İngilizce olarak öğretiliriz ve bu nedenle ona karşı oldukça duyarlı hale geliriz ve bu yüzden kendi yazımızda gördüğümüzde hoşlanmayız ve muhtemelen bu şekilde yazan birisinin daha azını olduğunu düşünüyoruz. Jill: Right. Steve: We’re always trying to make sure that we change, you know, “on the other hand”… Jill: …“however”… Steve: …“however” and “furthermore” just to vary it. Steve:… “ancak” ve “dahası” sadece onu değiştirmek için. There’s no real reason to do that. Bunu yapmak için gerçek bir sebep yok. I mean some people like pink shirts and some people like blue shirts; both of them are going to keep you warm. Yani pembe gömlekler gibi bazı insanlar ve mavi gömlekler gibi bazı insanlar; ikisi de sizi sıcak tutacak. Jill: That’s right. Steve: So, you know, it works fine, but in English there’s no question that we are…I mean, there are a number of things like that. Like I’m sure you were taught at school you’re not supposed to begin a sentence with “and”. Okulda sana öğretildiğinden eminim ki "ve" ile bir cümle başlatman gerekmez. Jill: Or “but”. Steve: Or but; that is changing and a lot of people begin sentences with “and” and I do and sometimes for emphasis. Jill: Well yeah, that’s when I actually do use it now at the beginning of a sentence is more for emphasis. Jill: Evet, o zaman gerçekten kullanıyorum, şimdi bir cümlenin başında vurgulamak için daha fazla. Steve: What I find though is that I tend to get carried away with using “and” because when you are writing you say oh, I’m going to put some emphasis here, I’m going to put some emphasis there and then when I go back and sort of edit what I have written, I remove a lot of “ands”. Steve: Yine de bulduğum şey “ve” kullanarak uzaklaşma eğiliminde olduğum. Çünkü yazarken oh, buraya biraz vurgu yapacağım, oraya biraz vurgu yapacağım, sonra ne zaman? Geri döndüm ve yazdıklarını düzenledim, birçok “and” ı kaldırdım. That, in fact, does clean up the prose and makes it a little tighter. Aslında, nesirleri temizler ve biraz daha sıkı hale getirir. Jill: Yeah. Steve: You know, when I go back and edit something that I have written I remove “most”, “very”, “always”, “only”, all these words that are usually unnecessary and usually weaken what you are saying, you know? Steve: Biliyor musun, geri dönüp yazdığım bir şeyi düzenlediğimde, genellikle gereksiz olan ve genellikle söylediklerinizi zayıflatan tüm bu kelimeleri “en”, “çok”, “her zaman”, “yalnızca” kaldırırım. biliyor musunuz? If you say, you know, I’m very hungry; I’m hungry. Söylerseniz, bilirsiniz, çok açım; Açım.

Yeah, hungry is hungry. Maybe that’s not a good example, but I know very often that more adverbs sometimes actually weakens the effect. Belki bu iyi bir örnek değildir, ancak daha çok zarfın bazen etkiyi zayıflattığını çok sık biliyorum. Jill: I guess it is for emphasis though. Jill: Sanırım vurgu için vurgulanmış. If you’re not just hungry, you’re very hungry or really hungry, it’s you’re hungrier than just being hungry, but I guess you could choose to use a different word; to say “I’m famished” or “I’m ravenous” or something else instead of using the adverb. Sadece aç değilsen, çok açsın veya gerçekten açsın, sadece aç olmaktan daha açsın, ama sanırım farklı bir kelime kullanmayı seçebilirsin; Zarfı kullanmak yerine “aç kaldım” veya “kibirliyim” ya da başka bir şey söylemek için. Steve: Right, but I find that when I write I’m going to say “very often”. Steve: Doğru, ama şunu yazarken “çok sık” diyeceğim. Often when I’ve used “very”, in fact, the “very” wasn’t necessary and it really didn’t add anything and it almost…this particular case right now when I said very often. Çoğunlukla “çok” kullandığımda, aslında “çok” gerekli olmadı ve gerçekten hiçbir şey eklemedi ve neredeyse… çok sık söylediğimde bu özel durum. “Very often when I write I use too many adverbs.” “Often when I write I use too many adverbs.” “Sık sık yazdığımda çok fazla zarf kullanırım.” “Sık sık yazdığımda çok fazla zarf kullanırım.” Jill: You’re right; you don’t need “very”. Steve: You don’t need very. There are all kinds of cases and so when I go back in to tighten up what I’ve written, I look for “most”, “much”, “very”, “all”, “almost”, you know, and normally you don’t need them. Jill: Yeah, I would agree with that. Jill: Evet, buna katılıyorum. Steve: “All people think that”…whatever. Steve: “Bütün insanlar bunu düşünüyor”… her neyse. “People think”; you don’t need “all”. Anyway, it’s just a small thing. I find in the same way when I go back I often remove the “ands” that I’ve used to start sentences with. Geri döndüğümde, aynı şekilde, cümleleri başlatmak için kullandığım “and” ları kaldırdığımı fark ediyorum. You know something Jill? Bir şey biliyor musun Jill?

That brought to mind another thing that we were taught at school. You are taught that you’re not supposed to end sentences with a preposition. Bir edat ile cümleleri sonlandırmamanız gerektiği öğretilir. Jill: That’s right: on, in, at, etc., Steve: …with. Winston Churchill’s famous saying “A preposition is a very bad thing to end a sentence with.” Winston Churchill'in ünlü olduğu “Bir edat bir cümleyi sona erdirmek için çok kötü bir şey” dedi. Jill: “With which to end a sentence”. Jill: “Hangi cümleyi sonlandıracak”. Steve: Well that’s right, but nobody writes that even. Jill: No, nobody speaks that way for sure. Steve: But, I think it’s funny how some of these things that we learned at school stay with us. Steve: Ama okulda öğrendiklerimizden bazılarının bizimle kalması komik. Fortunately, some of the things that we learned at school stay with us; otherwise, it would be a waste of time to go to school. Neyse ki, okulda öğrendiklerimizden bazıları bizimle kalıyor; Aksi takdirde, okula gitmek zaman kaybı olur. But, yeah, this is true.