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English LingQ Podcast 1.0, Eighty: Focus on Vocabulary

Eighty: Focus on Vocabulary

Steve: Hi Jill. Jill: Hi Steve. Steve: How are you this afternoon? Jill: Good thanks. How are you? Steve: I'm fine thank you. You know, we had that discussion the other day about words that meant “see” and “look” and so forth. We asked people to submit lists of words that they're interested in and low and behold we have a list. This one comes from Anna who is one of our learners in Brazil. Now her list is taken from…I think a lot of it comes from my book. It's not like the previous list where the learner wanted us to talk about words, you know, synonyms that all mean the same thing. These words are all very different. Jill: Right. Steve: But, I think there are some interesting words, so let's give it a try. Jill: Alright. Steve: The first word here is “course” as it applies to “a full course lunch”. What do we mean by a full course lunch? Jill: Usually a full course meal, dinner, lunch, means, I believe, that you get an appetizer, an entrée, a dessert, so you have all your courses, you're not just ordering one thing. Steve: Well, that's right. We talk about the main course, which refers usually to the meat or the fish dish, so the first course might be the soup or a hors d'oeuvre and the third course is the dessert. Jill: Right. Steve: And, of course, I think nowadays people don't eat as much, but in the old days they might have a four or a five-course meal. Jill: And you can still get those at certain restaurants. They have a set menu where you can order a three-course meal or a more expensive where it's a four-course or five-course, but I think, in general, it's three courses. Steve: Right, people aren't eating as much. Jill: Right. Steve: Now the next word here is “staples” and this is a sentence from my book where I talked about France, which had its Mediterranean influence, and the sentence is “With the Romans came the staples of the Mediterranean culinary tradition.” Now are they talking about stapling paper together here? Jill: No, they're not and it's exactly the same word. When I first looked at the word and I didn't look at the definition I immediately thought staples that you use to put paper together, staple papers together, but, obviously, she's sort of been studying food and so a staple is something that is very basic; everybody from that place eats it. Steve: Right. Bread, rice… Jill: …pasta. Steve: Right. And she has the word down here “amphitheatre”, but I don't think we need to spend too much time there because I think in every language, certainly where they have borrowed Greek and Roman or Latin words, this word is used. Let's move on to the next one, “swear words” and “to swear”.

Okay, swear means a variety of different things, doesn't it? Jill: Yes, you can take an oath, so you swear to do something or to behave a certain way or not to do certain things. Steve: Swear allegiance. Jill: Swear allegiance, so promise allegiance. Steve: What other words when…because you were married much more recently than I was, didn't you have to swear something at your wedding ceremony? Jill: My gosh, I can't remember. Steve: Do you swear to take this man as your lawful… Jill: No, no, no. Steve: No? Jill: No, we didn't do any of the traditional vows we said our own things, so. Steve: But it's interesting, “to swear” is to take an oath; to put your hand over your heart. Jill: To promise. Steve: That's right, but the most usual use of the word is, in fact, to blaspheme; in other words, to say something naughty. Jill: Right. Steve: And the sort of naughty swear words generally either have to do with parts of the body or things that happen in the toilet or have to do with sex or they have to do with religion, you know, taking the name of a saint or of a religious person in vain. Jill: Right. Steve: And we swear when we're angry. Jill: Some of us do. Steve: Yes and much to my dismay, people swear much more often now than they used to. Jill: Yeah, I believe that. Steve: And, certainly, we would never hear swear words on television in the old days and now, I mean, it's just… Jill: …common place. Steve: Common place; it's just terrible. Jill: I think we've talked about this before, swear words are generally words that really people shouldn't use, but especially non-native speakers. Steve: Right. Jill: It just doesn't sound very good. Steve: You know, I'm glad you raised that because when you're a non-native speaker you can think that it sounds very clever. Boy, am I ever cool. I'm going to use this Japanese or Portuguese or whatever language, Russian, swear word; boy, isn't that fun. Because you have no sense of how that sounds. It might sound very, very, bad and so we recommend at The Linguist, at LingQ, don't use swear words. Don't use even slang expressions until you're really sure what affect they have on people and how they're used. Jill: Right. Steve: Alright, then we move on again here to “stay clear” and, again, this is following up on our discussion. The sentence from my book is “A language learner is best to stay clear of idioms.” What do we mean by stay clear? Jill: To avoid. Steve: To avoid, exactly. Jill: So don't use them. Steve: Right. “Countryside”, now the countryside, you know, we think that's a very ordinary word. It's not obvious for someone who's not a native speaker what we mean. What is the countryside? Jill: Places that are away from cities that are rural areas. Steve: Rural areas, right. Jill: Where there are not a lot of people, generally, not a lot of action; lots of farming perhaps. Steve: Or forest. Jill: Or forest, actually. Steve: In other words, not a built up area. Jill: Right. Steve: But it can be, as you say, farms. It can be inhabited by people. It's not a wilderness, but it's not an urban, a city-type environment. We'll skip “Anglophone”.

Yeah, Anglophone, Francophone, whatever; people who speak English are Anglophones. Here's one though, “people of all walks of life”. That's an interesting idiom and one that I think the non-native speaker can use. All walks of life, what do we mean? Jill: People of or from, we can say, all different economic backgrounds, religious backgrounds… Steve: …professions… Jill: …professions, so people who have had different experiences. Steve: Right. “Colloquialisms”, again, we're talking a lot about slang and idioms and so forth, again, colloquialisms, what are we referring to there? Jill: Well, slang generally. Steve: Right, expressions that have become common in certain…I don't know, it can even be in different places within the same language, again, difficult for the non-native speaker to master. Now let's move on “overly”; “overly”.

Here the phrase is “an overly-complicated written style.” Jill: So, if you overdo something or you write in an overly-complicated manner it means that you're doing it to the excess. Steve: Right. Jill: You're doing it too much. Steve: Right. “Too”, would that fit? Jill: Too. Steve: T O O, too. Jill: Too. Steve: Overly equals too. Alright, there we go. “The students were judged as much on their ability as on the actual content.”

Jill: So, equally. Steve: Equally, that's right, as much as, as much, you know, equal. These different words for comparison, “equal”, “better than”, “less than”, these are words that are always a little different in each language and it takes a while to get used to them. When you see them in LingQ save them and see the different ways that they're used. Jill: Something like “as much as”, I find people use incorrectly a lot. You know, “as much as”, “as” and “as”. They will often leave out one as, so I think that's a very useful phrase. Steve: However here, of course, it was the students were judged as much on their ability as on something else, so the “as” doesn't have to come right immediately after “much”… Jill: …but it has to come somewhere. Steve: Absolutely, because we're comparing two things. “Bristling”; “bristling with irony”.

Jill: Full of irony. Steve: Full of irony. When I think of bristle I think of a porcupine, right? A porcupine is a little animal that has these needles that stick out when it's aroused or angry. Jill: Quills. Steve: And those are bristles and we think of the bristles of a brush, so “bristling” and “bristling with irony” is, basically, what do they call them? Collocation. In other words, people often say bristling with irony. We might say “full or irony”, but “bristling with irony” because the idea that irony has little sharp needles in it because we're being a little sarcastic. Jill: Exactly. Steve: So, we're bristling with irony, so that's a good phrase to use. “Plenty”.

Jill: A lot. Steve: Lots of. Jill: Lots of. Steve: Plenty. Plenty is plenty; lots of. Plenty means enough of, but it implies lots of. Jill: Right. Steve: So, it's not quite as many as lots of or a lot of, so here again, people just have to get used to it. Jill: Yeah, you're right, plenty means enough of. Steve: Yeah, plenty. But, we talk of, you know, a land of plenty means a land of abundance, so yeah, plenty. “Overflowing”.

Well, in the book it talks about this professor who spoke to “overflowing audiences”, but the original image, of course, is what overflows. If I say overflowing, what do you think of? Jill: Beer. Steve: Oh, beer? Jill: I think of liquid overflowing. Steve: Oh, okay, but beer, that's very interesting. Okay, you think of beer. I don't know, I was going to think of overflowing like a river overflowing or the bathtub overflowing, but you think of beer overflowing, that's okay. Jill: I'm not an alcoholic, I swear! Steve: Alright, that's good; okay. “Desultory”: ramble on; continue talking or writing in a desultory manner; basically, sort of disorganized.

It's not a very common word. I think we should forget it. Jill: Yeah, you know, I don't even think that I have ever seen that word or used it myself. Steve: No, we won't worry about it. “Ramble on”.

Jill: It usually refers to people who just talk and talk and talk and just never stop. They just go on and on and often saying sort of the same thing over and over again. Steve: Isn't there a song about the rambling…there are lots of songs about rambling on, rambling man, rambling, just kind of… Jill: …rambling idiots. Steve: Well yeah, rambling idiots too, but people are rambling; the rambler. They are just kind of moving on from town to town with no purpose, so when you're “rambling on” that means you're talking with no purpose or, you know, you're not being well organized. Jill: Yeah, you're not being concise and getting to the point. Steve: Right. Let's finish with this last one here, “after all”. It's used quite often, after all, you know? In England they say “at the end of the day”. In other words, when all is said and done; when all is said and done; after all. You know, having listened to all of what you had to say; after all. Jill: Actually, I think I would use “at the end of the day” more often than I would use “after all”. Steve: Oh really? Jill: Yeah. Steve: I use after all, you know? Jill: I don't use it very often so, again, I guess it's just a… Steve: It's like “Give me a bigger piece of cake; after all, I bought it.” Jill: Right. Steve: You know? Alright, because it's a long list here we can stop there and then we can do another one with the remainder. Jill: Right, next week. Steve: Shall we do that? Jill: Yeah. Steve: Okay, thanks Jill. Jill: Thank you. Steve: Okay, bye, bye. Jill: Bye, bye.


Eighty: Focus on Vocabulary Achtzig: Konzentrieren Sie sich auf den Wortschatz

Steve: Hi Jill. Jill: Hi Steve. Steve: How are you this afternoon? Steve: Wie geht es dir heute Nachmittag? Jill: Good thanks. How are you? Steve: I’m fine thank you. You know, we had that discussion the other day about words that meant “see” and “look” and so forth. Wissen Sie, wir hatten neulich diese Diskussion über Wörter, die "sehen" und "schauen" und so weiter bedeuteten. We asked people to submit lists of words that they’re interested in and low and behold we have a list. Wir haben die Leute gebeten, Listen mit Wörtern einzureichen, an denen sie interessiert und niedrig sind, und siehe, wir haben eine Liste. This one comes from Anna who is one of our learners in Brazil. Dieser kommt von Anna, die eine unserer Lernenden in Brasilien ist. Now her list is taken from…I think a lot of it comes from my book. Jetzt ist ihre Liste entnommen aus ... Ich denke, ein Großteil davon stammt aus meinem Buch. It’s not like the previous list where the learner wanted us to talk about words, you know, synonyms that all mean the same thing. Es ist nicht wie in der vorherigen Liste, in der der Lernende wollte, dass wir über Wörter sprechen, Synonyme, die alle dasselbe bedeuten. These words are all very different. Diese Wörter sind alle sehr unterschiedlich. Jill: Right. Steve: But, I think there are some interesting words, so let’s give it a try. Jill: Alright. Steve: The first word here is “course” as it applies to “a full course lunch”. Steve: Das erste Wort hier ist "Kurs", da es für "ein komplettes Mittagessen" gilt. What do we mean by a full course lunch? Was verstehen wir unter einem kompletten Mittagessen? Wat bedoelen we met een volledige lunch? Jill: Usually a full course meal, dinner, lunch, means, I believe, that you get an appetizer, an entrée, a dessert, so you have all your courses, you’re not just ordering one thing. Jill: Normalerweise bedeutet ein komplettes Menü, Abendessen, Mittagessen, glaube ich, dass Sie eine Vorspeise, eine Vorspeise, ein Dessert bekommen, also haben Sie alle Ihre Gänge, Sie bestellen nicht nur eine Sache. Steve: Well, that’s right. Steve: Nun, das stimmt. We talk about the main course, which refers usually to the meat or the fish dish, so the first course might be the soup or a hors d’oeuvre and the third course is the dessert. Wir sprechen über das Hauptgericht, das sich normalerweise auf das Fleisch- oder Fischgericht bezieht, also könnte der erste Gang die Suppe oder ein Vorspeise sein und der dritte Gang ist das Dessert. Jill: Right. Steve: And, of course, I think nowadays people don’t eat as much, but in the old days they might have a four or a five-course meal. Steve: Und natürlich denke ich, dass die Leute heutzutage nicht so viel essen, aber früher haben sie vielleicht ein Vier- oder Fünf-Gänge-Menü. Jill: And you can still get those at certain restaurants. Jill: Und die gibt es immer noch in bestimmten Restaurants. They have a set menu where you can order a three-course meal or a more expensive where it’s a four-course or five-course, but I think, in general, it’s three courses. Sie haben ein Menü, in dem Sie ein Drei-Gänge-Menü bestellen können, oder ein teureres, in dem es ein Vier-Gänge- oder Fünf-Gänge-Menü ist, aber ich denke, im Allgemeinen sind es drei Gänge. Steve: Right, people aren’t eating as much. Steve: Richtig, die Leute essen nicht so viel. Jill: Right. Steve: Now the next word here is “staples” and this is a sentence from my book where I talked about France, which had its Mediterranean influence, and the sentence is “With the Romans came the staples of the Mediterranean culinary tradition.” Now are they talking about stapling paper together here? Steve: Jetzt ist das nächste Wort hier "Grundnahrungsmittel" und dies ist ein Satz aus meinem Buch, in dem ich über Frankreich sprach, das seinen mediterranen Einfluss hatte, und der Satz lautet "Mit den Römern kamen die Grundnahrungsmittel der mediterranen kulinarischen Tradition". Sprechen sie jetzt darüber, hier gemeinsam Papier zu heften? Jill: No, they’re not and it’s exactly the same word. Jill: Nein, das sind sie nicht und es ist genau das gleiche Wort. When I first looked at the word and I didn’t look at the definition I immediately thought staples that you use to put paper together, staple papers together, but, obviously, she’s sort of been studying food and so a staple is something that is very basic; everybody from that place eats it. Als ich mir das Wort zum ersten Mal ansah und die Definition nicht ansah, dachte ich sofort, dass Sie Heftklammern verwenden, um Papier zusammenzusetzen, Heftklammern zusammenzufügen, aber offensichtlich hat sie Lebensmittel studiert, und so ist eine Heftklammer etwas, was es ist sehr einfach; Jeder von diesem Ort isst es. Steve: Right. Bread, rice… Brot, Reis… Jill: …pasta. Steve: Right. And she has the word down here “amphitheatre”, but I don’t think we need to spend too much time there because I think in every language, certainly where they have borrowed Greek and Roman or Latin words, this word is used. Und sie hat hier unten das Wort "Amphitheater", aber ich glaube nicht, dass wir dort zu viel Zeit verbringen müssen, weil ich denke, dass in jeder Sprache, sicherlich dort, wo sie griechische und römische oder lateinische Wörter ausgeliehen haben, dieses Wort verwendet wird. Let’s move on to the next one, “swear words” and “to swear”. Fahren wir mit dem nächsten fort: "Schimpfwörter" und "schwören". Laten we verder gaan met de volgende, "scheldwoorden" en "zweren".

Okay, swear means a variety of different things, doesn’t it? Okay, schwören bedeutet eine Vielzahl verschiedener Dinge, nicht wahr? Jill: Yes, you can take an oath, so you swear to do something or to behave a certain way or not to do certain things. Jill: Ja, Sie können einen Eid ablegen, also schwören Sie, etwas zu tun oder sich auf eine bestimmte Weise zu verhalten oder bestimmte Dinge nicht zu tun. Steve: Swear allegiance. Steve: Schwöre Treue. Jill: Swear allegiance, so promise allegiance. Jill: Schwöre Treue, also verspreche Treue. Steve: What other words when…because you were married much more recently than I was, didn’t you have to swear something at your wedding ceremony? Steve: Welche anderen Worte, als ... weil Sie viel jünger verheiratet waren als ich, mussten Sie bei Ihrer Hochzeitszeremonie nicht etwas schwören? Steve : Quels autres mots quand… parce que vous vous êtes marié beaucoup plus récemment que moi, n'avez-vous pas dû jurer quelque chose lors de votre cérémonie de mariage ? Jill: My gosh, I can’t remember. Jill: Meine Güte, ich kann mich nicht erinnern. Steve: Do you swear to take this man as your lawful… Steve: Schwören Sie, diesen Mann als Ihren rechtmäßigen zu betrachten? Steve : Jurez-vous de considérer cet homme comme votre légitime… Jill: No, no, no. Jill: Nein, nein, nein. Steve: No? Steve: Nein? Jill: No, we didn’t do any of the traditional vows we said our own things, so. Jill: Nein, wir haben keines der traditionellen Gelübde abgelegt, die wir selbst gemacht haben. Jill : Non, nous n'avons fait aucun des vœux traditionnels, nous avons dit nos propres choses, donc. Steve: But it’s interesting, “to swear” is to take an oath; to put your hand over your heart. Steve: Aber es ist interessant, „schwören“ heißt, einen Eid zu leisten. deine Hand über dein Herz legen. Steve : Mais c'est intéressant, « jurer », c'est prêter serment ; pour mettre ta main sur ton coeur. Jill: To promise. Jill: Um es zu versprechen. Steve: That’s right, but the most usual use of the word is, in fact, to blaspheme; in other words, to say something naughty. Steve: Das stimmt, aber die üblichste Verwendung des Wortes ist in der Tat, zu lästern; mit anderen Worten, um etwas Unartiges zu sagen. Steve: Dat klopt, maar het meest gebruikelijke gebruik van het woord is in feite godslastering; met andere woorden, iets ondeugends zeggen. Jill: Right. Steve: And the sort of naughty swear words generally either have to do with parts of the body or things that happen in the toilet or have to do with sex or they have to do with religion, you know, taking the name of a saint or of a religious person in vain. Steve: Und die Art von ungezogenen Schimpfwörtern hat im Allgemeinen entweder mit Körperteilen oder Dingen zu tun, die auf der Toilette passieren oder mit Sex zu tun haben, oder sie haben mit Religion zu tun, wissen Sie, den Namen eines Heiligen oder einer religiösen Person vergebens. Jill: Right. Steve: And we swear when we’re angry. Steve: Und wir schwören, wenn wir wütend sind. Jill: Some of us do. Jill: Einige von uns tun es. Steve: Yes and much to my dismay, people swear much more often now than they used to. Jill: Yeah, I believe that. Steve: And, certainly, we would never hear swear words on television in the old days and now, I mean, it’s just… Steve: Und natürlich haben wir früher nie Schimpfwörter im Fernsehen gehört und jetzt, meine ich, ist es nur ... Jill: …common place. Jill: ... gewone plek. Steve: Common place; it’s just terrible. Steve: Gemeinplatz; es ist einfach schrecklich. Стив: Общее место; это просто ужасно. Jill: I think we’ve talked about this before, swear words are generally words that really people shouldn’t use, but especially non-native speakers. Jill: Ich denke, wir haben bereits darüber gesprochen. Schimpfwörter sind im Allgemeinen Wörter, die eigentlich nicht verwendet werden sollten, insbesondere aber Nicht-Muttersprachler. Steve: Right. Jill: It just doesn’t sound very good. Jill: Es klingt einfach nicht sehr gut. Steve: You know, I’m glad you raised that because when you’re a non-native speaker you can think that it sounds very clever. Steve: Weißt du, ich bin froh, dass du das angesprochen hast, denn wenn du kein Muttersprachler bist, kannst du denken, dass es sehr klug klingt. Boy, am I ever cool. Junge, bin ich jemals cool? I’m going to use this Japanese or Portuguese or whatever language, Russian, swear word; boy, isn’t that fun. Ich werde dieses Japanisch oder Portugiesisch oder eine andere Sprache, Russisch, Schimpfwort verwenden. Junge, macht das nicht Spaß? Because you have no sense of how that sounds. Weil du keine Ahnung hast, wie das klingt. It might sound very, very, bad and so we recommend at The Linguist, at LingQ, don’t use swear words. Es mag sehr, sehr schlecht klingen und deshalb empfehlen wir bei The Linguist, bei LingQ, keine Schimpfwörter zu verwenden. Don’t use even slang expressions until you’re really sure what affect they have on people and how they’re used. Verwenden Sie nicht einmal Slang-Ausdrücke, bis Sie wirklich sicher sind, welche Auswirkungen sie auf Menschen haben und wie sie verwendet werden. Jill: Right. Steve: Alright, then we move on again here to “stay clear” and, again, this is following up on our discussion. Steve: Okay, dann gehen wir hier wieder weiter, um „klar zu bleiben“, und dies setzt unsere Diskussion fort. Steve: Oké, dan gaan we hier weer verder om "duidelijk te blijven" en nogmaals, dit is een vervolg op onze discussie. The sentence from my book is “A language learner is best to stay clear of idioms.” What do we mean by stay clear? Der Satz aus meinem Buch lautet: „Ein Sprachschüler sollte sich am besten von Redewendungen fernhalten.“ Was meinen wir damit, klar zu bleiben? Jill: To avoid. Jill: Um zu vermeiden. Steve: To avoid, exactly. Steve: Um genau zu vermeiden. Jill: So don’t use them. Jill: Also benutze sie nicht. Steve: Right. “Countryside”, now the countryside, you know, we think that’s a very ordinary word. "Landschaft", jetzt die Landschaft, wissen Sie, wir denken, das ist ein sehr gewöhnliches Wort. 'Platteland', nu het platteland, weet je, dat vinden wij een heel gewoon woord. It’s not obvious for someone who’s not a native speaker what we mean. Für jemanden, der kein Muttersprachler ist, ist es nicht offensichtlich, was wir meinen. What is the countryside? Was ist die Landschaft? Jill: Places that are away from cities that are rural areas. Jill: Orte, die nicht in ländlichen Gebieten liegen. Steve: Rural areas, right. Steve: Ländliche Gebiete, richtig. Jill: Where there are not a lot of people, generally, not a lot of action; lots of farming perhaps. Jill: Wo es nicht viele Leute gibt, im Allgemeinen nicht viel Action; viel Landwirtschaft vielleicht. Steve: Or forest. Jill: Or forest, actually. Jill: Oder eigentlich Wald. Steve: In other words, not a built up area. Steve: Mit anderen Worten, kein bebautes Gebiet. Стив: Другими словами, не застроенная территория. Jill: Right. Steve: But it can be, as you say, farms. Steve: Aber es können, wie Sie sagen, Farmen sein. It can be inhabited by people. Es kann von Menschen bewohnt werden. It’s not a wilderness, but it’s not an urban, a city-type environment. Es ist keine Wildnis, aber es ist keine städtische, stadtähnliche Umgebung. Não é um deserto, mas não é um ambiente urbano, um tipo de cidade. We’ll skip “Anglophone”. Wir werden "Anglophone" überspringen.

Yeah, Anglophone, Francophone, whatever; people who speak English are Anglophones. Ja, anglophon, frankophon, was auch immer; Leute, die Englisch sprechen, sind Anglophone. Ja, Engelstalig, Franstalig, wat dan ook; mensen die Engels spreken zijn Engelstaligen. Here’s one though, “people of all walks of life”. Hier ist jedoch einer: "Menschen aller Gesellschaftsschichten". Hier is er echter een, "mensen van alle rangen en standen". Но вот один из них: «люди всех слоев общества». That’s an interesting idiom and one that I think the non-native speaker can use. Das ist eine interessante Redewendung, die meiner Meinung nach der Nicht-Muttersprachler verwenden kann. All walks of life, what do we mean? Alle Lebensbereiche, was meinen wir? Jill: People of or from, we can say, all different economic backgrounds, religious backgrounds… Jill: Menschen mit oder aus, wir können sagen, alle unterschiedlichen wirtschaftlichen Hintergründe, religiösen Hintergründe ... Jill: Pessoas de ou de, podemos dizer, todas as diferentes origens econômicas, origens religiosas ... Steve: …professions… Jill: …professions, so people who have had different experiences. Steve: Right. “Colloquialisms”, again, we’re talking a lot about slang and idioms and so forth, again, colloquialisms, what are we referring to there? "Umgangssprachen", wir sprechen wieder viel über Slang und Redewendungen und so weiter, wieder Umgangssprachen, worauf beziehen wir uns dort? Jill: Well, slang generally. Jill: Nun, Slang im Allgemeinen. Steve: Right, expressions that have become common in certain…I don’t know, it can even be in different places within the same language, again, difficult for the non-native speaker to master. Steve: Richtig, Ausdrücke, die in bestimmten Fällen üblich geworden sind ... Ich weiß nicht, es kann sogar für den Nicht-Muttersprachler schwierig sein, sie an verschiedenen Stellen innerhalb derselben Sprache zu beherrschen. Now let’s move on “overly”; “overly”. Lassen Sie uns nun „übermäßig“ weitermachen. "übermäßig".

Here the phrase is “an overly-complicated written style.” Hier ist der Satz "ein übermäßig komplizierter Schreibstil". Jill: So, if you overdo something or you write in an overly-complicated manner it means that you’re doing it to the excess. Jill: Wenn Sie also etwas übertreiben oder zu kompliziert schreiben, bedeutet dies, dass Sie es übertrieben tun. Steve: Right. Jill: You’re doing it too much. Jill: Du machst es zu viel. Steve: Right. “Too”, would that fit? "Auch", würde das passen? Jill: Too. Steve: T O O, too. Jill: Too. Steve: Overly equals too. Steve: Übermäßig gleich. Alright, there we go. Okay, los geht's. “The students were judged as much on their ability as on the actual content.” "Die Schüler wurden sowohl nach ihren Fähigkeiten als auch nach dem tatsächlichen Inhalt beurteilt."

Jill: So, equally. Jill: Also genauso. Steve: Equally, that’s right, as much as, as much, you know, equal. Steve: Ebenso ist das richtig, genauso wie, wie Sie wissen, gleich. These different words for comparison, “equal”, “better than”, “less than”, these are words that are always a little different in each language and it takes a while to get used to them. Diese verschiedenen Wörter zum Vergleich, "gleich", "besser als", "kleiner als", sind Wörter, die in jeder Sprache immer ein wenig unterschiedlich sind und es dauert eine Weile, bis man sich an sie gewöhnt hat. When you see them in LingQ save them and see the different ways that they’re used. Wenn Sie sie in LingQ sehen, speichern Sie sie und sehen Sie die verschiedenen Verwendungsmöglichkeiten. Jill: Something like “as much as”, I find people use incorrectly a lot. Jill: So etwas wie "so viel wie" finde ich, dass die Leute viel falsch verwenden. You know, “as much as”, “as” and “as”. Sie wissen, "so viel wie", "wie" und "wie". They will often leave out one as, so I think that’s a very useful phrase. Sie lassen oft eines weg, also denke ich, dass das ein sehr nützlicher Ausdruck ist. Steve: However here, of course, it was the students were judged as much on their ability as on something else, so the “as” doesn’t have to come right immediately after “much”… Steve: Aber hier war es natürlich so, dass die Schüler sowohl nach ihren Fähigkeiten als auch nach etwas anderem beurteilt wurden, so dass das „wie“ nicht sofort nach „viel“ kommen muss… Jill: …but it has to come somewhere. Jill: ... aber es muss irgendwohin kommen. Steve: Absolutely, because we’re comparing two things. Steve: Auf jeden Fall, weil wir zwei Dinge vergleichen. “Bristling”; “bristling with irony”. "Borsten"; "Vor Ironie strotzen". "borstelend"; "overgoten met ironie".

Jill: Full of irony. Jill: Voller Ironie. Steve: Full of irony. When I think of bristle I think of a porcupine, right? A porcupine is a little animal that has these needles that stick out when it’s aroused or angry. Ein Stachelschwein ist ein kleines Tier, das diese Nadeln hat, die herausragen, wenn es erregt oder wütend ist. Jill: Quills. Jill: Quills. Steve: And those are bristles and we think of the bristles of a brush, so “bristling” and “bristling with irony” is, basically, what do they call them? Steve: Und das sind Borsten und wir denken an die Borsten eines Pinsels, also wie nennt man sie im Grunde „borstig“ und „strotzend vor Ironie“? Collocation. Collocatie. In other words, people often say bristling with irony. Mit anderen Worten, die Leute sagen oft voller Ironie. Met andere woorden, mensen zeggen vaak vol ironie. We might say “full or irony”, but “bristling with irony” because the idea that irony has little sharp needles in it because we’re being a little sarcastic. Wir sagen vielleicht „voll oder ironisch“, aber „strotzend vor Ironie“, weil die Idee, dass Ironie kleine scharfe Nadeln enthält, weil wir ein bisschen sarkastisch sind. Jill: Exactly. Steve: So, we’re bristling with irony, so that’s a good phrase to use. Steve: Also, wir strotzen vor Ironie, also ist das ein guter Ausdruck. “Plenty”.

Jill: A lot. Steve: Lots of. Jill: Lots of. Steve: Plenty. Plenty is plenty; lots of. Viel ist viel; viele. Plenty means enough of, but it implies lots of. Viel bedeutet genug von, aber es impliziert viel. Jill: Right. Steve: So, it’s not quite as many as lots of or a lot of, so here again, people just have to get used to it. Steve: Also, es ist nicht ganz so viel wie viel oder viel, also müssen sich die Leute auch hier wieder daran gewöhnen. Jill: Yeah, you’re right, plenty means enough of. Steve: Yeah, plenty. But, we talk of, you know, a land of plenty means a land of abundance, so yeah, plenty. Aber wir sprechen davon, wissen Sie, ein Land des Überflusses bedeutet ein Land des Überflusses, also ja, Überfluss. “Overflowing”.

Well, in the book it talks about this professor who spoke to “overflowing audiences”, but the original image, of course, is what overflows. Nun, in dem Buch wird von diesem Professor gesprochen, der vor einem „überfüllten Publikum“ sprach, aber das Originalbild ist natürlich das, was überläuft. Welnu, in het boek wordt gesproken over deze professor die sprak tot "overlopend publiek", maar het originele beeld is natuurlijk wat overloopt. If I say overflowing, what do you think of? Jill: Beer. Steve: Oh, beer? Jill: I think of liquid overflowing. Jill: Ich denke an überlaufende Flüssigkeit. Steve: Oh, okay, but beer, that’s very interesting. Okay, you think of beer. I don’t know, I was going to think of overflowing like a river overflowing or the bathtub overflowing, but you think of beer overflowing, that’s okay. Ich weiß nicht, ich wollte ans Überlaufen denken wie ein überlaufender Fluss oder eine überlaufende Badewanne, aber du denkst an überlaufendes Bier, das ist okay. Jill: I’m not an alcoholic, I swear! Jill: Ich bin kein Alkoholiker, das schwöre ich! Steve: Alright, that’s good; okay. “Desultory”: ramble on; continue talking or writing in a desultory manner; basically, sort of disorganized. „Desultory“: weiterschweifen; sprechen oder schreiben Sie ziellos weiter; im Grunde irgendwie unorganisiert. "Onbegrijpelijk": zwerftocht door; op een onstuimige manier blijven praten of schrijven; eigenlijk een beetje ongeorganiseerd. “Desultory”: divagar; continue falando ou escrevendo de maneira desconexa; basicamente, meio desorganizado.

It’s not a very common word. Es ist kein sehr gebräuchliches Wort. I think we should forget it. Ich denke, wir sollten es vergessen. Jill: Yeah, you know, I don’t even think that I have ever seen that word or used it myself. Jill: Ja, weißt du, ich glaube nicht einmal, dass ich dieses Wort jemals gesehen oder selbst benutzt habe. Steve: No, we won’t worry about it. Steve: Nein, darüber machen wir uns keine Gedanken. “Ramble on”. „Wandern weiter“. "Ram maar door".

Jill: It usually refers to people who just talk and talk and talk and just never stop. They just go on and on and often saying sort of the same thing over and over again. Sie machen einfach weiter und weiter und sagen oft immer wieder das Gleiche. Steve: Isn’t there a song about the rambling…there are lots of songs about rambling on, rambling man, rambling, just kind of… Steve: Gibt es nicht ein Lied über das Herumschweifen … es gibt viele Lieder über das Herumschweifen, das Herumschweifen, das Herumschweifen, einfach irgendwie … Jill: …rambling idiots. Jill: … weitschweifende Idioten. Steve: Well yeah, rambling idiots too, but people are rambling; the rambler. Steve: Nun ja, auch geschwätzige Idioten, aber die Leute schwafeln; der Wanderer. Steve: Sim, idiotas demais também, mas as pessoas estão divagando; o rambler. They are just kind of moving on from town to town with no purpose, so when you’re “rambling on” that means you’re talking with no purpose or, you know, you’re not being well organized. Sie ziehen einfach zwecklos von Stadt zu Stadt. Wenn Sie also „weiterschweifen“, bedeutet das, dass Sie zwecklos reden oder, wissen Sie, Sie sind nicht gut organisiert. Jill: Yeah, you’re not being concise and getting to the point. Jill: Ja, du bist nicht prägnant und kommst nicht auf den Punkt. Steve: Right. Let’s finish with this last one here, “after all”. It’s used quite often, after all, you know? In England they say “at the end of the day”. In England sagt man „am Ende des Tages“. В Англии говорят «в конце дня». In other words, when all is said and done; when all is said and done; after all. You know, having listened to all of what you had to say; after all. Weißt du, nachdem du dir alles angehört hast, was du zu sagen hattest; schließlich. Jill: Actually, I think I would use “at the end of the day” more often than I would use “after all”. Jill: Eigentlich denke ich, dass ich „am Ende des Tages“ häufiger verwenden würde als „nach allem“. Джилл: На самом деле, я думаю, что буду использовать «в конце дня» чаще, чем «в конце концов». Steve: Oh really? Steve: Ach wirklich? Jill: Yeah. Steve: I use after all, you know? Steve: Ich benutze immerhin, weißt du? Jill: I don’t use it very often so, again, I guess it’s just a… Jill: Ich benutze es nicht sehr oft, also schätze ich, es ist nur ein … Steve: It’s like “Give me a bigger piece of cake; after all, I bought it.” Steve: Es ist wie „Gib mir ein größeres Stück Kuchen; schließlich habe ich es gekauft.“ Jill: Right. Steve: You know? Alright, because it’s a long list here we can stop there and then we can do another one with the remainder. Jill: Right, next week. Steve: Shall we do that? Jill: Yeah. Steve: Okay, thanks Jill. Jill: Thank you. Steve: Okay, bye, bye. Jill: Bye, bye.