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Seven Habits of Spectacularly Unsuccessful Executives, Part 1

Part 1

It's rarely discussed, at least as not as much as the habits of successful CEOs, but the truth is that it takes some special personal qualities to be spectacularly unsuccessful. This author has written a best seller on the subject, and in this article he discusses how leaders can be not only instruments of success, but sometimes also architects of failure.

Sydney Finkelstein is the Steven Roth Professor of Management at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, and the author of "Why Smart Executives Fail. " This article is based on the book.

The past few years have witnessed some admirable business successes-and some exceptional failures. Among the companies that have hit hard times are a few of the most storied names in business - think Arthur Andersen, Rubbermaid and Schwinn Bicycle - as well as a collection of former high flyers like Enron, Tyco and WorldCom. Behind each of these failures stands a towering figure, a CEO or business leader who will long be remembered for being spectacularly unsuccessful.

The truth is, it takes some special personal qualities to be spectacularly unsuccessful. I'm talking about people who took world-renowned business operations and made them almost worthless. What's remarkable is that the individuals who possess the personal qualities that make this magnitude of destruction possible usually possess other, genuinely admirable qualities. It makes sense: Hardly anyone gets a chance to destroy so much value without demonstrating the potential for creating it. Most of the great destroyers of value are people of unusual intelligence and talent who display personal magnetism. They are the leaders who appear on the seven habits of spectacularly unsuccessful executives covers of Fortune and Forbes.

Still, when it comes to the crunch, these people fail - and fail monumentally. What's the secret of their destructive powers? After spending six years studying more than 50 companies and conducting some 200 interviews, I found that spectacularly unsuccessful people had seven characteristics in common. Nearly all of the leaders who preside over major business failures exhibit four or five of these habits. The truly gifted ones exhibit all seven. But here's what's really remarkable: Each of these seven habits represents a quality that is widely admired in the business world. Business not only tolerates the qualities that make these leaders spectacularly unsuccessful, it celebrates them.

Here, then, are seven habits of spectacularly unsuccessful people, along with some warning signs to look out for. These habits are most destructive when a CEO exhibits them, but any manager who has these habits can do terrible harm-including you. Study them. Learn to recognize them. And try to catch these red flags before spectacular failure finds you!

Habit # 1: They see themselves and their companies as dominating their environment.

This first habit may be the most insidious, since it appears to be highly desirable. Shouldn't a company try to dominate its business environment, shape the future of its markets and set the pace within them? Yes, but there's a catch. Unlike successful leaders, failed leaders who never question their dominance fail to realize they are at the mercy of changing circumstances. They vastly overestimate the extent to which they actually control events and vastly underestimate the role of chance and circumstance in their success.

CEOs who fall prey to this belief suffer from the illusion of personal preeminence: Like certain film directors, they see themselves as the auteurs of their companies. As far as they're concerned, everyone else in the company is there to execute their personal vision for the company. Samsung's CEO Kun-Hee Lee was so successful with electronics that he thought he could repeat this success with automobiles. He invested $5 billion in an already oversaturated auto market. Why? There was no business case. Lee simply loved cars and had dreamed of being in the auto business.

Warning Sign: A lack of respect.

Leaders who suffer from the illusion of personal preeminence tend to believe that their companies are indispensable to their suppliers and customers. Rather than looking to satisfy customer needs, CEOs who believe they run pre-eminent companies act as if their customers were the lucky ones. When asked how Johnson & Johnson lost its seemingly insurmountable lead in the medical stent business, cardiologists and hospital administrators pointed to the company's arrogance and lack of respect for customers' ideas. Motorola exhibited the same arrogance when it continued to build fancy analogue phones, rather than the digital variety its customers were clamouring for.

Habit #2: They identify so completely with the company that there is no clear boundary between their personal interests and their corporation's interests Like the first habit, this one seems innocuous, perhaps even beneficial. We want business leaders to be completely committed to their companies, with their interests tightly aligned with those of the company. But digging deeper, you find that failed executives weren't identifying too little with the company, but rather too much. Instead of treating companies as enterprises that they needed to nurture, failed leaders treated them as extensions of themselves. And with that, a "private empire" mentality took hold.

CEOs who possess this outlook often use their companies to carry out personal ambitions. The most slippery slope of all for these executives is their tendency to use corporate funds for personal reasons. CEOs who have a long or impressive track record may come to feel that they've made so much money for the company that the expenditures they make on themselves, even if extravagant, are trivial by comparison. This twisted logic seems to have been one of the factors that shaped the behaviour of Dennis Kozlowski of Tyco. His pride in his company and his pride in his own extravagance seem to have reinforced each other. This is why he could sound so sincere making speeches about ethics while using corporate funds for personal purposes. Being the CEO of a sizable corporation today is probably the closest thing to being king of your own country, and that's a dangerous title to assume.

Warning Sign: A question of character

When it comes right down to it, the biggest warning sign of CEO failure is a question of character. We might want to believe that leaders at companies like Adelphia, Tyco and ImClone were trustworthy stewards of those companies, but their behaviour suggests otherwise. But questions about character need not be limited to dubious or unethical acts. In fact, most leaders I studied were scrupulously honest. Rather, it is denial and defensiveness that are the critical warning signs. As Tony Galban, a D&O underwriter at Chubb, told me, "Always listen to the analysts' calls because that gives you a sense of how an individual thinks on their feet. They give you a sense of whether they're in denial or whether they're being professional." It gets down to this: Do you really trust this person?


Part 1 الجزء 1 Part 1 Deel 1 ส่วนที่ 1

It's rarely discussed, at least as not as much as the habits of successful CEOs, but the truth is that it takes some special personal qualities to be spectacularly unsuccessful. Es wird selten diskutiert, zumindest nicht so viel wie die Gewohnheiten erfolgreicher CEOs, aber die Wahrheit ist, dass einige besondere persönliche Eigenschaften erforderlich sind, um spektakulär erfolglos zu bleiben. It's rarely discussed, at least as not as much as the habits of successful CEOs, but the truth is that it takes some special personal qualities to be spectacularly unsuccessful. רק לעתים רחוקות מדברים על זה, לפחות לא כמו הרגלים של מנכ"לים מצליחים, אבל האמת היא שצריך כמה תכונות אישיות מיוחדות כדי להיות לא מוצלח באופן מרהיב. 少なくとも成功したCEOの習慣ほど議論されていることはめったにありませんが、真実は、特別な個人的資質が見事に失敗するにはかかることです。 Det blir sjelden diskutert, minst like lite som vanene til vellykkede administrerende direktører, men sannheten er at det krever noen spesielle personlige egenskaper for å være spektakulært mislykket. É raramente discutido, pelo menos não tanto quanto os hábitos dos CEOs bem-sucedidos, mas a verdade é que são necessárias algumas qualidades pessoais especiais para serem espetacularmente mal sucedidas. Это редко обсуждается, по крайней мере, так же, как и привычки успешных руководителей, но правда в том, что для особых впечатлений безуспешно возникают особые личные качества. ไม่ค่อยมีการพูดคุยกัน อย่างน้อยก็ไม่มากเท่ากับนิสัยของ CEO ที่ประสบความสำเร็จ แต่ความจริงก็คือต้องมีคุณสมบัติส่วนตัวพิเศษบางอย่างจึงจะประสบความสำเร็จอย่างน่าทึ่ง En azından başarılı CEO'ların alışkanlıkları kadar olmasa da nadiren tartışılıyor, ancak gerçek şu ki, bazı başarısız kişisel niteliklerin olağanüstü başarısızlığa uğraması gerekiyor. 很少有人讨论这个问题,至少不像成功的CEO的习惯那么多,但是事实是,要取得成功,需要一些特殊的个人素质。 This author has written a best seller on the subject, and in this article he discusses how leaders can be not only instruments of success, but sometimes also architects of failure. Dieser Autor hat einen Bestseller zu diesem Thema geschrieben und in diesem Artikel erörtert, wie Führungskräfte nicht nur Instrumente des Erfolgs, sondern manchmal auch Architekten des Scheiterns sein können. This author has written a best seller on the subject, and in this article he discusses how leaders can be not only instruments of success, but sometimes also architects of failure. מחבר זה כתב רב מכר בנושא, ובמאמר זה הוא דן כיצד מנהיגים יכולים להיות לא רק כלי להצלחה, אלא לפעמים גם אדריכלים של כישלון. この著者はこの問題に関してベストセラーを書いています、そしてこの記事で彼はリーダーが成功の道具だけではなく時々失敗の建築家になることができる方法を議論します。 Denne forfatteren har skrevet en bestselger om emnet, og i denne artikkelen diskuterer han hvordan ledere ikke bare kan være instrumenter for å lykkes, men noen ganger også arkitekter for å mislykkes. Este autor escreveu um best-seller sobre o assunto e, neste artigo, discute como os líderes podem ser não apenas instrumentos de sucesso, mas às vezes também arquitetos do fracasso. ผู้เขียนคนนี้เขียนหนังสือขายดีในหัวข้อนี้ และในบทความนี้ เขาได้กล่าวถึงวิธีที่ผู้นำไม่เพียงแต่เป็นเครื่องมือแห่งความสำเร็จเท่านั้น แต่ยังรวมถึงสถาปนิกแห่งความล้มเหลวด้วย Bu yazar konuyla ilgili en iyi satıcıyı yazmıştır ve bu makalede liderlerin sadece başarı araçları değil aynı zamanda başarısızlık mimarları olabileceğini de tartışmaktadır. 这位作者就该主题写了一篇畅销书,在本文中,他讨论了领导者如何不仅可以成为成功的工具,而且有时还可以成为失败的设计师。

Sydney Finkelstein is the Steven Roth Professor of Management at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, and the author of "Why Smart Executives Fail. " Sydney Finkelstein ist Steven-Roth-Professor für Management an der Tuck School of Business des Dartmouth College und Autorin von „Why Smart Executives Fail“. Sydney Finkelstein is the Steven Roth Professor of Management at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, and the author of "Why Smart Executives Fail. " シドニーフィンケルスタインは、ダートマス大学タックスクールオブビジネスのスティーブンロスマネジメント教授であり、「Why Smart Executives Fail。」の著者でもあります。 Sydney Finkelstein เป็นศาสตราจารย์ด้านการจัดการของ Steven Roth ที่ Tuck School of Business ที่ Dartmouth College และเป็นผู้แต่งเรื่อง "Why Smart Executives Fail" Sydney Finkelstein, Dartmouth Koleji'ndeki Tuck İşletme Okulu'ndaki Steven Roth İşletme Profesörü ve "Neden Akıllı Yöneticilerin Başarısız Olduğunu" yazar. 悉尼·芬克尔斯坦(Sydney Finkelstein)是达特茅斯学院塔克商学院的史蒂芬·罗斯(Steven Roth)管理学教授,并且着有《为什么聪明的高管失败了》。 This article is based on the book. この記事は本に基づいています。 Bu makale kitaba dayanmaktadır.

The past few years have witnessed some admirable business successes-and some exceptional failures. In den vergangenen Jahren gab es einige bewundernswerte geschäftliche Erfolge – und einige außergewöhnliche Misserfolge. 過去数年間で、いくつかの素晴らしいビジネスの成功と、いくつかの例外的な失敗が見られました。 De siste årene har vi vært vitne til noen beundringsverdige forretningsmessige suksesser - og noen eksepsjonelle feil. Geçtiğimiz birkaç yıl bazı takdire şayan başarılara ve bazı istisnai başarısızlıklara tanık oldu. 过去几年见证了一些令人称赞的业务成功-以及一些异常的失败。 Among the companies that have hit hard times are a few of the most storied names in business - think Arthur Andersen, Rubbermaid and Schwinn Bicycle - as well as a collection of former high flyers like Enron, Tyco and WorldCom. Zu den Unternehmen, die schwere Zeiten hinter sich haben, gehören einige der bekanntesten Namen der Branche - denken Sie an Arthur Andersen, Rubbermaid und Schwinn Bicycle - sowie eine Sammlung ehemaliger Überflieger wie Enron, Tyco und WorldCom. Arthur Andersen、Rubbermaid、Schwinn Bicycleなど、ビジネスの分野で最も有名な名前のいくつかや、Enron、Tyco、WorldComなどのかつてのハイフライヤーのコレクションが、大変な苦労をしてきました。 ในบรรดาบริษัทต่างๆ ที่ประสบความยากลำบาก ได้แก่ บริษัทที่มีประวัติยาวนานที่สุดสองสามบริษัท เช่น Arthur Andersen, Rubbermaid และ Schwinn Bicycle รวมถึงกลุ่มบริษัทที่เคยมีชื่อเสียงอย่าง Enron, Tyco และ WorldCom Zor zamanlar geçiren şirketler arasında iş dünyasında en çok kullanılan isimlerden birkaçı - Arthur Andersen, Rubbermaid ve Schwinn Bicycle - ve Enron, Tyco ve WorldCom gibi eski yüksek broşür koleksiyonunun olduğunu düşünüyorum. 在遭受重创的公司中,有一些在商业上最有名望的名字是:亚瑟·安德森(Arthur Andersen),Rubbermaid和Schwinn Bicycle。 Behind each of these failures stands a towering figure, a CEO or business leader who will long be remembered for being spectacularly unsuccessful. Hinter jedem dieser Misserfolge steht eine überragende Persönlichkeit, ein CEO oder Geschäftsführer, an den man sich noch lange als spektakulär erfolglos erinnern wird. これらの失敗のそれぞれの背後には、驚異的な数字、CEOまたはビジネスリーダーが立っています。 เบื้องหลังความล้มเหลวแต่ละอย่างเหล่านี้คือบุคคลผู้สูงศักดิ์ ซีอีโอหรือผู้นำธุรกิจที่จะถูกจดจำว่าไม่ประสบความสำเร็จอย่างน่าทึ่ง Bu başarısızlıkların her birinin ardında büyük bir rakam var, uzun süredir başarısız olduğu için hatırlanacak olan bir CEO veya iş lideri. 在每个失败的背后都隐藏着一个高大的人物,一个首席执行官或业务领导者,他们因令人难以置信的失败而长期记忆深刻。

The truth is, it takes some special personal qualities to be spectacularly unsuccessful. Die Wahrheit ist, dass es einige besondere persönliche Qualitäten braucht, um spektakulär erfolglos zu sein. 真実は、それが壮観に失敗するためにはいくつかの特別な個人的な資質が必要です。 Gerçek şu ki, olağanüstü başarısız olan bazı özel kişisel nitelikler alır. 事实是,要取得惊人的成功需要一些特殊的个人素质。 I'm talking about people who took world-renowned business operations and made them almost worthless. Ich spreche von Leuten, die weltberühmte Geschäfte genommen und sie fast wertlos gemacht haben. 私は、世界的に有名な事業運営を受け、それらをほとんど無価値にした人々について話しています。 ฉันกำลังพูดถึงคนที่ทำธุรกิจที่มีชื่อเสียงระดับโลกและทำให้พวกเขาแทบไร้ค่า Dünyaca ünlü iş operasyonları alan ve onları neredeyse değersiz yapan insanlardan bahsediyorum. 我说的是从事世界知名业务并使其几乎一文不值的人。 What's remarkable is that the individuals who possess the personal qualities that make this magnitude of destruction possible usually possess other, genuinely admirable qualities. Bemerkenswert ist, dass die Personen, die die persönlichen Qualitäten besitzen, die dieses Ausmaß der Zerstörung möglich machen, normalerweise andere, wirklich bewundernswerte Eigenschaften besitzen. 注目に値するのは、この規模の破壊を可能にする個人的な資質を持つ個人は、通常、他の真に賞賛に値する資質を持つということです。 Kayda değer olan, bu yıkım büyüklüğünü mümkün kılan kişisel özelliklere sahip bireylerin genellikle başka, gerçekten takdir edilebilir niteliklere sahip olmalarıdır. 值得注意的是,拥有使这种破坏程度成为可能的个人特质的人通常还具有其他真正令人钦佩的特质。 It makes sense: Hardly anyone gets a chance to destroy so much value without demonstrating the potential for creating it. Es macht Sinn: Kaum jemand bekommt die Chance, so viel Wert zu vernichten, ohne das Potenzial zu dessen Schaffung aufzuzeigen. それは理にかなっています:誰もそれを作成するための可能性を実証せずにそんなに多くの価値を破壊する機会を得ることができません。 Mantıklı: Neredeyse hiç kimse, yaratma potansiyelini göstermeden çok fazla değeri yok etme şansına sahip değil. 这是有道理的:几乎没有人有机会在不证明创造价值的潜力的情况下破坏这么多的价值。 Most of the great destroyers of value are people of unusual intelligence and talent who display personal magnetism. Die meisten der großen Wertvernichter sind Menschen mit ungewöhnlicher Intelligenz und Talent, die eine persönliche Anziehungskraft zeigen. بیشترین ویرانگران بزرگ ارزش ، افرادی با هوش و استعداد غیرمعمول هستند که جذابیت شخصی را از خود نشان می دهند. 価値のある偉大な駆逐艦のほとんどは、個人的な磁気を示す異常な知性と才能を持つ人々です。 Değerin büyük yıkıcılarının çoğu, alışılmadık zeka ve kişisel manyetizmi sergileyen yetenekli insanlardır. 大多数有价值的破坏者都是具有非凡智慧和才华的人,这些人表现出个人的吸引力。 They are the leaders who appear on the seven habits of spectacularly unsuccessful executives covers of Fortune and Forbes. Sie sind die Führer, die auf den sieben Gewohnheiten spektakulär erfolgloser Führungskräfte von Fortune und Forbes auftauchen. They are the leaders who appear on the seven habits of spectacularly unsuccessful executives covers of Fortune and Forbes. آنها رهبرانی هستند که در هفت عادت جلوه ای غیر قابل قبول از مدیران موفقیت آمیز Fortune و Forbes ظاهر می شوند. 彼らは、フォーチュンとフォーブスの壮大に失敗したエグゼクティブカバーの7つの習慣に現れるリーダーです。 Bunlar, Fortune ve Forbes'in olağanüstü başarısız başarısız yöneticilerinin yedi alışkanlığı üzerinde ortaya çıkan liderlerdir. 他们是出现在《财富》(Fortune)和《福布斯》(Forbes)失败的高管掩盖的七个习惯上的领导人。

Still, when it comes to the crunch, these people fail - and fail monumentally. Dennoch, wenn es um die Krise geht, scheitern diese Leute - und scheitern monumental. ובכל זאת, כשזה מגיע למשבר, האנשים האלה נכשלים - ונכשלים באופן מונומנטלי. それでも、それがクランチになると、これらの人々は失敗します - そして記念碑的に失敗します。 Yine de, bu krize gelince, bu insanlar başarısız olur - ve anıtsal olarak başarısız olur. 尽管如此,在紧要关头,这些人失败了,而且失败了。 What's the secret of their destructive powers? Was ist das Geheimnis ihrer zerstörerischen Kräfte? Yıkıcı güçlerinin sırrı nedir? 他们破坏力的秘密是什么? After spending six years studying more than 50 companies and conducting some 200 interviews, I found that spectacularly unsuccessful people had seven characteristics in common. Nachdem ich sechs Jahre lang mehr als 50 Unternehmen studiert und etwa 200 Interviews geführt hatte, stellte ich fest, dass spektakulär erfolglose Menschen sieben gemeinsame Merkmale hatten. Etter å ha brukt seks år på å studere mer enn 50 selskaper og gjennomføre rundt 200 intervjuer, fant jeg ut at spektakulært mislykkede mennesker hadde syv egenskaper til felles. Altı yıl boyunca 50'den fazla şirket okuyarak ve yaklaşık 200 görüşme yaptıktan sonra, olağanüstü derecede başarısız olan kişilerin ortak yedi özelliği olduğunu gördüm. 在花了六年时间研究了50多家公司并进行了约200次采访之后,我发现,失败的人有着七个共同的特征。 Nearly all of the leaders who preside over major business failures exhibit four or five of these habits. Fast alle Führungskräfte, die größere geschäftliche Misserfolge leiten, weisen vier oder fünf dieser Gewohnheiten auf. 重大な事業の失敗を統括するリーダーのほぼ全員が、これらの習慣のうち4つか5つを示しています。 Neredeyse büyük iş başarısızlıklarına bakan liderlerin tümü bu alışkanlıkların dördünü ya da beşini sergiliyor. 主持重大企业倒闭的几乎所有领导者都表现出其中的四种或五种习惯。 The truly gifted ones exhibit all seven. Die wirklich Begabten stellen alle sieben aus. Gerçekten yetenekli olanlar yediyi de sergilerler. 真正有天赋的人展示了全部七个。 But here's what's really remarkable: Each of these seven habits represents a quality that is widely admired in the business world. Aber das ist wirklich bemerkenswert: Jede dieser sieben Gewohnheiten repräsentiert eine Qualität, die in der Geschäftswelt weithin bewundert wird. しかし、これが本当に注目すべきことです。これら7つの習慣はそれぞれ、ビジネスの世界で広く賞賛されている品質を表しています。 Men her er det som er virkelig bemerkelsesverdig: Hver av disse syv vanene representerer en kvalitet som er beundret i næringslivet. Ancak işte gerçekten dikkat çekici olan: Bu yedi alışkanlığın her biri, iş dünyasında yaygın olarak takdir edilen bir niteliği temsil ediyor. 但是,真正的卓越之处在于:这七个习惯中的每一个都代表着一种在商业世界中广受推崇的品质。 Business not only tolerates the qualities that make these leaders spectacularly unsuccessful, it celebrates them. Das Geschäft toleriert nicht nur die Eigenschaften, die diese Führungskräfte spektakulär erfolglos machen, sondern feiert sie auch. ビジネスはこれらのリーダーを見事に失敗させる資質を容認するだけでなく、それを称えます。 İş dünyası bu liderleri olağanüstü başarısız kılan niteliklere müsamaha göstermez, onları kutlar. 商业不仅容忍使这些领导者极为失败的素质,而且还向他们表示敬意。

Here, then, are seven habits of spectacularly unsuccessful people, along with some warning signs to look out for. Hier sind also sieben Gewohnheiten spektakulär erfolgloser Menschen sowie einige Warnzeichen, auf die Sie achten müssen. それで、ここで、壮観に失敗した人々の7つの習慣は、注意するべきいくつかの警告サインと共にあります。 İşte, o zaman, göze çarpan bazı uyarı işaretleri ile birlikte, olağanüstü derecede başarısız insanların yedi alışkanlığı. These habits are most destructive when a CEO exhibits them, but any manager who has these habits can do terrible harm-including you. Diese Gewohnheiten sind am zerstörerischsten, wenn ein CEO sie zeigt, aber jeder Manager, der diese Gewohnheiten hat, kann schrecklichen Schaden anrichten – einschließlich Ihnen. Disse vanene er mest ødeleggende når en administrerende direktør viser dem, men enhver leder som har disse vanene kan gjøre forferdelig skade - inkludert deg. Bu alışkanlıklar, bir CEO onları sergilediğinde en yıkıcıdır, ancak bu alışkanlıkları olan herhangi bir yönetici sizin de dahil olmak üzere çok büyük zararlar verebilir. 当首席执行官展示这些习惯时,这些习惯最具破坏性,但是任何具有这些习惯的经理都可能造成可怕的伤害,包括您在内。 Study them. Studiere sie. Onları inceleyin. Learn to recognize them. Lerne sie zu erkennen. それらを認識することを学びなさい。 Onları tanımayı öğrenin. And try to catch these red flags before spectacular failure finds you! Und versuchen Sie, diese roten Fahnen zu fangen, bevor Sie ein spektakulärer Misserfolg findet! Ve muhteşem başarısızlık sizi bulana dek bu kırmızı bayrakları yakalamaya çalışın!

Habit # 1: They see themselves and their companies as dominating their environment. Gewohnheit Nr. 1: Sie sehen sich und ihre Unternehmen als dominierend für ihre Umwelt. 習慣#1:彼らは彼ら自身と彼らの会社が彼らの環境を支配しているとみなします。 Alışkanlık # 1: Kendilerini ve şirketlerini çevrelerine hâkim olduklarını düşünüyorlar. 习惯1:他们认为自己和他们的公司主导着环境。

This first habit may be the most insidious, since it appears to be highly desirable. Diese erste Angewohnheit mag die heimtückischste sein, da sie höchst wünschenswert erscheint. Эта первая привычка может быть самой коварной, поскольку она кажется очень желательной. Bu ilk alışkanlık en sinsi olabilir, çünkü oldukça çekici görünmektedir. 第一个习惯可能是最阴险的,因为它似乎是非常可取的。 Shouldn't a company try to dominate its business environment, shape the future of its markets and set the pace within them? Sollte ein Unternehmen nicht versuchen, sein Geschäftsumfeld zu dominieren, die Zukunft seiner Märkte zu gestalten und das Tempo in ihnen zu bestimmen? 企業は、ビジネス環境を支配し、市場の将来を形成し、その範囲内でペースを設定しようとしないでください。 Bir şirket iş ortamına hükmetmeye, pazarlarının geleceğini şekillendirmeye ve onların içine girmeye çalışmasın mı? 公司不应该尝试主导其商业环境,塑造其市场的未来并确定其步伐吗? Yes, but there's a catch. Ja, aber es gibt einen Haken. Evet, ama bir avlanma var. Unlike successful leaders, failed leaders who never question their dominance fail to realize they are at the mercy of changing circumstances. Im Gegensatz zu erfolgreichen Führungskräften erkennen gescheiterte Führungskräfte, die ihre Dominanz niemals in Frage stellen, nicht, dass sie den sich ändernden Umständen ausgeliefert sind. 成功したリーダーとは異なり、自分の優位性に疑問を投げかけることのない失敗したリーダーは、自分たちが状況の変化にmer merされていることに気づきません。 Başarılı liderlerin aksine, hâkimiyetlerini asla sorgulamayan başarısız liderler, değişen koşulların insafına olduklarını anlamadılar. 与成功的领导者不同,从未质疑自己的支配地位的失败的领导者不会意识到自己受变化的环境所左右。 They vastly overestimate the extent to which they actually control events and vastly underestimate the role of chance and circumstance in their success. Sie überschätzen das Ausmaß, in dem sie Ereignisse tatsächlich kontrollieren, bei weitem und unterschätzen die Rolle von Zufall und Umständen für ihren Erfolg bei weitem. 彼らは実際にイベントをコントロールしている程度を非常に過大評価しており、成功の機会と状況の役割を非常に過小評価しています。 Olayları gerçekte ne ölçüde kontrol ettiklerini çok fazla abartıyorlar ve başarılarında şans ve durumun rolünü büyük ölçüde küçümsüyorlar. 他们极大地高估了他们实际控制事件的程度,而极大地低估了机会和环境在成功中的作用。

CEOs who fall prey to this belief suffer from the illusion of personal preeminence: Like certain film directors, they see themselves as the auteurs of their companies. CEOs, die diesem Glauben zum Opfer fallen, leiden unter der Illusion persönlicher Vorrangstellung: Wie bestimmte Filmregisseure verstehen sie sich als Autoren ihrer Unternehmen. Bu inancı avlayan CEO'lar kişisel önyargı yanılsamasından muzdarip: Bazı film yönetmenleri gibi, kendilerini şirketlerinin auteurleri olarak görüyorlar. 被这种信念pre绕的CEO会遭受个人卓越的幻觉:像某些电影导演一样,他们将自己视为公司的创始者。 As far as they're concerned, everyone else in the company is there to execute their personal vision for the company. Alle anderen im Unternehmen sind für sie da, um ihre persönliche Vision für das Unternehmen umzusetzen. 彼らが懸念している限りでは、会社の他の誰もが会社に対する彼らの個人的なビジョンを実行するためにそこにいます。 İlgili oldukları sürece, şirketteki herkes şirket için kişisel vizyonunu uygulamak için oradadır. 就他们而言,公司中的其他所有人都在执行对公司的个人愿景。 Samsung's CEO Kun-Hee Lee was so successful with electronics that he thought he could repeat this success with automobiles. Samsungs CEO Kun-Hee Lee war mit Elektronik so erfolgreich, dass er glaubte, diesen Erfolg mit Automobilen wiederholen zu können. サムソンの最高経営責任者(CEO)であるクンヒ・リーは、エレクトロニクスで非常に成功していたので、彼は自動車でもこの成功を繰り返すことができると考えた。 Samsung'un CEO'su Kun-Hee Lee elektronik konusunda o kadar başarılıydı ki, bu başarısını otomobillerle tekrarlayabileceğini düşünüyordu. 三星的首席执行官李坤熙在电子产品方面是如此成功,以至于他认为自己可以在汽车领域重蹈覆辙。 He invested $5 billion in an already oversaturated auto market. Çoktan doygun bir oto pazarına 5 milyar dolar yatırım yaptı. 他在已经饱和的汽车市场投资了50亿美元。 Why? There was no business case. Es gab keinen Business Case. ビジネスケースはありませんでした。 İş vakası yoktu. Lee simply loved cars and had dreamed of being in the auto business. Lee liebte Autos einfach und hatte davon geträumt, im Autogeschäft zu sein. Lee arabaları çok severdi ve otomobil işinde olmayı hayal etmişti.

Warning Sign: A lack of respect. Warnzeichen: Mangel an Respekt. 警告サイン:尊敬の欠如。 Uyarı Levhası: Saygısızlık. 警告标志:缺乏尊重。

Leaders who suffer from the illusion of personal preeminence tend to believe that their companies are indispensable to their suppliers and customers. Führungskräfte, die unter der Illusion persönlicher Überlegenheit leiden, neigen dazu zu glauben, dass ihre Unternehmen für ihre Lieferanten und Kunden unverzichtbar sind. 個人的な卓越性の幻想に苦しむリーダーは、彼らの会社が彼らの供給業者と顧客にとって不可欠であると信じる傾向があります。 Kişisel üstünlük yanılsaması çeken liderler, şirketlerinin tedarikçilerine ve müşterilerine vazgeçilmez olduğuna inanma eğilimindedir. 遭受个人卓越幻想的领导者倾向于认为,他们的公司对于他们的供应商和客户是必不可少的。 Rather than looking to satisfy customer needs, CEOs who believe they run pre-eminent companies act as if their customers were the lucky ones. Anstatt die Bedürfnisse der Kunden zu befriedigen, tun CEOs, die glauben, herausragende Unternehmen zu führen, so, als wären ihre Kunden die Glücklichen. 顧客のニーズを満たすのではなく、優れた企業を経営していると信じるCEOは、あたかも自分の顧客がラッキーな企業であるかのように行動します。 Müşteri ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak yerine, önde gelen şirketleri yönettiğini düşünen CEO'lar müşterileri şanslı gibi davranıyor. When asked how Johnson & Johnson lost its seemingly insurmountable lead in the medical stent business, cardiologists and hospital administrators pointed to the company's arrogance and lack of respect for customers' ideas. Auf die Frage, wie Johnson & Johnson seinen scheinbar uneinholbaren Vorsprung im Geschäft mit medizinischen Stents verlor, wiesen Kardiologen und Krankenhausverwalter auf die Arroganz und den mangelnden Respekt des Unternehmens gegenüber den Ideen der Kunden hin. Johnson & Johnson'ın tıbbi stent işinde görünüşte anlaşılmaz liderliğini nasıl kaybettiği sorulduğunda, kardiyoloji uzmanları ve hastane yöneticileri şirketin kibirli olduğuna ve müşterilerin fikirlerine saygı duymadığına dikkat çekti. 当被问及强生如何在医疗支架业务中失去看似无法克服的领先优势时,心脏病专家和医院管理员指出了该公司的傲慢和对客户想法的尊重。 Motorola exhibited the same arrogance when it continued to build fancy analogue phones, rather than the digital variety its customers were clamouring for. Motorola zeigte die gleiche Arroganz, als es weiterhin schicke analoge Telefone baute, anstatt die digitale Vielfalt, nach der seine Kunden verlangten. Motorolaは、顧客が要求していたデジタルの多様性ではなく、ファンシーなアナログ電話を構築し続けたときに同じ傲慢さを示しました。 Motorola utstilte den samme arrogansen da den fortsatte å bygge fancy analoge telefoner, i stedet for den digitale sorten som kundene hans kjempet for. Motorola, müşterileriyle uğraştığı dijital çeşitlilik yerine, fantezi analog telefonlar üretmeye devam ederken aynı kibirleri sergiledi. 当摩托罗拉继续制造高档模拟电话时,摩托罗拉表现出同样的傲慢,而不是客户所要求的数字产品。

Habit #2: They identify so completely with the company that there is no clear boundary between their personal interests and their corporation's interests Like the first habit, this one seems innocuous, perhaps even beneficial. Gewohnheit Nr. 2: Sie identifizieren sich so vollständig mit dem Unternehmen, dass es keine klare Grenze zwischen ihren persönlichen Interessen und den Interessen ihres Unternehmens gibt. Wie die erste Gewohnheit scheint diese harmlos, vielleicht sogar vorteilhaft. Alışkanlık # 2: Şirketle o kadar tamamen özdeşleşiyor ki, kişisel çıkarlarıyla şirket çıkarları arasında net bir sınır yok. İlk alışkanlık gibi, bu da zararsız, hatta belki de faydalı görünüyor. 习惯2:他们与公司的认同是如此之深,以至于他们的个人利益与公司利益之间没有明确的界限,就像惯常的习惯一样,这似乎无害,甚至有益。 We want business leaders to be completely committed to their companies, with their interests tightly aligned with those of the company. Wir wollen, dass Führungskräfte sich voll und ganz für ihre Unternehmen einsetzen und ihre Interessen eng mit denen des Unternehmens in Einklang bringen. 私たちは、ビジネスリーダーが彼らの会社に完全に尽力し、彼らの利益が会社の利益と密接に一致していることを望みます。 İş liderlerinin, şirketleriyle sıkı sıkıya bağlı olarak şirketlerine tamamen bağlı olmalarını istiyoruz. 我们希望业务领导者完全致力于他们的公司,并使他们的利益与公司的利益紧密结合。 But digging deeper, you find that failed executives weren't identifying too little with the company, but rather too much. Aber wenn man genauer hinschaut, stellt man fest, dass sich gescheiterte Führungskräfte nicht zu wenig, sondern zu sehr mit dem Unternehmen identifizierten. しかし、さらに深く掘り下げていくと、失敗した幹部が会社を特定することは少なすぎず、多すぎることがわかります。 Ancak daha derine inerek, başarısız yöneticilerin şirketle çok az özdeşleştiğini değil, çok fazla olduğunu tespit ettiniz. Instead of treating companies as enterprises that they needed to nurture, failed leaders treated them as extensions of themselves. Anstatt Unternehmen als Unternehmen zu behandeln, die sie fördern mussten, behandelten gescheiterte Führungskräfte sie als Erweiterung ihrer selbst. Şirketlere, büyümek için ihtiyaç duydukları işletmeler gibi davranmak yerine, başarısız liderler kendilerine uzantıları olarak davrandı. 失败的领导者没有将公司视为需要培育的企业,而是将其视为自身的延伸。 And with that, a "private empire" mentality took hold. ومع ذلك ، أخذت عقلية "الإمبراطورية الخاصة". Und damit setzte sich eine "Privatimperium" -Mentalität durch. Ve bununla birlikte, bir "özel imparatorluk" zihniyeti tutundu.

CEOs who possess this outlook often use their companies to carry out personal ambitions. CEOs, die diese Einstellung haben, nutzen ihre Unternehmen häufig, um persönliche Ambitionen zu verwirklichen. Bu görüşe sahip CEO'lar şirketlerini kişisel emelleri yerine getirmek için sıklıkla kullanırlar. 拥有这种观点的首席执行官通常会利用他们的公司来实现个人抱负。 The most slippery slope of all for these executives is their tendency to use corporate funds for personal reasons. Der schlüpfrigste Hang für diese Führungskräfte ist ihre Tendenz, Unternehmensmittel aus persönlichen Gründen zu verwenden. Tüm bu yöneticiler için en kaygan eğim, kişisel fonlar için kurumsal fon kullanma eğilimleridir. 对于这些高管而言,最艰难的是他们出于个人原因动用公司资金的趋势。 CEOs who have a long or impressive track record may come to feel that they've made so much money for the company that the expenditures they make on themselves, even if extravagant, are trivial by comparison. CEOs mit einer langen oder beeindruckenden Erfolgsbilanz haben möglicherweise das Gefühl, dass sie so viel Geld für das Unternehmen verdient haben, dass die Ausgaben, die sie für sich selbst tätigen, auch wenn sie extravagant sind, im Vergleich dazu trivial sind. 長いまたは印象的な実績を持つCEOは、会社のために多額のお金を稼いだので、たとえ贅沢であっても、自分たちの支出は取るに足らないものだと感じるようになるかもしれません。 Uzun veya etkileyici bir sicile sahip olan CEO'lar, şirket için o kadar çok para kazandıklarını hissedebilirler ki, kendilerine yaptıkları harcamalar, abartılı olsalar bile, karşılaştırmalı olarak önemsizdir. 拥有悠久或骄人业绩的CEO可能会感觉到自己为公司赚了这么多钱,以至于他们自己付出的支出,即使是奢侈的,相比之下都是微不足道的。 This twisted logic seems to have been one of the factors that shaped the behaviour of Dennis Kozlowski of Tyco. Diese verdrehte Logik scheint einer der Faktoren gewesen zu sein, die das Verhalten von Dennis Kozlowski von Tyco geprägt haben. このねじれた論理は、TycoのDennisKozlowskiの行動を形作った要因の1つだったようです。 Bu çarpık mantık, Tyco'lu Dennis Kozlowski'nin davranışını şekillendiren faktörlerden biri gibi görünüyor. His pride in his company and his pride in his own extravagance seem to have reinforced each other. Sein Stolz auf seine Gesellschaft und sein Stolz auf seine eigene Extravaganz scheinen sich gegenseitig verstärkt zu haben. 彼の会社に対する彼のプライドと彼自身の贅沢に対する彼のプライドはお互いを強化したようです。 Şirketindeki gururu ve kendi savurganlığındaki gururu birbirini pekiştirmiş görünüyor. 他对自己的公司的骄傲和对自己的奢侈的骄傲似乎相互加强了。 This is why he could sound so sincere making speeches about ethics while using corporate funds for personal purposes. Aus diesem Grund konnte er so aufrichtig klingen, wenn er Reden über Ethik hielt, während er Unternehmensgelder für persönliche Zwecke verwendete. これが彼が個人的な目的のために企業資金を使っている間倫理についてスピーチをしてとても誠実に話すことができる理由です。 Bu nedenle kişisel amaçlar için kurumsal fonlar kullanırken etik konusunda çok samimi konuşmalar yapabiliyordu. 这就是为什么他在将公司资金用于个人目的时听起来如此真诚地发表有关道德的演讲的原因。 Being the CEO of a sizable corporation today is probably the closest thing to being king of your own country, and that's a dangerous title to assume. CEO eines großen Unternehmens zu sein, kommt heute wahrscheinlich dem König des eigenen Landes am nächsten, und das ist ein gefährlicher Titel. 今日のかなりの規模の企業の最高経営責任者であることは、おそらくあなた自身の国の王であることに最も近いものであり、それは想定するのは危険な称号です。 Bugün oldukça büyük bir şirketin CEO'su olmak muhtemelen kendi ülkenizin kralı olmak için en yakın şeydir ve bu varsayılması tehlikeli bir ünvandır.

Warning Sign: A question of character 警告サイン:性格の質問 Uyarı Levhası: Bir karakter sorusu

When it comes right down to it, the biggest warning sign of CEO failure is a question of character. Wenn es darauf ankommt, ist das größte Warnsignal für das Scheitern des CEO eine Frage des Charakters. それがすぐにそれに来るとき、CEOの失敗の最大の警告サインは人格の問題です。 Hemen aşağı doğru geldiğinde, CEO başarısızlığının en büyük uyarı işareti bir karakter sorunudur. We might want to believe that leaders at companies like Adelphia, Tyco and ImClone were trustworthy stewards of those companies, but their behaviour suggests otherwise. Wir möchten vielleicht glauben, dass Führungskräfte in Unternehmen wie Adelphia, Tyco und ImClone vertrauenswürdige Verwalter dieser Unternehmen waren, aber ihr Verhalten legt etwas anderes nahe. Adelphia、Tyco、ImCloneなどの企業のリーダーはこれらの企業の信頼できる管理者であったと信じたいかもしれませんが、そうでない場合はその行動が示唆されます。 Adelphia, Tyco ve ImClone gibi şirketlerdeki liderlerin bu şirketlerin güvenilir müşterileri olduğuna inanmak isteyebiliriz, ancak davranışları aksi belirtiliyor. 我们可能想相信,像Adelphia,Tyco和ImClone这样的公司的领导者是这些公司的值得信赖的管家,但他们的行为却暗示了这一点。 But questions about character need not be limited to dubious or unethical acts. Fragen zum Charakter müssen sich jedoch nicht auf zweifelhafte oder unethische Handlungen beschränken. しかし、性格についての質問は、疑わしい行為や非倫理的な行為に限定される必要はありません。 Ancak karakter hakkındaki soruların şüpheli veya etik dışı davranışlarla sınırlı olması gerekmez. 但是有关品格的问题不必局限于可疑或不道德的行为。 In fact, most leaders I studied were scrupulously honest. Tatsächlich waren die meisten Führungskräfte, die ich studierte, gewissenhaft ehrlich. Valójában a legtöbb vezető, akit tanultam, szigorúan őszinte volt. 事実、私が勉強したリーダーの大部分は慎重に正直でした。 Aslında, çalıştığım liderlerin çoğu titizlikle dürüsttü. 实际上,我研究过的大多数领导者都是诚实的。 Rather, it is denial and defensiveness that are the critical warning signs. Vielmehr sind Verleugnung und Abwehr die kritischen Warnsignale. A kritikus figyelmeztető jelek inkább a tagadás és a védekezés. そうではなく、重大な警告サインは否定と防御です。 Snarere er det fornektelse og forsvarsevne som er de kritiske advarseltegnene. Aksine, kritik uyarı işaretleri olan inkar ve savunuculuktur. 相反,关键的警告信号是否认和防御。 As Tony Galban, a D&O underwriter at Chubb, told me, "Always listen to the analysts' calls because that gives you a sense of how an individual thinks on their feet. Wie Tony Galban, ein D&O-Underwriter bei Chubb, mir sagte: „Hören Sie immer auf die Anrufe der Analysten, denn das gibt Ihnen ein Gefühl dafür, wie eine Person auf die Beine kommt. Mint Tony Galban, a Chubb D&O biztosítója azt mondta: "Mindig hallgassa meg az elemzők hívásait, mert ez megérti, hogyan gondolkodik az egyén a lábán. ChubbのD&O引受会社であるTony Galbanが私に言ったように、「アナリストの声に常に耳を傾けてください。 Chubb'da bir D&O şirketi olan Tony Galban'ın bana söylediği gibi, "Her zaman analistlerin çağrılarını dinleyiniz çünkü bu size bir bireyin ayakları hakkında ne düşündüğünü anlamanızı sağlar. They give you a sense of whether they're in denial or whether they're being professional." Sie geben Ihnen ein Gefühl dafür, ob sie in Ablehnung sind oder ob sie professionell sind. " Megtalálják, hogy tagadják-e, vagy profiak-e. " 彼らはあなたが彼らが否定しているのか、それとも彼らがプロの仕事をしているのかという感覚をあなたに与えます。」 Size inkar olup olmadıklarına veya profesyonel olmalarına dair bir fikir veriyorlar. 他们让您了解他们是拒绝还是专业。” It gets down to this: Do you really trust this person? Es kommt darauf an: Vertraust du dieser Person wirklich? それはこれに降りる:あなたは本当にこの人を信頼していますか? Bu aşağıya iniyor: Bu kişiye gerçekten güveniyor musunuz?