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Steve's Language Learning Tips, Why do some people struggle to learn languages?

Why do some people struggle to learn languages?

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here.

Today I would like to talk about why I think so many people have trouble learning languages. Now, many of you have heard me say before that the three keys to language learning are motivation, the time you spend with the language, not necessarily in class, but with the language, listening, reading, talking, and the third thing is the ability to notice what's happening in the language, which is a skill that we acquire the more time we spend learning languages.

So someone who isn't motivated and isn't going to spend the time, they're not going to learn and they won't develop the ability to notice.

That's fine. But there are many people who are motivated, who do spend the time but don't succeed. Why is that? They sort of abandon in frustration, so I've given this quite a bit of thought. Here I am at age 67 and I'm having a great time learning languages, communicating with people in different languages and I have the goal of learning even more languages. I'm having a blast, yet I hear from people who are learning their first language or their second language and are completely frustrated.

What is the problem?

Well, I think one major issue is that people who haven't learned a second language, who have never become fluent in a second language don't believe they can do it. They've never done it before. They've never experienced it before. It's a bit like trying to climb a mountain if you don't believe you're going to reach the top of the mountain. So I think that is one of the major reasons people just haven't done it before. They don't have the confidence they can do it. They don't know how to do it. There are a lot of things about language learning they don't realize. They don't realize that you're going to forget what you learned. You have to keep learning and forgetting it and learning it and that that should not be a cause for frustration.

People get frustrated that they make mistakes.

People get frustrated that they didn't learn that lesson and nail it down, but it's impossible to do that. These are things that I tell people, but they don't accept. They seem to feel if they put all that effort into learning and memorizing that somehow these things should stick with them, that they should be able to understand, that they should be able to use these words, that they should be able to get their tenses right and, of course, you can't.

I think people who have experience with learning languages are used to the idea that it's a gradual process of getting used to the language.

People who haven't want to see results. They want to be able to say something and they want to be able to say it correctly. Maybe it's our school system that makes us think along these lines, that because we study something we should learn it. Maybe there are things, you know if you're studying for a test in Physics you've got to try to remember those things for the test and you have to try and understand the concept and so forth, whereas language is different. Even if you understand the concept, you still won't be able to necessarily use it correctly and you won't understand it when you listen time and time again.

So I think this is a very important concept, that language is a matter of getting used to.

This is really an approach to learning which is in some ways quite oriental. Even though in places like Japan, China and Korea they're very much into sort of the teacher or the professor or the master will teach me, in fact, if we look at their traditions, if we look at sort of the Zen tradition, if we look at _ in Chinese philosophy, if we look at some of the approaches to craftsmanship in Japan, it's very much a matter of watching people and learning and , as they say in Japanese, getting used to something.

It's not learning it theoretically from a book.

It's gradually getting used to it, that it sort of layers on to you and with each layer certain things become clear and because these things become clear some other things become clear. But you have to have the confidence that this process, this layering process, this exposing yourself to the language is going to lead to your desired result because if you don't have that confidence then I guess it can be a frustrating experience.

So I think the question then is someone who hasn't had the experience of learning a language, if that's the obstacle, how do you overcome it?

It's kind of like a catch-22. You can't achieve that sense of transforming yourself into someone who can become fluent in another language until you do it. So you kind of have to have that leap of faith that you can do it, anyone can do it. Now, granted, the more languages you learn, as in my case, I've learned a number of languages, so not only have I gotten used to different languages, I've gotten used to learning. I've developed my techniques of learning. People who have learned a number of languages, therefore, have become accustomed to the process, have developed their own techniques and so forth and so on.

So what do you do with that beginner learner, the person who is learning their first new language?

Well, it's a matter of having confidence that you can do it because others have done it, others in different countries, different cultural backgrounds, different ages. It's not a matter of having some unique talent. If you go to Sweden, they all do it and they don't all have some special gene. Anyone can do it at whatever age, so you have to accept that.

I think the other thing is to do things that are enjoyable so that the frustration of forgetting, the frustration of making mistakes, the frustration of feeling that you're very clumsy when you speak, that those things don't become the dominant experience.

You have to do things that are enjoyable so that the enjoyable aspect of language learning becomes the dominant experience so that you put in the time, that you get enough exposure, that you become accustomed to a language.

What are those enjoyable experiences?

That depends on each person. For me, as I've said many times, it's listening to things of interest. It's discovering Romania through _, discovery Czech history through _ or discovering Russia through Ekho Moskvy, reading about it, reading about the history of the country. That, to me, is enjoyable. Other people want to get out and speak early, fine. I don't, for example, do grammar exercises because I don't find them enjoyable. Some people may find them enjoyable.

If you can focus on doing things you enjoy so that the journey itself is enjoyable, if you can accept the fact that implied in language learning is forgetting, is making mistakes, is being clumsy, is not understanding and that it's just the process of exposing yourself rather than trying to nail down a table of declensions of endings or conjugations, but rather if you spend the time with the language, gradually, your brain will get used to it and your ability to notice things will improve.

In my sort of trichotomy there of motivation, everyone understands that, yes, motivation.

You've got to like the language. You've got to be determined. You've got to think you can do it. You can't resist the language. People understand that. Spend the time, they understand that. You've got to spend an hour or two a day, that everyone understands. But learning to notice, people don't seem to understand.

I've had it happen to me so many times that I don't notice certain things in the language.

Take the third person singular in the present tense in English, people are told you have an ‘s' there. It's I go, you go, he goes. People say yeah, yeah, I understand and then they kind of don't really pay attention when they hear the language.

The pronunciation, I've used the example many times of people who rely on how words are pronounced or how certain spellings are pronounced in their own language so a word becomes ‘ward'.

Well, they aren't listening. They aren't paying attention. They aren't noticing. The more you learn languages, the more you learn a particular language, the more experience you have with the language you start to notice better. These are all forms of experience that you gradually accumulate.

So a lot of people experience frustration in language learning because they have never achieved success in language learning.

But success breeds success and once you've done it once and you've realized that objective of becoming fluent in another language and you realize how wonderful it is to do that, then you have the confidence that you can do it again. Success breeds success.

Some people stay within the comfort of certain language families, romance languages or European languages, but I think the same applies to learning a language from a completely different language group, say Chinese or Japanese or Arabic.

At first people are, again, intimidated because they haven't done it before, but once they do it and they've achieved that sense of success then they know they can do it.

I guess the message here is for those of you who do experience frustration in your language learning, you have to stay the course.

Find ways to enjoy it. Find some way to climb that first mountain. Once you have climbed that first mountain, then you look out and you see all the other peaks and you know that you can climb any of those other peaks because you've already done it. The hardest one is the first one. So I hope that that is in some way motivating.

I should say one more thing, by the way.

I've made a lot of videos now in English. If you would like to hear a video in another language, please let me know. But I want to do these for speakers of those languages. I don't want to just sort of demonstrate Romanian or something. If someone feels that they are following me in English but don't fully understand and would like to hear it in Japanese, French, Spanish, Portuguese or some other language, please let me know.

I will make mistakes when I do these in other languages, perhaps fewer mistakes in French of Japanese and many mistakes in Russian or Portuguese, but I'm happy to do them with mistakes.

If I say that it's important to accept the fact that we make mistakes when we speak foreign languages, I have to accept the fact that I'm going to make mistakes. I don't mind showing my mistakes to other people; it's all part of the process.

So I look forward to hearing from you.

You can ask me here or you can send me a message by Twitter. However you want Lingo Steve and I'd be happy to answer the questions or if you have a special request to hear some of my views on language learning in other languages, please let me know.

Thank you for listening, bye for now.


Why do some people struggle to learn languages? Warum fällt es manchen Menschen schwer, Sprachen zu lernen? Why do some people struggle to learn languages? ¿Por qué algunas personas tienen dificultades para aprender idiomas? Pourquoi certaines personnes ont-elles du mal à apprendre les langues ? Perché alcune persone fanno fatica a imparare le lingue? なぜ、語学の習得に苦労する人がいるのか? 왜 어떤 사람들은 언어를 배우는 데 어려움을 겪을까요? Dlaczego niektórzy ludzie mają trudności z nauką języków? Porque é que algumas pessoas têm dificuldade em aprender línguas? Почему некоторые люди с трудом осваивают языки? Varför har vissa människor svårt att lära sig språk? Neden bazı insanlar dil öğrenmekte zorlanır? Чому деяким людям важко дається вивчення мов? 为什么有些人很难学习语言? 為什麼有些人很難學習語言?

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. Hola, Steve Kaufmann aquí. Salve, qui Steve Kaufmann. Merhaba, ben Steve Kaufmann.

Today I would like to talk about why I think so many people have trouble learning languages. Oggi vorrei parlare del motivo per cui penso che così tante persone abbiano difficoltà ad imparare le lingue. 今日は、なぜこんなに多くの人が言語を学ぶのが難しいと思うのかお話したいと思います。 Bugün neden bu kadar çok insanın dil öğrenmekte zorlandığını düşündüğümden bahsetmek istiyorum. Now, many of you have heard me say before that the three keys to language learning are motivation, the time you spend with the language, not necessarily in class, but with the language, listening, reading, talking, and the third thing is the ability to notice what's happening in the language, which is a skill that we acquire the more time we spend learning languages. Много от вас са ме чували да казвам, че трите ключа към изучаването на езика са мотивацията, времето, което прекарвате с езика, не непременно в клас, а с езика, слушайки, четейки, говорейки, и третото нещо е способността да забелязвате какво се случва в езика, което е умение, което придобиваме, колкото повече време прекарваме в изучаване на езици. Mnozí z vás mě už slyšeli říkat, že tři klíče ke studiu jazyků jsou motivace, čas, který s jazykem strávíte, ne nutně ve třídě, ale s jazykem, posloucháním, čtením, mluvením, a třetí věcí je schopnost vnímat, co se děje v jazyce, což je dovednost, kterou získáváme, čím více času trávíme učením jazyků. Nun, viele von Ihnen haben mich schon einmal sagen hören, dass die drei Schlüssel zum Sprachenlernen Motivation sind, die Zeit, die Sie mit der Sprache verbringen, nicht unbedingt im Unterricht, aber mit der Sprache, Hören, Lesen, Sprechen, und das dritte ist die Fähigkeit zu bemerken, was in der Sprache passiert, eine Fähigkeit, die wir erwerben, je mehr Zeit wir damit verbringen, Sprachen zu lernen. Ora, molti di voi mi hanno già sentito dire che le tre chiavi per l'apprendimento delle lingue sono la motivazione, il tempo che si trascorre con la lingua, non necessariamente in classe, ma con la lingua, l'ascolto, la lettura, la conversazione, e la terza cosa è la capacità di notare cosa sta succedendo nella lingua, che è un'abilità che acquisiamo più tempo dedichiamo all'apprendimento delle lingue. さて、あなたの多くは、言語学習の3つの鍵は動機づけであり、言語と一緒に過ごす時間であり、必ずしも授業ではなく、言語、リスニング、読解、会話、そして3番目のことが、言語で何が起こっているのかを認識する能力。これは、学習言語を費やす時間が増えるほど得られるスキルです。 Теперь многие из вас слышали, как я говорил раньше, что три ключа к изучению языка - это мотивация, время, которое вы проводите с языком, не обязательно в классе, но с языком, слушанием, чтением, разговором, и третье - это способность замечать, что происходит на языке, это навык, который мы приобретаем, чем больше времени мы проводим на изучении языков. Şimdi, birçoğunuz daha önce dil öğrenmenin üç anahtarının motivasyon, dille geçirdiğiniz zaman, ille de sınıfta değil, dille geçirdiğiniz zaman, dinleme, okuma, konuşma ve üçüncüsü de dilde neler olduğunu fark etme becerisi olduğunu söylediğimi duymuşsunuzdur, ki bu da dil öğrenmeye ne kadar çok zaman ayırırsak o kadar çok edindiğimiz bir beceridir. 現在,你們很多人都聽我說過,語言學習的三個關鍵是動機,也就是你花在語言上的時間,不一定是在課堂上,而是花在語言上的時間,聽、讀、說,第三件事是注意到語言中發生的事情的能力,這是我們花更多時間學習語言而獲得的技能。

So someone who isn't motivated and isn't going to spend the time, they're not going to learn and they won't develop the ability to notice. Takže někdo, kdo není motivovaný a nebude trávit čas, nebude se učit a nebude rozvíjet schopnost všímat si. Quindi qualcuno che non è motivato e non ha intenzione di spendere il tempo, non imparerà e non svilupperà la capacità di notare. 動機づけられておらず、時間を費やすつもりもない人は、習うつもりはなく、気づく能力を発揮しません。 Por isso, alguém que não esteja motivado e não gaste tempo, não vai aprender e não vai desenvolver a capacidade de reparar. Так что тот, кто не мотивирован и не собирается тратить время, не будет учиться и не будет развивать способность замечать. Dolayısıyla, motive olmayan ve zaman harcamayan biri öğrenemeyecek ve fark etme becerisini geliştiremeyecektir. 因此,如果一個人沒有動力,也不會花時間,他們就不會學習,也不會培養注意力的能力。

That's fine. Това е добре. To je v pořádku. Va bene. それはいいです。 Sorun değil. 沒關係。 But there are many people who are motivated, who do spend the time but don't succeed. Но има и много мотивирани хора, които отделят време, но не успяват. Ale existuje mnoho lidí, kteří jsou motivovaní, tráví čas, ale neuspějí. Ma ci sono molte persone motivate, che passano il tempo ma non ci riescono. しかし、動機づけられ、時間を費やしても成功しない人がたくさんいます。 Но есть много целеустремленных людей, которые тратят время, но не добиваются успеха. Ancak motive olan, zaman harcayan ancak başarılı olamayan birçok insan var. 但有很多人有動力,確實花了時間,但沒有成功。 Why is that? Perché? なぜですか? Porquê? Nedenmiş o? 這是為什麼? They sort of abandon in frustration, so I've given this quite a bit of thought. Те сякаш се отказват от това, така че доста се замислих върху това. Trochu frustračně opouštějí, takže jsem o tom dost přemýšlel. Sie geben frustriert auf, also habe ich mir einige Gedanken darüber gemacht. They sort of abandon in frustration, so I've given this quite a bit of thought. 彼らは一種の欲求不満で放棄するので、私はこれをかなり考えました。 Eles abandonam-nos em sinal de frustração, por isso pensei muito sobre o assunto. Они разочарованы, так что я об этом подумал. Hayal kırıklığı içinde vazgeçiyorlar, bu yüzden bu konu üzerinde epeyce düşündüm. 他们有点沮丧地放弃了,所以我对此进行了相当多的思考。 他们有点沮丧地放弃了,所以我考虑了很久。 Here I am at age 67 and I'm having a great time learning languages, communicating with people in different languages and I have the goal of learning even more languages. Ето че съм на 67 години и си прекарвам чудесно, учейки езици, общувайки с хора на различни езици, а целта ми е да науча още повече езици. Je mi 67 let a skvěle se učím jazyky, komunikuji s lidmi v různých jazycích a mám za cíl naučit se ještě více jazyků. ここで私は67歳で、言語を学ぶ素晴らしい時間を過ごしています。人々とさまざまな言語でコミュニケーションを取り合い、より多くの言語を学ぶという目標を持っています。 Aqui estou eu com 67 anos e estou a divertir-me imenso a aprender línguas, a comunicar com pessoas em diferentes línguas e tenho o objetivo de aprender ainda mais línguas. İşte 67 yaşındayım ve dil öğrenerek, farklı dillerde insanlarla iletişim kurarak harika zaman geçiriyorum ve daha da fazla dil öğrenme hedefim var. 现在我已经 67 岁了,学习语言、用不同的语言与人交流是我的一大乐趣,我的目标是学习更多的语言。 I'm having a blast, yet I hear from people who are learning their first language or their second language and are completely frustrated. Аз се забавлявам, но чувам от хора, които учат първия или втория си език и са напълно разочаровани. Baví mě to, ale slyším od lidí, kteří se učí svůj první nebo druhý jazyk a jsou naprosto frustrovaní. Ich habe eine tolle Zeit, aber ich höre von Leuten, die ihre erste oder zweite Sprache lernen und völlig frustriert sind. I'm having a blast, yet I hear from people who are learning their first language or their second language and are completely frustrated. Je m'éclate, mais j'entends des gens qui apprennent leur première ou leur deuxième langue et qui sont complètement frustrés. 私は爆発していますが、第一言語や第二言語を習っている人から聞き取り、完全に不満を抱いています。 Estou a divertir-me imenso, mas ouço falar de pessoas que estão a aprender a sua primeira língua ou a sua segunda língua e que estão completamente frustradas. Я получаю огромное удовольствие, но при этом слышу от людей, которые учат свой первый или второй язык и совершенно разочарованы. Çok eğleniyorum, ancak ilk dillerini veya ikinci dillerini öğrenen ve tamamen hayal kırıklığına uğrayan insanlardan duyuyorum. 我正在爆炸,但是我听到有人正在学习他们的第一语言或第二语言并且完全感到沮丧。 我学得很开心,但我也听到一些人在学习第一语言或第二语言时感到非常沮丧。

What is the problem? 何が問題ですか? Sorun nedir? 問題是什麼?

Well, I think one major issue is that people who haven't learned a second language, who have never become fluent in a second language don't believe they can do it. Myslím, že jedním z hlavních problémů je, že lidé, kteří se nenaučili druhý jazyk, kteří nikdy neovládali druhý jazyk plynně, nevěří, že to zvládnou. Nun, ich denke, ein großes Problem ist, dass Menschen, die keine zweite Sprache gelernt haben, die noch nie eine zweite Sprache fließend beherrscht haben, nicht glauben, dass sie es können. まあ、大きな問題は、第二言語を習得していない人、第二言語を堪能にしていない人は、それができるとは信じられないということです。 Bem, penso que um dos principais problemas é que as pessoas que não aprenderam uma segunda língua, que nunca se tornaram fluentes numa segunda língua, não acreditam que o consigam fazer. Bence en önemli sorunlardan biri, ikinci bir dil öğrenmemiş, ikinci bir dili akıcı bir şekilde konuşamayan insanların bunu yapabileceklerine inanmamaları. 我认为,一个主要问题是,没有学过第二语言的人,没有流利使用过第二语言的人,不相信自己能做到这一点。 They've never done it before. Nikdy předtím to nedělali. 彼らは以前にそれをやったことがない。 Bunu daha önce hiç yapmadılar. They've never experienced it before. Никога досега не са го преживявали. Nikdy předtím to nezažili. 彼らはこれまでにそれを経験したことがありません。 Bunu daha önce hiç yaşamamışlar. 他們以前從未經歷過。 It's a bit like trying to climb a mountain if you don't believe you're going to reach the top of the mountain. Es un poco como intentar escalar una montaña si no crees que vas a llegar a la cima de la montaña. あなたが山の頂上に行くと信じられないならば、山に登ることのようなものです。 Bu, zirveye ulaşacağınıza inanmadığınız bir dağa tırmanmaya çalışmak gibi bir şey. 如果你不相信自己能到达山顶,那就有点像试图爬山一样。 So I think that is one of the major reasons people just haven't done it before. Takže si myslím, že to je jeden z hlavních důvodů, proč to lidé prostě neudělali dříve. だから私はそれが以前にそれをやっていない主な理由の一つだと思います。 Bence insanların bunu daha önce yapmamasının en önemli nedenlerinden biri bu. 因此,我认为这是人们以前没有这样做的主要原因之一。 They don't have the confidence they can do it. Nemají důvěru, že to zvládnou. 彼らは彼らがそれを行うことができるという自信を持っていません。 Bunu yapabileceklerine dair güvenleri yok. 他們沒有信心能夠做到這一點。 They don't know how to do it. Nevědí, jak na to. 彼らはそれを行う方法を知りません。 Não sabem como o fazer. Nasıl yapacaklarını bilmiyorlar. 他们不知道怎么做。 There are a lot of things about language learning they don't realize. Je spousta věcí, které si o studiu jazyků neuvědomují. 彼らが理解していない言語学習については、多くのことがあります。 Dil öğrenimi hakkında fark etmedikleri pek çok şey var. 他們沒有意識到關於語言學習的很多事情。 They don't realize that you're going to forget what you learned. Neuvědomují si, že zapomenete, co jste se naučili. 彼らは、あなたが学んだことを忘れることに気づいていません。 Não se apercebem de que se vai esquecer o que se aprendeu. Они не понимают, что вы забудете то, чему научились. Öğrendiklerinizi unutacağınızın farkında değiller. 他们不知道你会忘记你所学到的东西。 You have to keep learning and forgetting it and learning it and that that should not be a cause for frustration. Трябва да продължавате да учите, да забравяте и да учите и това не бива да е причина за разочарование. Musíte se to stále učit a zapomínat a učit se to a to by nemělo být důvodem k frustraci. Man muss es lernen und vergessen und lernen und das sollte kein Grund zur Frustration sein. You have to keep learning and forgetting it and learning it and that that should not be a cause for frustration. あなたは学習を続け、それを忘れて学習しなければならず、それが欲求不満の原因であってはならない。 Вы должны продолжать учиться, забывать и учиться, и это не должно быть причиной для расстройства. Öğrenmeye, unutmaya ve öğrenmeye devam etmelisiniz ve bu bir hayal kırıklığı nedeni olmamalıdır. 你必须不断学习,不断忘记,不断学习,这不应该成为沮丧的原因。

People get frustrated that they make mistakes. Lidé jsou frustrovaní, že dělají chyby. 人々は彼らが間違いを犯すことに不満を感じる。 Люди расстраиваются из-за того, что совершают ошибки. İnsanlar hata yaptıkları için hayal kırıklığına uğrarlar. 人們因犯錯而感到沮喪。

People get frustrated that they didn't learn that lesson and nail it down, but it's impossible to do that. Хората се разочароват, че не са научили този урок и не са го затвърдили, но това е невъзможно да се направи. Lidé jsou frustrovaní, že se nepoučili tu lekci a nepotvrdili to, ale je to nemožné. Les gens sont frustrés de ne pas avoir appris cette leçon et de ne pas l'avoir fixée, mais c'est impossible. Banyak orang merasa frustrasi karena mereka tidak mempelajari pelajaran tersebut dan menerapkannya, namun hal itu tidak mungkin dilakukan. Le persone si sentono frustrate perché non hanno imparato la lezione e non l'hanno fissata, ma è impossibile farlo. 人々はその教訓を学んでそれを釘付けにしていないと不満を抱くが、それは不可能である。 As pessoas sentem-se frustradas por não terem aprendido essa lição e por não a terem fixado, mas é impossível fazê-lo. Люди расстраиваются из-за того, что не усвоили этот урок и не усвоили его, но сделать это невозможно. İnsanlar bu dersi öğrenemedikleri ve bir yere oturtamadıkları için hayal kırıklığına uğruyorlar ama bunu yapmak imkansız. 人们会因为没有吸取教训并牢牢记住这一点而感到沮丧,但这是不可能做到的。 These are things that I tell people, but they don't accept. Това са неща, които казвам на хората, но те не ги приемат. To jsou věci, které lidem říkám, ale oni je nepřijímají. これらは私が人々に言うことですが、彼らは受け入れません。 Estas são coisas que eu digo às pessoas, mas que elas não aceitam. Bunlar insanlara söylediğim ama onların kabul etmediği şeyler. 这些都是我告诉别人,但他们不接受的事情。 They seem to feel if they put all that effort into learning and memorizing that somehow these things should stick with them, that they should be able to understand, that they should be able to use these words, that they should be able to get their tenses right and, of course, you can't. Те сякаш смятат, че ако положат всички усилия да учат и запомнят, тези неща трябва да им останат, да могат да ги разбират, да могат да използват тези думи, да могат да използват правилно времената, но това, разбира се, не е възможно. Zdá se, že cítí, že když vloží všechno to úsilí do učení a zapamatování, že by je nějak měly tyto věci držet, že by měli být schopni rozumět, že by měli být schopni používat tato slova, že by měli být schopni dostat své časy. správně a samozřejmě nemůžete. Sie scheinen das Gefühl zu haben, wenn sie all diese Mühe in das Lernen und Auswendiglernen stecken, dass diese Dinge irgendwie bei ihnen bleiben sollten, dass sie in der Lage sein sollten zu verstehen, dass sie in der Lage sein sollten, diese Wörter zu verwenden, dass sie in der Lage sein sollten, ihre Zeitformen zu bekommen richtig und natürlich geht das nicht. 彼らは、これらのことを学び、覚えていれば、これらのことはそれらに固執するべきであり、理解できるはずであり、これらの言葉を使うことができるべきであり、時制を取ることができるはずであるもちろん、あなたはできません。 Parecem sentir que, se se esforçarem tanto para aprender e memorizar, de alguma forma essas coisas devem ficar com eles, que devem ser capazes de compreender, que devem ser capazes de usar essas palavras, que devem ser capazes de acertar nos tempos verbais e, claro, não conseguem. Öğrenmek ve ezberlemek için bu kadar çaba harcarlarsa, bir şekilde bu şeylerin akıllarında kalması gerektiğini, anlayabilmeleri gerektiğini, bu kelimeleri kullanabilmeleri gerektiğini, zaman kiplerini doğru kullanabilmeleri gerektiğini düşünüyorlar ve tabii ki yapamazsınız. 他们似乎觉得,如果他们付出所有的努力来学习和记忆,这些东西应该以某种方式牢牢地留在他们身边,他们应该能够理解,他们应该能够使用这些单词,他们应该能够掌握他们的时态是的,当然,你不能。 他们似乎觉得,如果他们花了那么多精力去学习和记忆,这些东西就应该会在他们身上留下痕迹,他们就应该能够理解,他们就应该能够使用这些单词,他们就应该能够掌握正确的时态,当然,你做不到。

I think people who have experience with learning languages are used to the idea that it's a gradual process of getting used to the language. Myslím, že lidé, kteří mají zkušenosti s učením jazyků, jsou zvyklí na myšlenku, že jde o postupný proces zvykání si na jazyk. 私は、言語を学んだ経験がある人は、言語に慣れていくという段階的な考え方に慣れていると思います。 Bence dil öğrenme deneyimi olan insanlar, bunun dile alışmak için kademeli bir süreç olduğu fikrine alışkındır. 我認為有學習語言經驗的人都習慣了這樣的想法,即這是一個逐漸習慣語言的過程。

People who haven't want to see results. Хората, които не искат да видят резултати. Lidé, kteří nechtějí vidět výsledky. People who haven't want to see results. Orang yang tidak ingin melihat hasil. 結果を見たくない人。 Sonuç görmek istemeyen insanlar. 不想看到结果的人。 不想看到结果的人。 They want to be able to say something and they want to be able to say it correctly. Те искат да могат да кажат нещо и да го кажат правилно. 彼らは何かを言うことができるようにしたい、そして、彼らはそれを正しく言うことができるようにしたい。 Bir şey söyleyebilmek ve bunu doğru bir şekilde yapabilmek istiyorlar. 他们希望能够说一些话,并且能够说得正确。 Maybe it's our school system that makes us think along these lines, that because we study something we should learn it. Може би училищната ни система ни кара да мислим по този начин, че щом учим нещо, трябва да го научим. Možná je to náš školský systém, který nás nutí přemýšlet v tomto smyslu, že když něco studujeme, měli bychom se to naučit. 私たちが何かを学ぶので、それを学ぶべきであるということは、私たちがこれらの行に沿って考えさせるのは、私たちの学校システムかもしれません。 Belki de okul sistemimiz bizi bu şekilde düşünmeye itiyor, bir şey okuduğumuz için onu öğrenmemiz gerektiğini düşünüyoruz. 也许是我们的学校制度让我们产生了这样的想法,认为我们学习了什么,就应该学会什么。 Maybe there are things, you know if you're studying for a test in Physics you've got to try to remember those things for the test and you have to try and understand the concept and so forth, whereas language is different. Možná existují věci, víte, když se učíte na test z fyziky, musíte se pokusit zapamatovat si tyto věci pro test a musíte se pokusit pochopit koncept a tak dále, zatímco jazyk je jiný. Maybe there are things, you know if you're studying for a test in Physics you've got to try to remember those things for the test and you have to try and understand the concept and so forth, whereas language is different. Il y a peut-être des choses, vous savez, si vous étudiez pour un examen de physique, vous devez essayer de vous souvenir de ces choses pour l'examen et vous devez essayer de comprendre le concept et ainsi de suite, alors que la langue est différente. 多分、あなたは物理学の試験のために勉強しているのか、テストのためにそれらのことを覚えておかなければならないことを知っています。 Talvez haja coisas que, se estivermos a estudar para um teste de Física, temos de tentar lembrar-nos dessas coisas para o teste e temos de tentar compreender o conceito, etc., ao passo que a língua é diferente. Belki bazı şeyler vardır, bilirsiniz, eğer Fizik sınavına çalışıyorsanız, sınav için bu şeyleri hatırlamaya çalışmanız ve kavramı anlamaya çalışmanız gerekir, oysa dil farklıdır. 也许有些东西,你知道,如果你在复习考试物理,你就必须努力记住这些东西,你必须努力理解概念等等,而语言则不同。 Even if you understand the concept, you still won't be able to necessarily use it correctly and you won't understand it when you listen time and time again. Дори и да разбирате концепцията, няма да можете непременно да я използвате правилно и няма да я разберете, когато я слушате отново и отново. I když tomuto konceptu rozumíte, stále jej nebudete schopni nutně správně používat a nebudete mu rozumět, když budete poslouchat znovu a znovu. Even if you understand the concept, you still won't be able to necessarily use it correctly and you won't understand it when you listen time and time again. Même si vous comprenez le concept, vous ne serez pas nécessairement en mesure de l'utiliser correctement et vous ne le comprendrez pas si vous l'écoutez plusieurs fois. Anche se avete capito il concetto, non sarete comunque in grado di usarlo correttamente e non lo capirete quando lo ascolterete più volte. あなたがそのコンセプトを理解しても、あなたはそれを必ずしも正しく使うことができず、また何度も何度も耳を傾けたときにそれを理解することはできません。 Даже если вы поймете концепцию, вы все равно не сможете обязательно правильно ее использовать и не поймете ее, если будете слушать снова и снова. Kavramı anlasanız bile, yine de mutlaka doğru şekilde kullanamayacaksınız ve tekrar tekrar dinlediğinizde anlamayacaksınız. 即使你理解了这个概念,也不一定能正确使用,而且反复听也听不懂。

So I think this is a very important concept, that language is a matter of getting used to. Затова смятам, че това е много важна концепция, че езикът е въпрос на свикване. Takže si myslím, že toto je velmi důležitý koncept, že jazyk je věcí zvyku. Also ich denke, das ist ein sehr wichtiges Konzept, dass Sprache eine Sache der Gewöhnung ist. Je pense donc qu'il s'agit d'un concept très important, à savoir que la langue est une question d'habitude. だから私はこれが非常に重要なコンセプトだと思っています。言語は慣れ親しんだことです。 Por isso, penso que este é um conceito muito importante, o de que a língua é uma questão de habituação. Bu yüzden bunun çok önemli bir kavram olduğunu, dilin bir alışma meselesi olduğunu düşünüyorum. 因此,我认为这是一个非常重要的概念,语言是一个习惯问题。

This is really an approach to learning which is in some ways quite oriental. Това наистина е подход към ученето, който в някои отношения е доста източен. Toto je skutečně přístup k učení, který je v některých ohledech docela orientální. Dies ist wirklich ein Lernansatz, der in gewisser Weise ziemlich orientalisch ist. これは本当に何らかの形でかなりオリエンタルな学習のアプローチです。 Esta é, de facto, uma abordagem à aprendizagem que é, de certa forma, bastante oriental. Bu gerçekten de bazı açılardan oldukça oryantal olan bir öğrenme yaklaşımıdır. 这确实是一种在某些方面非常东方的学习方法。 这确实是一种在某些方面颇具东方特色的学习方法。 Even though in places like Japan, China and Korea they're very much into sort of the teacher or the professor or the master will teach me, in fact, if we look at their traditions, if we look at sort of the Zen tradition, if we look at _____ in Chinese philosophy, if we look at some of the approaches to craftsmanship in Japan, it's very much a matter of watching people and learning and ______, as they say in Japanese, getting used to something. Въпреки че на места като Япония, Китай и Корея много държат на това, че учителят, професорът или майсторът ще ме научи, всъщност, ако погледнем техните традиции, ако погледнем традицията на дзен, ако погледнем _ китайската философия, ако погледнем някои от подходите към занаятчийството в Япония, това е до голяма степен въпрос на наблюдаване на хората, учене и, както се казва на японски, свикване с нещо. I když v místech, jako je Japonsko, Čína a Korea, jsou velmi rádi, že učitel nebo profesor nebo mistr mě naučí, ve skutečnosti, když se podíváme na jejich tradice, když se podíváme na jakousi zenovou tradici, podíváme-li se na _ v čínské filozofii, podíváme-li se na některé přístupy k řemeslu v Japonsku, jde do značné míry o to, pozorovat lidi a učit se, a jak se v japonštině říká, na něco si zvykat. Auch wenn sie an Orten wie Japan, China und Korea sehr auf eine Art Lehrer oder Professor oder Meister stehen, der mich tatsächlich lehren wird, wenn wir uns ihre Traditionen ansehen, wenn wir uns eine Art Zen-Tradition ansehen, Wenn wir uns _ in der chinesischen Philosophie ansehen, wenn wir uns einige Ansätze des Handwerks in Japan ansehen, dann geht es sehr stark darum, Menschen zu beobachten und zu lernen und , wie man auf Japanisch sagt, sich an etwas zu gewöhnen. Even though in places like Japan, China and Korea they're very much into sort of the teacher or the professor or the master will teach me, in fact, if we look at their traditions, if we look at sort of the Zen tradition, if we look at _ in Chinese philosophy, if we look at some of the approaches to craftsmanship in Japan, it's very much a matter of watching people and learning and , as they say in Japanese, getting used to something. A pesar de que en lugares como Japón, China y Corea son muy partidarios de que el maestro o el profesor o el maestro me enseñen, en realidad, si nos fijamos en sus tradiciones, si nos fijamos en la tradición Zen, si nos fijamos en la filosofía china, si nos fijamos en algunos de los enfoques de la artesanía en Japón, es en gran medida una cuestión de observar a la gente y aprender y, como se dice en japonés, acostumbrarse a algo. Même si, dans des pays comme le Japon, la Chine et la Corée, les gens sont très attachés à l'idée que l'enseignant, le professeur ou le maître va m'enseigner, en réalité, si l'on examine leurs traditions, la tradition zen, la philosophie chinoise ou certaines approches de l'artisanat au Japon, il s'agit avant tout d'observer les gens, d'apprendre et, comme on le dit en japonais, de s'habituer à quelque chose. Anche se in posti come il Giappone, la Cina e la Corea sono molto attratti dall'insegnante o dal professore o dal maestro mi insegnano, infatti, se guardiamo alle loro tradizioni, se guardiamo alla tradizione Zen, se guardiamo a _____ nella filosofia cinese, se guardiamo ad alcuni approcci all'artigianato in Giappone, si tratta soprattutto di osservare le persone e imparare e ______, come si dice in giapponese, abituarsi a qualcosa. 日本、中国、韓国のような場所では教師や教授のような人たちが大勢いますが、師匠が私に教えてくれます。実際に伝統を見れば、禅の伝統を見れば、中国の哲学で_____を見ると、日本の職人技へのアプローチのいくつかを見ると、人に見て、学ぶことや、______は日本語で言うように何かに慣れていくことが大事です。 Apesar de em lugares como o Japão, a China e a Coreia se falar muito da ideia de que o professor ou o mestre me vai ensinar, na verdade, se olharmos para as suas tradições, se olharmos para a tradição Zen, se olharmos para a filosofia chinesa, se olharmos para algumas das abordagens ao artesanato no Japão, é muito uma questão de observar as pessoas e aprender e, como se diz em japonês, habituar-se a algo. Japonya, Çin ve Kore gibi yerlerde öğretmen, profesör ya da usta bana öğretecek gibi bir yaklaşım olsa da, aslında geleneklerine bakarsak, Zen geleneğine bakarsak, Çin felsefesine bakarsak, Japonya'daki zanaatkârlığa yönelik bazı yaklaşımlara bakarsak, bu daha çok insanları izleme, öğrenme ve Japonca'da dedikleri gibi bir şeye alışma meselesidir. 尽管在日本、中国和韩国这样的地方,他们非常喜欢老师、教授或大师来教我,事实上,如果我们看看他们的传统,如果我们看看禅宗传统,如果我们看看中国哲学,如果我们看看日本的一些工艺方法,这在很大程度上是观察人和学习的问题,正如日语中所说的,习惯某些东西。 儘管在像日本、中國和韓國這樣的地方,他們非常喜歡老師或教授或大師會教我,事實上,如果我們看看他們的傳統,如果我們看看禪宗的傳統,如果我們看看中國哲學中的_,如果我們看看日本的一些工藝方法,這在很大程度上是一個觀察人和學習的問題,就像他們用日語說的那樣,習慣一些東西。

It's not learning it theoretically from a book. Това не е теоретично учене от книга. Není to naučit se to teoreticky z knihy. それは本から理論的にそれを学んでいません。 Bir kitaptan teorik olarak öğrenmek değil. 这不是从书本上学习理论。

It's gradually getting used to it, that it sort of layers on to you and with each layer certain things become clear and because these things become clear some other things become clear. Постепенно свиквате с нея, тя се наслагва върху вас и с всеки следващ пласт някои неща стават ясни, а тъй като тези неща стават ясни, стават ясни и други неща. Postupně si zvyká, že se to na vás tak nějak vrství a s každou vrstvou se určité věci vyjasňují a protože se tyto věci vyjasňují, vyjasňují se některé další věci. It's gradually getting used to it, that it sort of layers on to you and with each layer certain things become clear and because these things become clear some other things become clear. Poco a poco te vas acostumbrando a ella, se va superponiendo en capas y con cada capa se van aclarando ciertas cosas y, como esas cosas se aclaran, se aclaran otras. On s'y habitue progressivement, cela se superpose à vous et avec chaque couche certaines choses deviennent claires et parce que ces choses deviennent claires, d'autres choses deviennent claires. Si sta gradualmente abituando ad esso, che in una sorta di strati su di te e con ogni strato certe cose diventano chiare e poiché queste cose diventano chiare alcune altre cose diventano chiare. それは徐々にそれに慣れてきて、それはあなたの上にある種の層であり、各層で特定のことが明らかになり、これらのことが明らかになるので、他のいくつかのことが明らかになります。 Buna yavaş yavaş alışıyorsunuz, bir nevi katmanlar halinde üzerinize geliyor ve her katmanda bazı şeyler netleşiyor ve bu şeyler netleştiği için başka şeyler de netleşiyor. 你会逐渐习惯它,它就像一层一层地叠加在你身上,每叠加一层,某些事情就会变得清晰,而因为这些事情变得清晰,其他一些事情也会变得清晰。 But you have to have the confidence that this process, this layering process, this exposing yourself to the language is going to lead to your desired result because if you don't have that confidence then I guess it can be a frustrating experience. Но трябва да имате увереност, че този процес, това наслагване, това излагане на езика ще доведе до желания резултат, защото ако нямате тази увереност, предполагам, че това може да бъде разочароващо преживяване. Ale musíte mít jistotu, že tento proces, tento proces vrstvení, toto vystavení se jazyku povede k vašemu požadovanému výsledku, protože pokud tuto důvěru nemáte, myslím, že to může být frustrující zážitek. But you have to have the confidence that this process, this layering process, this exposing yourself to the language is going to lead to your desired result because if you don't have that confidence then I guess it can be a frustrating experience. Ma bisogna avere la fiducia che questo processo, questo processo di stratificazione, questo esporsi alla lingua porterà al risultato desiderato, perché se non si ha questa fiducia, credo che possa essere un'esperienza frustrante. しかし、このプロセス、この階層化プロセス、これが言語に自分自身をさらすことは、あなたがその自信を持っていない場合、それはイライラする経験になる可能性があるので、あなたはあなたの望ましい結果につながるだろうという自信を持っている必要があります。 Mas é preciso ter a confiança de que este processo, este processo de estratificação, esta exposição à língua vai conduzir ao resultado desejado, porque se não tivermos essa confiança, acho que pode ser uma experiência frustrante. Ancak bu sürecin, bu katmanlama sürecinin, kendinizi dile maruz bırakmanın istediğiniz sonuca götüreceğine güvenmeniz gerekir çünkü bu güvene sahip değilseniz, sanırım bu sinir bozucu bir deneyim olabilir. 但你必须有信心,相信这个过程、这个分层的过程、这个让自己接触语言的过程会带来你想要的结果,因为如果你没有这种信心,我想这可能会是一个令人沮丧的经历。

So I think the question then is someone who hasn't had the experience of learning a language, if that's the obstacle, how do you overcome it? Takže si myslím, že otázka je pro někoho, kdo neměl zkušenost s učením se jazyka, pokud je to překážka, jak ji překonáte? So I think the question then is someone who hasn't had the experience of learning a language, if that's the obstacle, how do you overcome it? Así que creo que la pregunta es: si el obstáculo es alguien que no ha tenido la experiencia de aprender un idioma, ¿cómo lo supera? ですから、問題は言語を学んだ経験のない人だと思います。それが障害だとしたら、どうやってそれを克服しますか? Por isso, penso que a questão que se coloca é a seguinte: se alguém que não teve a experiência de aprender uma língua, se esse é o obstáculo, como é que o ultrapassa? Bence asıl soru, dil öğrenme deneyimi yaşamamış biri için, eğer engel buysa, bunun üstesinden nasıl gelirsiniz? 所以我认为接下来的问题是一个没有学习语言经验的人,如果这是障碍,你如何克服它? 所以我認為接下來的問題是沒有學習語言經驗的人,如果那是障礙,你如何克服它?

It's kind of like a catch-22. Това е нещо като уловка 22. Je to něco jako catch-22. Es ist wie ein Catch-22. It's kind of like a catch-22. C'est un peu comme un catch-22. È una sorta di "catch-22". それはまるでキャッチのようなものです22。 É uma espécie de "catch-22". Это похоже на ловушку-22. Bu bir tür iki arada bir derede kalmak gibi. 这有点像第 22 条军规。 這有點像第 22 條軍規。 You can't achieve that sense of transforming yourself into someone who can become fluent in another language until you do it. Не можете да постигнете усещането, че се превръщате в човек, който може да говори свободно друг език, докато не го направите. Dokud to neuděláte, nemůžete dosáhnout pocitu přeměny v někoho, kdo dokáže plynně mluvit jiným jazykem. You can't achieve that sense of transforming yourself into someone who can become fluent in another language until you do it. Vous ne pouvez pas atteindre ce sentiment de vous transformer en quelqu'un qui peut parler couramment une autre langue jusqu'à ce que vous le fassiez. あなたはあなたがそれをするまで他の言語に流暢になることができる人にあなた自身を変えるその感覚を達成することはできません。 Só quando o fizermos é que conseguiremos ter a sensação de nos transformarmos em alguém que consegue ser fluente noutra língua. Bunu yapana kadar kendinizi başka bir dilde akıcı konuşabilen birine dönüştürme hissine ulaşamazsınız. 除非你这样做,否则你无法实现将自己转变为能流利使用另一种语言的人的感觉。 除非你這樣做,否則你無法實現將自己轉變為可以流利使用另一種語言的人的感覺。 So you kind of have to have that leap of faith that you can do it, anyone can do it. Така че трябва да имаш тази вяра, че можеш да се справиш, всеки може да се справи. Takže musíte mít ten skok ve víře, že to dokážete, každý to dokáže. Donc, vous devez en quelque sorte avoir cet acte de foi que vous pouvez le faire, n'importe qui peut le faire. Quindi bisogna avere un po' di fiducia nel fatto che si può fare, che chiunque può farlo. だから、あなたは信仰の跳躍をしなければならないので、誰でもできるのです。 Więc musisz mieć ten skok wiary, że możesz to zrobić, każdy może to zrobić. Por isso, é preciso ter um pouco de fé de que se é capaz de o fazer, qualquer pessoa o pode fazer. Так что вам придется поверить в то, что вы сможете это сделать, что это может сделать каждый. Yani bunu yapabileceğinize, herkesin yapabileceğine dair bir inanç sıçramasına sahip olmanız gerekiyor. 所以你必须有一种信念,你可以做到,任何人都可以做到。 因此,你必须要有这样一种信念:你能做到,任何人都能做到。 Now, granted, the more languages you learn, as in my case, I've learned a number of languages, so not only have I gotten used to different languages, I've gotten used to learning. Колкото повече езици изучавате, както е в моя случай, аз съм изучавал няколко езика, така че не само съм свикнал с различни езици, но и с ученето. Samozřejmě, čím více jazyků se naučíte, jako v mém případě, já jsem se naučil řadu jazyků, takže nejen, že jsem si zvykl na různé jazyky, ale také jsem si zvykl na učení. Ahora bien, es cierto que cuantos más idiomas aprendes, como en mi caso, he aprendido varios idiomas, no sólo me he acostumbrado a diferentes idiomas, sino que me he acostumbrado a aprender. Maintenant, d'accord, plus vous apprenez de langues, comme dans mon cas, j'ai appris un certain nombre de langues, donc non seulement je me suis habitué à différentes langues, mais je me suis habitué à apprendre. Certo, più lingue si imparano, e nel mio caso ne ho imparate diverse, quindi non solo mi sono abituato a lingue diverse, ma mi sono abituato a imparare. 今では、私の場合のように、もっと多くの言語を学ぶことができます。多くの言語を学んだので、異なる言語に慣れただけでなく、学習に慣れてきました。 É certo que quanto mais línguas se aprende, como no meu caso, aprendi várias línguas, por isso não só me habituei a línguas diferentes, como me habituei a aprender. Şimdi, ne kadar çok dil öğrenirseniz, benim durumumda olduğu gibi, bir dizi dil öğrendim, bu yüzden sadece farklı dillere alışmakla kalmadım, öğrenmeye de alıştım. 当然,语言学得越多,就像我一样,我学过很多语言,所以我不仅习惯了不同的语言,还习惯了学习。 I've developed my techniques of learning. Разработих свои техники за учене. 私は自分の学習技術を開発しました。 Öğrenme tekniklerimi geliştirdim. 我已经掌握了自己的学习技巧。 People who have learned a number of languages, therefore, have become accustomed to the process, have developed their own techniques and so forth and so on. Следователно хората, които са изучавали няколко езика, са свикнали с този процес, разработили са свои собствени техники и т.н., и т.н. Lidé, kteří se naučili řadu jazyků, si proto na tento proces zvykli, vyvinuli si vlastní techniky a tak dále a tak dále. Menschen, die mehrere Sprachen gelernt haben, haben sich daher an den Prozess gewöhnt, ihre eigenen Techniken entwickelt und so weiter und so weiter. People who have learned a number of languages, therefore, have become accustomed to the process, have developed their own techniques and so forth and so on. Le persone che hanno imparato diverse lingue, quindi, si sono abituate al processo, hanno sviluppato le proprie tecniche e così via. したがって、多くの言語を学んだ人は、そのプロセスに慣れてきたし、独自のテクニックなどを開発しています。 Bu nedenle, çok sayıda dil öğrenmiş olan insanlar sürece alışmış, kendi tekniklerini geliştirmiş ve bu böyle devam etmiştir. 因此,学习过多种语言的人已经习惯了这一过程,并形成了自己的技巧,如此等等。

So what do you do with that beginner learner, the person who is learning their first new language? И така, какво да правите с начинаещия ученик, който за първи път изучава нов език? Co tedy děláte s tím začátečníkem, člověkem, který se učí svůj první nový jazyk? Was machen Sie also mit diesem Anfänger, der Person, die ihre erste neue Sprache lernt? では、初心者の学習者、つまり最初の新しい言語を学習している人はどうしますか? Então, o que fazer com esse aprendiz principiante, a pessoa que está a aprender a sua primeira língua nova? Peki, ilk kez yeni bir dil öğrenen bu acemi öğrenciyle ne yaparsınız? 那么,你该如何对待初学者,即学习第一门新语言的人呢?

Well, it's a matter of having confidence that you can do it because others have done it, others in different countries, different cultural backgrounds, different ages. Въпрос на увереност е, че можете да се справите, защото и други са го правили, и то в различни страни, с различен културен произход, на различна възраст. No, jde o to mít jistotu, že to dokážete, protože to dokázali jiní, jiní v různých zemích, v různém kulturním prostředí, v různém věku. Eh bien, c'est une question d'avoir confiance que vous pouvez le faire parce que d'autres l'ont fait, d'autres dans différents pays, différents milieux culturels, différents âges. ええと、他の人がそれをしたので、あなたがそれをすることができるという自信を持っていることの問題です、他の人は異なる国、異なる文化的背景、異なる年齢です。 Bem, é uma questão de ter confiança de que se é capaz de o fazer porque outros o fizeram, outros em diferentes países, diferentes origens culturais, diferentes idades. Bu, başkaları, farklı ülkelerdeki, farklı kültürel geçmişlere sahip, farklı yaşlardaki başkaları yaptığı için bunu yapabileceğinize dair güven duyma meselesidir. 嗯,这是个自信的问题,你要相信自己能做到,因为其他人已经做到了,其他人在不同的国家、不同的文化背景、不同的年龄都做到了。 It's not a matter of having some unique talent. Nejde o to mít nějaký jedinečný talent. Ce n'est pas une question d'avoir un talent unique. ユニークな才能を持つことではありません。 Bu, eşsiz bir yeteneğe sahip olma meselesi değil. 这并不是拥有某种独特才能的问题。 If you go to Sweden, they all do it and they don't all have some special gene. Ако отидете в Швеция, всички го правят и не всички имат някакъв специален ген. Pokud pojedete do Švédska, dělají to všichni a ne všichni mají nějaký speciální gen. Si vous allez en Suède, ils le font tous et ils n'ont pas tous un gène particulier. Se andate in Svezia, lo fanno tutti e non hanno tutti un gene speciale. あなたがスウェーデンに行くなら、彼らは皆それをします、そして彼らはすべて特別な遺伝子を持っていません。 Se formos à Suécia, todos o fazem e nem todos têm um gene especial. İsveç'e giderseniz, hepsi bunu yapıyor ve hepsinde özel bir gen yok. 如果你去瑞典,他们都会这样做,他们并不都有某种特殊的基因。 Anyone can do it at whatever age, so you have to accept that. Всеки може да го направи на каквато и да е възраст, така че трябва да приемете това. Může to dělat každý v jakémkoli věku, takže to musíte přijmout. 誰でも年齢を問わずできるので、それを受け入れる必要があります。 Qualquer pessoa o pode fazer, seja qual for a sua idade, por isso temos de o aceitar. Hangi yaşta olursa olsun herkes bunu yapabilir, bu yüzden bunu kabul etmelisiniz. 任何人在任何年龄都能做到这一点,所以你必须接受这一点。

I think the other thing is to do things that are enjoyable so that the frustration of forgetting, the frustration of making mistakes, the frustration of feeling that you're very clumsy when you speak, that those things don't become the dominant experience. Мисля, че другото нещо е да правите неща, които са приятни, така че разочарованието от забравянето, разочарованието от грешките, разочарованието от усещането, че сте много несръчни, когато говорите, да не се превърнат в доминиращо преживяване. Myslím, že druhá věc je dělat věci, které jsou příjemné, aby se frustrace ze zapomínání, frustrace z chyb, frustrace z pocitu, že jste velmi nemotorní, když mluvíte, nestala dominantním zážitkem. I think the other thing is to do things that are enjoyable so that the frustration of forgetting, the frustration of making mistakes, the frustration of feeling that you're very clumsy when you speak, that those things don't become the dominant experience. Creo que lo otro es hacer cosas que sean agradables para que la frustración de olvidar, la frustración de cometer errores, la frustración de sentir que eres muy torpe cuando hablas, que esas cosas no se conviertan en la experiencia dominante. もう一つは楽しいことをすることだと思うので、忘れることの欲求不満、悲しみの欲求不満、話すときにあなたが非常に不器用だと感じることの欲求不満、そのことが支配的な経験にならないようにすることです。 Penso que a outra coisa é fazer coisas que sejam agradáveis para que a frustração de esquecer, a frustração de cometer erros, a frustração de sentir que se é muito desajeitado quando se fala, que essas coisas não se tornem a experiência dominante. Bence bir diğer şey de eğlenceli şeyler yapmaktır ki unutmanın yarattığı hayal kırıklığı, hata yapmanın yarattığı hayal kırıklığı, konuşurken çok beceriksiz olduğunuzu hissetmenin yarattığı hayal kırıklığı gibi şeyler baskın deneyim haline gelmesin. 我认为,另一件事是做一些令人愉快的事情,这样,遗忘的挫败感、犯错的挫败感、觉得自己说话很笨拙的挫败感,这些事情就不会成为主要的体验。

You have to do things that are enjoyable so that the enjoyable aspect of language learning becomes the dominant experience so that you put in the time, that you get enough exposure, that you become accustomed to a language. Трябва да правите неща, които са приятни, така че приятният аспект на изучаването на езика да се превърне в доминиращо преживяване, така че да отделите време, да се изложите достатъчно, за да свикнете с езика. Musíte dělat věci, které jsou příjemné, aby se příjemný aspekt jazykového vzdělávání stal dominantním zážitkem, abyste tomu věnovali čas, abyste byli dostatečně vystaveni, abyste si na jazyk zvykli. You have to do things that are enjoyable so that the enjoyable aspect of language learning becomes the dominant experience so that you put in the time, that you get enough exposure, that you become accustomed to a language. Devi fare cose piacevoli in modo che l'aspetto piacevole dell'apprendimento delle lingue diventi l'esperienza dominante in modo da dedicare tempo, ottenere abbastanza visibilità, abituarti a una lingua. 言語学習の楽しい側面が支配的な経験になるように、楽しいことをしなければなりません。そうすることで、時間をかけ、十分な露出を得て、言語に慣れることができます。 Você tem que fazer coisas que sejam agradáveis para que o aspecto agradável do aprendizado de idiomas se torne a experiência dominante, para que você dedique tempo, obtenha exposição suficiente e se acostume com um idioma. Keyifli şeyler yapmalısınız ki dil öğrenmenin keyifli yönü baskın bir deneyim haline gelsin, böylece zaman ayırırsınız, yeterince maruz kalırsınız, bir dile alışırsınız. 你必须做一些令人愉快的事情,这样语言学习中令人愉快的方面就会成为主导体验,这样你就会投入时间,获得足够的接触,从而习惯一门语言。 你必须做一些令人愉悦的事情,让语言学习的愉悦方面成为主要体验,这样你才能投入时间,获得足够的接触机会,从而习惯一种语言。

What are those enjoyable experiences? Какви са тези приятни преживявания? Jaké jsou ty příjemné zážitky? Apa sajakah pengalaman yang menyenangkan itu? それらの楽しい経験は何ですか? Quais são essas experiências agradáveis? Что это за приятные ощущения? Bu keyifli deneyimler nelerdir? 那些令人愉快的經驗是什麼?

That depends on each person. Това зависи от всеки човек. That depends on each person. Isso depende de cada pessoa. Bu her kişiye göre değişir. 這取決於每個人。 For me, as I've said many times, it's listening to things of interest. Pro mě, jak už jsem mnohokrát řekl, je to naslouchání věcem, které mě zajímají. Bagi saya, seperti yang sudah saya katakan berkali-kali, mendengarkan hal-hal yang menarik. 私にとっては、何度も言っているように、興味のあることに耳を傾けることだ。 Benim için, birçok kez söylediğim gibi, ilgi duyduğum şeyleri dinlemektir. 对我来说,正如我说过很多次的那样,就是聆听感兴趣的东西。 It's discovering Romania through _____, discovery Czech history through _____ or discovering Russia through Ekho Moskvy, reading about it, reading about the history of the country. Това е като да откриеш Румъния чрез _, да откриеш чешката история чрез _ или да откриеш Русия чрез "Ехото на Москва", да четеш за нея, да четеш за историята на страната. Je to objevování Rumunska prostřednictvím _, objevování české historie prostřednictvím _ nebo objevování Ruska prostřednictvím Echo Moskvy, čtení o něm, čtení o historii země. It's discovering Romania through _, discovery Czech history through _ or discovering Russia through Ekho Moskvy, reading about it, reading about the history of the country. それは_____を通してルーマニアを発見すること、_____を通してチェコの歴史を発見すること、またはEkho Moskvyを通してロシアを発見すること、それについて読むこと、国の歴史について読むことです。 Romanya'yı _ aracılığıyla keşfetmek, Çek tarihini _ aracılığıyla keşfetmek ya da Rusya'yı Ekho Moskvy aracılığıyla keşfetmek, onun hakkında okumak, ülkenin tarihi hakkında okumak. 它是透過 _ 發現羅馬尼亞,透過 _ 發現捷克歷史,或透過 Ekho Moskvy 發現俄羅斯,閱讀它,閱讀這個國家的歷史。 That, to me, is enjoyable. To je pro mě příjemné. Bu benim için keyif verici. 对我来说,这就是享受。 Other people want to get out and speak early, fine. Другите искат да излязат и да говорят по-рано - добре. Ostatní lidé chtějí jít ven a mluvit brzy, dobře. Other people want to get out and speak early, fine. Altri vogliono uscire e parlare prima, bene. 他の人たちは早く出て話したいのだろう。 Diğer insanlar erken çıkıp konuşmak istiyorlarsa, tamam. 其他人想早点出来发言,没问题。 I don't, for example, do grammar exercises because I don't find them enjoyable. Nedělám například gramatická cvičení, protože mě to nebaví. 例えば、文法の練習は楽しくないからやらない。 Não faço, por exemplo, exercícios de gramática porque não os considero agradáveis. Örneğin ben dilbilgisi alıştırmaları yapmıyorum çünkü bunları eğlenceli bulmuyorum. 例如,我不做语法练习,因为我不喜欢做。 Some people may find them enjoyable. Někomu to může připadat příjemné. それを楽しいと感じる人もいるだろう。 Algumas pessoas podem considerá-las agradáveis. Bazı insanlar bunları eğlenceli bulabilir.

If you can focus on doing things you enjoy so that the journey itself is enjoyable, if you can accept the fact that implied in language learning is forgetting, is making mistakes, is being clumsy, is not understanding and that it's just the process of exposing yourself rather than trying to nail down a table of declensions of endings or conjugations, but rather if you spend the time with the language, gradually, your brain will get used to it and your ability to notice things will improve. Ако можете да се съсредоточите върху правенето на неща, които ви доставят удоволствие, така че самото пътуване да е приятно, ако можете да приемете факта, че в изучаването на езика се подразбира забравяне, допускане на грешки, несръчност, неразбиране и че това е просто процес на разкриване на себе си, а не опит да се заковава таблица с наклонения, окончания или спрежения, а ако прекарвате времето си с езика, постепенно мозъкът ви ще свикне с него и способността ви да забелязвате нещата ще се подобри. Dokážete-li se soustředit na to, co vás baví, aby byla samotná cesta příjemná, pokud dokážete přijmout skutečnost, že ve výuce jazyků implikuje zapomínání, dělá chyby, je nemotorný, nerozumí a že je to jen proces odhalování místo toho, abyste se pokoušeli sepsat tabulku deklinací koncovek nebo konjugací, ale spíše když strávíte čas s jazykem, postupně si na to váš mozek zvykne a vaše schopnost všímat si věcí se zlepší. If you can focus on doing things you enjoy so that the journey itself is enjoyable, if you can accept the fact that implied in language learning is forgetting, is making mistakes, is being clumsy, is not understanding and that it's just the process of exposing yourself rather than trying to nail down a table of declensions of endings or conjugations, but rather if you spend the time with the language, gradually, your brain will get used to it and your ability to notice things will improve. Si puedes centrarte en hacer cosas que te gusten para que el viaje en sí sea agradable, si puedes aceptar el hecho de que en el aprendizaje de idiomas está implícito olvidar, cometer errores, ser torpe, no entender y que es sólo el proceso de exponerte en lugar de intentar clavar una tabla de declinaciones de terminaciones o conjugaciones, sino que si le dedicas tiempo al idioma, poco a poco, tu cerebro se acostumbrará y tu capacidad para darte cuenta de las cosas mejorará. Si vous pouvez vous concentrer sur les choses que vous aimez afin que le voyage lui-même soit agréable, si vous pouvez accepter le fait que l'apprentissage d'une langue implique d'oublier, de faire des erreurs, d'être maladroit, de ne pas comprendre et qu'il s'agit simplement d'un processus d'exposition plutôt que d'essayer d'établir un tableau des déclinaisons, des terminaisons ou des conjugaisons, mais plutôt si vous passez du temps avec la langue, progressivement, votre cerveau s'y habituera et votre capacité à remarquer les choses s'améliorera. 旅そのものを楽しむために楽しむことに集中できる場合、言語学習に暗示されていることは忘れている、間違いを犯している、不器用である、理解していない、そしてそれは単に公開するプロセスであるという事実を受け入れることができる場合語尾や活用形の変化形の表を見つけようとするのではなく、自分で言いますが、言語に時間を費やすと、徐々に脳がそれに慣れ、物事に気づく能力が向上します。 Se conseguirmos concentrar-nos em fazer coisas de que gostamos para que a viagem em si seja agradável, se conseguirmos aceitar o facto de que a aprendizagem de uma língua implica esquecer, cometer erros, ser desajeitado, não compreender e que é apenas o processo de nos expormos, em vez de tentarmos definir uma tabela de declinações de terminações ou conjugações, mas se passarmos o tempo com a língua, gradualmente, o nosso cérebro habituar-se-á a ela e a nossa capacidade de perceber as coisas melhorará. Yolculuğun kendisinin keyifli olması için keyif aldığınız şeyleri yapmaya odaklanabilirseniz, dil öğrenirken ima edilenin unutmak, hata yapmak, sakarlık yapmak, anlamamak olduğunu ve bunun sadece kendinizi açığa çıkarma süreci olduğunu kabul edebilirseniz, son eklerin veya çekimlerin bir tablosunu çivilemeye çalışmak yerine, dille zaman geçirirseniz, yavaş yavaş beyniniz buna alışacak ve bir şeyleri fark etme yeteneğiniz gelişecektir. 如果你能专注于做你喜欢的事情,那么旅程本身就会很愉快;如果你能接受这样一个事实:语言学习意味着遗忘、犯错误、笨拙、不理解,这只是暴露的过程。不要试图确定一个词尾或词形变化表,而是如果你花时间学习这门语言,慢慢地,你的大脑会习惯它,你注意到事物的能力也会提高。 如果你能集中精力做自己喜欢的事情,让这段旅程本身充满乐趣,如果你能接受这样一个事实:语言学习中隐含着遗忘、犯错、笨拙、不理解,而这只是一个暴露自己的过程,而不是试图钉住一张表,列出词尾的变位或连接词,相反,如果你把时间花在语言上,渐渐地,你的大脑就会习惯它,你注意事物的能力也会提高。

In my sort of trichotomy there of motivation, everyone understands that, yes, motivation. В моята трихотомия за мотивацията всеки разбира, че, да, мотивацията. V mé trichotomii motivace každý chápe, že ano, motivace. In my sort of trichotomy there of motivation, everyone understands that, yes, motivation. Nella mia sorta di tricotomia della motivazione, tutti capiscono che, sì, la motivazione. 私のようなモチベーションの三分法では、誰もがモチベーションを理解しています。 Na minha espécie de tricotomia da motivação, todos compreendem que, sim, a motivação. Motivasyonla ilgili olarak benim yaptığım üçlü ayrımdan herkes şunu anlıyor, evet, motivasyon. 在我对动机的三分法中,每个人都明白,是的,动机。 在我的动机三分法中,每个人都明白,是的,动机。

You've got to like the language. Трябва да ви харесва езикът. Musíš mít rád jazyk. You've got to like the language. その言葉が好きでなければならない。 É preciso gostar da língua. Dili sevmek zorundasınız. 你必须喜欢这种语言。 You've got to be determined. Трябва да сте решителни. Musíš být odhodlaný. You've got to be determined. Anda harus bertekad. あなたは決心しなければなりません。 É preciso ter determinação. Kararlı olmalısın. 你必须下定决心。 You've got to think you can do it. Musíš si myslet, že to dokážeš. Temos de pensar que somos capazes de o fazer. Bunu yapabileceğinizi düşünmelisiniz. 你必须认为自己能做到。 You can't resist the language. Не можете да устоите на езика. Jazyku se nedá odolat. Sie können der Sprache nicht widerstehen. Anda tidak bisa menolak bahasanya. Non puoi resistere alla lingua. あなたはその言語に抵抗することはできません。 Não se consegue resistir à linguagem. Bu dile karşı koyamazsın. 你无法抗拒这种语言。 People understand that. Lidé tomu rozumí. As pessoas compreendem isso. İnsanlar bunu anlıyor. 人们明白这一点。 Spend the time, they understand that. Trávit čas, oni tomu rozumí. Verbringen Sie die Zeit, sie verstehen das. Passar o tempo, eles compreendem isso. Zaman harcayın, bunu anlarlar. 花点时间,他们会明白的。 You've got to spend an hour or two a day, that everyone understands. Трябва да отделяте по един-два часа на ден, за да може всеки да разбере. Musíte strávit hodinu nebo dvě denně, aby to každý pochopil. Du musst ein oder zwei Stunden am Tag verbringen, das versteht jeder. 1日に1時間か2時間、誰もが理解できる時間を過ごさなければならない。 É preciso passar uma ou duas horas por dia, que todos compreendam. Herkesin anlayabileceği şekilde günde bir ya da iki saatinizi ayırmalısınız. 你必须每天花一两个小时,这一点每个人都明白。 But learning to notice, people don't seem to understand. Но като се научат да забелязват, хората сякаш не разбират. Ale když se lidé naučí všímat, nezdá se, že by tomu rozuměli. Aber zu lernen, es zu bemerken, scheinen die Leute nicht zu verstehen. Ma imparando a notare, le persone sembrano non capire. しかし、気づくことを学ぶと、人々は理解していないようです。 Mas aprender a reparar, as pessoas parecem não perceber. Ancak fark etmeyi öğrenen insanlar bunu anlamıyor gibi görünüyor. 但学会注意,人们似乎并不理解。

I've had it happen to me so many times that I don't notice certain things in the language. Толкова пъти ми се е случвало, че не забелязвам някои неща в езика. Už se mi to stalo tolikrát, že některé věci v jazyce nevnímám. Das ist mir schon so oft passiert, dass ich bestimmte Dinge in der Sprache nicht mehr wahrnehme. Mi è capitato così tante volte che non mi accorgo di certe cose nella lingua. 何度も同じようなことがあったから、言葉の中にある特定のことに気づかないんだ。 Já me aconteceu tantas vezes que não me apercebo de certas coisas na língua. O kadar çok başıma geldi ki dildeki bazı şeyleri fark etmiyorum. 这种情况在我身上发生过很多次,以至于我都注意不到语言中的某些东西。

Take the third person singular in the present tense in English, people are told you have an ‘s' there. Ако вземете трето лице единствено число в сегашно време на английски език, хората ще ви кажат, че там има "s". Vezměte třetí osobu jednotného čísla v přítomném čase v angličtině, lidem se řekne, že tam máte 's'. Take the third person singular in the present tense in English, people are told you have an ‘s' there. 英語では現在形の三人称単数形を取ると、そこに「s」があると言われる。 Se usar a terceira pessoa do singular no presente do indicativo em inglês, as pessoas dizem que tem um 's'. 在英语中使用第三人称单数的现在时态时,人们会说你那里有个 "s"。 It's I go, you go, he goes. To já jdu, ty jdeš, on jde. 私が行き、あなたが行き、彼が行く。 É eu vou, tu vais, ele vai. Ben giderim, sen gidersin, o gider. 我去,你去,他去。 People say yeah, yeah, I understand and then they kind of don't really pay attention when they hear the language. Lidé říkají ano, ano, rozumím, a pak jaksi nevěnují pozornost, když ten jazyk slyší. People say yeah, yeah, I understand and then they kind of don't really pay attention when they hear the language. Le persone dicono: "Sì, sì, capisco" e poi non prestano molta attenzione quando sentono la lingua. 人々はそうそう言った、私は理解し、そして彼らはその言語を聞いたときに本当に注意を払っていない。 As pessoas dizem sim, sim, eu percebo e depois não prestam muita atenção quando ouvem a língua. İnsanlar evet, evet, anlıyorum diyor ve sonra dili duyduklarında gerçekten dikkat etmiyorlar. 人们会说,是的,是的,我明白,但当他们听到这种语言时,他们就会不太注意了。

The pronunciation, I've used the example many times of people who rely on how words are pronounced or how certain spellings are pronounced in their own language so a word becomes ‘ward'. Произношението - много пъти съм давал пример с хора, които разчитат на това как се произнасят думите или как се произнасят някои правописни думи в собствения им език, така че дадена дума става "отделение". Výslovnost, mnohokrát jsem použil příklad lidí, kteří se spoléhají na to, jak se slova vyslovují nebo jak se vyslovují určitá hláskování v jejich vlastním jazyce, takže se slovo stane „ochranou“. Bei der Aussprache habe ich das Beispiel oft von Menschen verwendet, die sich darauf verlassen, wie Wörter ausgesprochen werden oder wie bestimmte Schreibweisen in ihrer eigenen Sprache ausgesprochen werden, sodass ein Wort zu "Ward" wird. The pronunciation, I've used the example many times of people who rely on how words are pronounced or how certain spellings are pronounced in their own language so a word becomes ‘ward'. La pronunciación, he puesto muchas veces el ejemplo de gente que se basa en cómo se pronuncian las palabras o cómo se pronuncian ciertas grafías en su propio idioma para que una palabra se convierta en "ward". 発音は、私は、単語が発音される方法や、特定の綴りが自分の言語でどのように発音されるかに頼って、単語が「病棟」になるという例を何度も使用しました。 A pronúncia, já usei muitas vezes o exemplo de pessoas que se baseiam na forma como as palavras são pronunciadas ou como certas grafias são pronunciadas na sua própria língua para que uma palavra se torne "ward". Telaffuz konusunda, kelimelerin nasıl telaffuz edildiğine veya belirli yazımların kendi dillerinde nasıl telaffuz edildiğine güvenen ve böylece bir kelimenin 'koğuş' haline gelmesini sağlayan insanlar örneğini birçok kez kullandım. 发音,我已经多次使用过这个例子,人们依赖单词的发音方式或某些拼写如何用自己的语言发音,因此单词变成了“ward”。 在发音方面,我曾多次举例说明,有些人依赖于单词的发音或某些拼写在自己语言中的发音,从而使一个单词变成了 "ward"。

Well, they aren't listening. Е, те не слушат. No, oni neposlouchají. Bueno, ellos no están escuchando. まあ、彼らは聞いていない。 Bem, eles não estão a ouvir. Dinlemiyorlar. 他们没在听 They aren't paying attention. Те не обръщат внимание. 彼らは注意を払っていない。 Não estão a prestar atenção. Dikkatlerini vermiyorlar. 他們沒有註意。 They aren't noticing. Те не забелязват. Não estão a notar. Fark etmiyorlar. 他们没有注意到。 The more you learn languages, the more you learn a particular language, the more experience you have with the language you start to notice better. Čím více se naučíte jazyky, čím více se naučíte konkrétní jazyk, tím více zkušeností s jazykem začnete lépe vnímat. The more you learn languages, the more you learn a particular language, the more experience you have with the language you start to notice better. Più si imparano le lingue, più si impara una lingua in particolare, più si ha esperienza con quella lingua e si inizia a notare meglio. 言語を学べば学ぶほど、特定の言語を学べば学ぶほど、その言語の経験が増えれば増えるほど、よりよく気づくようになる。 Quanto mais se aprende línguas, quanto mais se aprende uma língua em particular, mais experiência se tem com essa língua e mais se começa a notar melhor. Ne kadar çok dil öğrenirseniz, belirli bir dili ne kadar çok öğrenirseniz, o dille ilgili deneyiminiz arttıkça daha iyi fark etmeye başlarsınız. 学习语言越多,学习某一种语言的经验越丰富,你就越能注意到这种语言的优点。 These are all forms of experience that you gradually accumulate. To všechno jsou formy zkušeností, které postupně hromadíte. Ini semua adalah bentuk pengalaman yang Anda kumpulkan secara bertahap. これらはすべて、少しずつ積み重ねていく経験の形だ。 Tudo isto são formas de experiência que se vão acumulando gradualmente. Bunların hepsi yavaş yavaş biriktirdiğiniz deneyim biçimleridir. 这些都是你逐渐积累的经验。

So a lot of people experience frustration in language learning because they have never achieved success in language learning. Така че много хора изпитват неудовлетворение от изучаването на езици, защото никога не са постигали успех в изучаването на езици. Mnoho lidí tedy zažívá frustraci při studiu jazyků, protože nikdy nedosáhli úspěchu ve studiu jazyků. Por isso, muitas pessoas sentem-se frustradas na aprendizagem de línguas porque nunca alcançaram o sucesso na aprendizagem de línguas. Dolayısıyla pek çok insan dil öğreniminde hayal kırıklığı yaşar çünkü dil öğreniminde hiçbir zaman başarıya ulaşamamışlardır. 因此,很多人在语言学习中都会遇到挫折,因为他们从未在语言学习中取得过成功。

But success breeds success and once you've done it once and you've realized that objective of becoming fluent in another language and you realize how wonderful it is to do that, then you have the confidence that you can do it again. Но успехът ражда успех и след като веднъж сте го направили и сте осъществили целта си да владеете свободно друг език и сте осъзнали колко прекрасно е да го направите, тогава имате увереността, че можете да го направите отново. Ale úspěch plodí úspěch a jakmile to jednou uděláte a uvědomíte si cíl plynně mluvit jiným jazykem a uvědomíte si, jak úžasné je to dělat, pak máte jistotu, že to dokážete znovu. Aber Erfolg führt zu Erfolg, und wenn Sie es einmal geschafft haben und das Ziel verwirklicht haben, eine andere Sprache fließend zu sprechen, und Sie erkennen, wie wunderbar es ist, dies zu tun, dann haben Sie das Vertrauen, dass Sie es wieder schaffen können. Pero el éxito engendra éxito y una vez que lo has hecho una vez y has alcanzado ese objetivo de dominar otro idioma y te das cuenta de lo maravilloso que es hacerlo, entonces tienes la confianza de que puedes volver a hacerlo. しかし、成功は成功し、一度それをやってしまえば、他の言語に流暢になるという目標を実現し、それをやることがどれほどすばらしいかを実感したなら、あなたは再びそれをやることができるという自信があります。 Mas o sucesso gera sucesso e, depois de o fazermos uma vez e de realizarmos o objetivo de nos tornarmos fluentes noutra língua e de nos apercebermos de como é maravilhoso fazê-lo, temos a confiança de que podemos voltar a fazê-lo. Ancak başarı başarıyı doğurur ve bunu bir kez yaptığınızda ve başka bir dilde akıcı olma hedefinizi gerçekleştirdiğinizde ve bunu yapmanın ne kadar harika olduğunu fark ettiğinizde, bunu tekrar yapabileceğinize dair güveniniz olur. 但是,成功孕育着成功,一旦你做到了一次,实现了精通另一门语言的目标,并意识到做到这一点是多么美妙,那么你就会有信心再次做到这一点。 Success breeds success. Успехът ражда успех. Úspěch plodí úspěch. Erfolg bringt Erfolg. Il successo genera successo. 成功は成功する。 Başarı başarıyı doğurur. 成功孕育成功。

Some people stay within the comfort of certain language families, romance languages or European languages, but I think the same applies to learning a language from a completely different language group, say Chinese or Japanese or Arabic. Някои хора се придържат към комфорта на определени езикови семейства, романски или европейски езици, но мисля, че същото важи и за изучаването на език от напълно различна езикова група, например китайски, японски или арабски. Někteří lidé zůstávají v pohodlí určitých jazykových rodin, románských jazyků nebo evropských jazyků, ale myslím si, že totéž platí pro studium jazyka z úplně jiné jazykové skupiny, řekněme čínštiny, japonštiny nebo arabštiny. Einige Menschen bleiben im Komfort bestimmter Sprachfamilien, romanischer Sprachen oder europäischer Sprachen, aber ich denke, das Gleiche gilt für das Erlernen einer Sprache aus einer völlig anderen Sprachgruppe, sagen wir Chinesisch oder Japanisch oder Arabisch. Some people stay within the comfort of certain language families, romance languages or European languages, but I think the same applies to learning a language from a completely different language group, say Chinese or Japanese or Arabic. 一部の人々は、特定の言語ファミリ、ロマンス言語、またはヨーロッパ言語の快適さを保っていますが、中国語、日本語、またはアラビア語など、まったく異なる言語グループから言語を学ぶ場合も同じだと思います。 Algumas pessoas mantêm-se no conforto de certas famílias linguísticas, línguas românicas ou línguas europeias, mas penso que o mesmo se aplica à aprendizagem de uma língua de um grupo linguístico completamente diferente, como o chinês, o japonês ou o árabe. Bazı insanlar belirli dil ailelerinin, romantik dillerin veya Avrupa dillerinin rahatlığı içinde kalırlar, ancak bence aynı şey Çince, Japonca veya Arapça gibi tamamen farklı bir dil grubundan bir dil öğrenmek için de geçerlidir. 有些人在学习某些语系的语言,如罗曼语或欧洲语言时会感到很舒服,但我认为学习完全不同语系的语言,如中文、日语或阿拉伯语时也是如此。

At first people are, again, intimidated because they haven't done it before, but once they do it and they've achieved that sense of success then they know they can do it. Отначало хората отново се плашат, защото не са го правили преди, но след като го направят и постигнат усещането за успех, те знаят, че могат да го направят. Zpočátku jsou lidé opět vystrašení, protože to ještě nedělali, ale jakmile to udělají a dosáhnou toho pocitu úspěchu, vědí, že to dokážou. Am Anfang sind die Leute wiederum eingeschüchtert, weil sie es noch nie gemacht haben, aber wenn sie es einmal getan haben und dieses Erfolgserlebnis haben, dann wissen sie, dass sie es schaffen können. At first people are, again, intimidated because they haven't done it before, but once they do it and they've achieved that sense of success then they know they can do it. 最初に人々は以前にそれをやっていないので再び威圧されますが、一度それを達成して成功の感覚を達成すると、彼らはそれを行うことができることを知っています。 No início, as pessoas sentem-se intimidadas porque nunca o fizeram antes, mas quando o fazem e alcançam essa sensação de sucesso, sabem que são capazes de o fazer. İnsanlar ilk başta, daha önce yapmadıkları için yine gözleri korkuyor, ancak bir kez yaptıklarında ve bu başarı duygusunu elde ettiklerinde, bunu yapabileceklerini biliyorlar. 起初,人们也会被吓到,因为他们以前没做过,但一旦他们做了,获得了成功感,他们就知道自己能做到。

I guess the message here is for those of you who do experience frustration in your language learning, you have to stay the course. Предполагам, че посланието тук е, че тези от вас, които изпитват неудовлетвореност при изучаването на езика, трябва да продължат напред. Myslím, že tato zpráva je určena pro ty z vás, kteří zažívají frustraci při studiu jazyků, musíte zůstat v kurzu. Ich denke, die Botschaft hier ist für diejenigen unter Ihnen, die beim Sprachenlernen frustriert sind, Sie müssen auf Kurs bleiben. I guess the message here is for those of you who do experience frustration in your language learning, you have to stay the course. Immagino che il messaggio qui sia per quelli di voi che provano frustrazione nell'apprendimento delle lingue, dovete mantenere la rotta. ここでのメッセージは、語学学習に不満を感じている方へのメッセージだと思います。コースを継続する必要があります。 Acho que a mensagem aqui é que, para aqueles que sentem frustração na sua aprendizagem de línguas, têm de manter o rumo. Думаю, смысл этого послания в том, что тем из вас, кто испытывает разочарование в изучении языка, нужно не останавливаться на достигнутом. Sanırım buradaki mesaj, dil öğrenirken hayal kırıklığı yaşayanlarınız için, kursa devam etmeniz gerektiğidir. 我想这里的信息是对于那些在语言学习中经历挫折的人来说,你必须坚持到底。 我想,这里要告诉那些在语言学习中遇到挫折的人,你们必须坚持到底。

Find ways to enjoy it. Finden Sie Wege, es zu genießen. それを楽しむ方法を見つけてください。 Encontrar formas de o desfrutar. Найдите способы получать от этого удовольствие. Keyif almanın yollarını bulun. Find some way to climb that first mountain. Finden Sie einen Weg, um diesen ersten Berg zu erklimmen. Encontrar uma forma de escalar essa primeira montanha. O ilk dağa tırmanmanın bir yolunu bulun. 想办法爬上第一座山。 Once you have climbed that first mountain, then you look out and you see all the other peaks and you know that you can climb any of those other peaks because you've already done it. След като сте изкачили първия връх, поглеждате навън и виждате всички останали върхове и знаете, че можете да изкачите всеки един от тях, защото вече сте го направили. Jakmile vylezete na tu první horu, pak se podíváte ven a uvidíte všechny ostatní vrcholy a víte, že můžete vylézt na kterýkoli z těch dalších vrcholů, protože jste to již udělali. Sobald Sie diesen ersten Berg bestiegen haben, schauen Sie hinaus und sehen all die anderen Gipfel und Sie wissen, dass Sie jeden dieser anderen Gipfel besteigen können, weil Sie es bereits getan haben. Once you have climbed that first mountain, then you look out and you see all the other peaks and you know that you can climb any of those other peaks because you've already done it. Una vez que has escalado esa primera montaña, miras hacia fuera y ves todas las demás cumbres y sabes que puedes escalar cualquiera de esas otras cumbres porque ya lo has hecho. その最初の山に登ったら、外を見ると他のすべての山が見えます。すでに登っているので、他の山に登ることができることがわかります。 Depois de escalar a primeira montanha, olhamos para fora e vemos todos os outros picos e sabemos que podemos escalar qualquer um desses picos porque já o fizemos. O ilk dağa tırmandıktan sonra dışarı bakıp diğer tüm zirveleri görürsünüz ve o diğer zirvelerden herhangi birine tırmanabileceğinizi bilirsiniz çünkü bunu zaten yapmışsınızdır. 一旦你登上了第一座山峰,然后你放眼望去,就会看到其他所有的山峰,你知道你可以登上其他任何一座山峰,因为你已经做到了。 The hardest one is the first one. Най-труден е първият. El más difícil es el primero. 一番難しいのは最初の一本だ。 A mais difícil é a primeira. En zor olanı ilkidir. 最难的是第一个。 So I hope that that is in some way motivating. Така че се надявам, че това е по някакъв начин мотивиращо. Takže doufám, že je to nějakým způsobem motivující. Ich hoffe also, dass das in gewisser Weise motivierend ist. So I hope that that is in some way motivating. だから私はそれが何らかの方法で動機づけられていることを願っています。 Espero que isso seja, de alguma forma, motivador. 因此,我希望这在某种程度上能起到激励作用。

I should say one more thing, by the way. Mimochodem, měl bych říct ještě jednu věc. Debo decir una cosa más, por cierto. 私はもう一つ言いたいことがあります。 对了,我还想说一件事。

I've made a lot of videos now in English. 今はたくさんのビデオを英語で作っている。 Atualmente, tenho feito muitos vídeos em inglês. Şu anda İngilizce olarak pek çok video hazırladım. 我现在用英语制作了很多视频。 If you would like to hear a video in another language, please let me know. Ако желаете да чуете видеоклип на друг език, моля, уведомете ме. Pokud byste chtěli slyšet video v jiném jazyce, dejte mi prosím vědět. 別の言語の動画をご希望の場合は、お知らせください。 Videoyu başka bir dilde dinlemek isterseniz, lütfen bana bildirin. 如果您想听其他语言的视频,请告诉我。 But I want to do these for speakers of those languages. Но искам да ги направя за хора, говорещи тези езици. Ale chci to udělat pro mluvčí těchto jazyků. しかし、私はこれらの言語の話者に対してこれらを実行したい。 Mas quero fazer isto para os falantes dessas línguas. Ama bunları o dilleri konuşanlar için yapmak istiyorum. 但我想为讲这些语言的人做这些。 I don't want to just sort of demonstrate Romanian or something. Не искам просто да демонстрирам румънски или нещо подобно. Nechci jen tak nějak demonstrovat rumunštinu nebo tak něco. I don't want to just sort of demonstrate Romanian or something. No quiero hacer una especie de demostración de rumano o algo así. ただルーマニア語のデモンストレーションをしたいとか、そういうことではないんだ。 Não quero apenas fazer uma espécie de demonstração de romeno ou algo do género. Sadece Romence ya da başka bir şey göstermek istemiyorum. 我不想只是演示罗马尼亚语什么的。 If someone feels that they are following me in English but don't fully understand and would like to hear it in Japanese, French, Spanish, Portuguese or some other language, please let me know. Ако някой има чувството, че ме слуша на английски, но не ме разбира напълно и би искал да го чуе на японски, френски, испански, португалски или друг език, моля, уведомете ме. If someone feels that they are following me in English but don't fully understand and would like to hear it in Japanese, French, Spanish, Portuguese or some other language, please let me know. Se alguém sentir que me está a seguir em inglês, mas não entender completamente e quiser ouvir em japonês, francês, espanhol, português ou outra língua, por favor diga-me. Beni İngilizce olarak takip ettiğini düşünen ancak tam olarak anlamayan ve Japonca, Fransızca, İspanyolca, Portekizce veya başka bir dilde duymak isteyen biri varsa, lütfen bana bildirin. 如果有人觉得他们在听我说英语,但不完全理解,希望听到日语、法语、西班牙语、葡萄牙语或其他语言,请告诉我。

I will make mistakes when I do these in other languages, perhaps fewer mistakes in French of Japanese and many mistakes in Russian or Portuguese, but I'm happy to do them with mistakes. Ще допускам грешки, когато ги правя на други езици, може би по-малко грешки на френски или японски и много грешки на руски или португалски, но съм щастлив да ги правя с грешки. Budu dělat chyby, když je budu dělat v jiných jazycích, možná méně chyb ve francouzštině nebo japonštině a mnoho chyb v ruštině nebo portugalštině, ale rád je dělám s chybami. I will make mistakes when I do these in other languages, perhaps fewer mistakes in French of Japanese and many mistakes in Russian or Portuguese, but I'm happy to do them with mistakes. 私は他の言語でこれを行うときに間違いを犯します。おそらく、日本人のフランス語の間違いやロシア語やポルトガル語の間違いが多いでしょうが、間違いをして喜んでしまいます。 Cometerei erros quando os fizer noutras línguas, talvez menos erros em francês ou japonês e muitos erros em russo ou português, mas não me importo de os fazer com erros. Я буду делать ошибки, когда буду заниматься этим на других языках, возможно, меньше ошибок во французском или японском и много ошибок в русском или португальском, но я счастлив делать это с ошибками. Bunları diğer dillerde yaptığımda hatalar yapacağım, belki Japonca ve Fransızca'da daha az, Rusça ve Portekizce'de ise çok hata yapacağım ama bunları hatalarla yapmaktan mutluyum. 我用其他语言做这些工作时也会出错,用法语或日语做可能错误较少,而用俄语或葡萄牙语做则错误百出,但我很乐意带着错误做这些工作。

If I say that it's important to accept the fact that we make mistakes when we speak foreign languages, I have to accept the fact that I'm going to make mistakes. Když říkám, že je důležité přijmout fakt, že děláme chyby, když mluvíme cizími jazyky, musím přijmout fakt, že budu dělat chyby. 外国語を話すときに間違いを犯すという事実を受け入れることが重要だと言うなら、私も間違いを犯すという事実を受け入れなければならない。 Se eu disser que é importante aceitar o facto de que cometemos erros quando falamos línguas estrangeiras, tenho de aceitar o facto de que vou cometer erros. Если я говорю, что важно принять тот факт, что мы делаем ошибки, когда говорим на иностранных языках, то я должен принять тот факт, что я буду делать ошибки. Yabancı dil konuşurken hata yaptığımız gerçeğini kabul etmenin önemli olduğunu söylüyorsam, hata yapacağım gerçeğini de kabul etmek zorundayım. 如果我说接受我们说外语时会犯错误的事实很重要,那么我就必须接受我也会犯错误的事实。 I don't mind showing my mistakes to other people; it's all part of the process. Nevadí mi ukazovat své chyby jiným lidem; to vše je součástí procesu. Es macht mir nichts aus, meine Fehler anderen Menschen zu zeigen. Es ist alles Teil des Prozesses. No me importa mostrar mis errores a los demás; forma parte del proceso. 自分のミスを他の人に見せることに抵抗はない。 Não me importo de mostrar os meus erros a outras pessoas; faz tudo parte do processo. Hatalarımı başkalarına göstermekten çekinmiyorum; bu da sürecin bir parçası. 我不介意向别人展示我的错误,这也是过程的一部分。

So I look forward to hearing from you. Así que espero con interés escuchar de usted. Por isso, aguardo com expetativa o vosso contacto. Bu yüzden sizden haber bekliyorum. 所以我期待收到您的來信。

You can ask me here or you can send me a message by Twitter. You can ask me here or you can send me a message by Twitter. Pode perguntar-me aqui ou enviar-me uma mensagem pelo Twitter. Bana buradan sorabilir ya da Twitter üzerinden mesaj gönderebilirsiniz. 你可以在这里问我,也可以通过 Twitter 给我发信息。 However you want Lingo Steve and I'd be happy to answer the questions or if you have a special request to hear some of my views on language learning in other languages, please let me know. Въпреки това искате Lingo Steve и аз ще се радвам да отговоря на въпросите или ако имате специална молба да чуете някои от моите възгледи за изучаването на други езици, моля, кажете ми. Wie auch immer Sie wollen, Lingo Steve und ich beantworten gerne Ihre Fragen, oder wenn Sie einen speziellen Wunsch haben, etwas von meinen Ansichten zum Sprachenlernen in anderen Sprachen zu hören, lassen Sie es mich bitte wissen. However you want Lingo Steve and I'd be happy to answer the questions or if you have a special request to hear some of my views on language learning in other languages, please let me know. しかし、あなたはLingo Steveが欲しいと思います。私は質問にお答えできますか、他の言語の言語学習に関する私の見解を聞く特別なご要望があれば教えてください。 Se quiser, o Lingo Steve e eu teremos todo o gosto em responder às perguntas ou se tiver um pedido especial para ouvir alguns dos meus pontos de vista sobre a aprendizagem de línguas noutras línguas, por favor diga-me. Lingo Steve ve ben soruları yanıtlamaktan mutluluk duyarız ya da diğer dillerde dil öğrenimi hakkındaki görüşlerimi duymak için özel bir isteğiniz varsa, lütfen bana bildirin. 无论如何,我和 Lingo Steve 都很乐意回答您的问题,如果您有特殊要求,想听听我对其他语言学习的看法,请告诉我。

Thank you for listening, bye for now. Obrigado por me ouvirem, adeus por agora. Dinlediğiniz için teşekkürler, şimdilik hoşça kalın.