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Steve's Language Learning Tips, The Noticing Hypothesis in Language Learning

The Noticing Hypothesis in Language Learning

I think there are many reasons why people notice certain things better than other people, particularly when it comes to pronunciation. But I'm sure the same is true in terms of noticing things in grammar. Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. Today I want to talk about noticing in language learning. Uh, there's a thing called the noticing hypothesis, which has created some controversy and in linguistic circles, but I'm going to talk about how noticing influences our ability to learn language.

Remember, if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe. You can click on the bell for notifications. So I have said before that one of the best descriptions of language learning of what is involved in learning a language is something I heard at a conference of language teachers in San Diego where, um, one of the people presenting there said language learning consists of three things: the attitude of the learner, the time spent with the language, not listening to explanations in English or something, uh, so time spent with a language, attitude, time spent with the language and the ability to notice. Now I notice that I notice things when I'm learning a language and I notice them at different times. Now, apparently there is a thing called the noticing hypothesis, which was proposed in 1960 by a professor.

And again, as with so much in the sort of academic approach to language learning, he sort of, as I can understand it, trying to read the explanations online of noticing hypothesis, he sort of presents a somewhat extreme case of the importance of noticing to language acquisition, and therefore it became sort of in opposition to, or in some ways in contradiction to what Krashen said about the importance of input, sort of just naturally absorbing the language.

You know, he implies that you have to kind of deliberately notice things to be able to acquire them. And, uh, so I, you know, I, I invite you to Google for it, uh, Wikipedia or elsewhere, and see if you can make sense of this linguistics debate. I can't really, but I would like to talk about noticing. My impression of the importance of noticing to language learning.

First of all, when we begin with a new language, we don't notice much. It's all noise to us. Like if you're trying to notice the pronunciation, you can't really hear it that well. And so everything is kind of like a blank slate, but certain things start to fall into place naturally. And as we, and so that we start to notice certain things.

We notice that, uh, you know, how certain things are pronounced and some people may notice better than others. But that's... we notice more than other things that had previously been hidden come forward. And we start to notice them a bit like a jigsaw. So when you start a jigsaw puzzle, it's totally blank.

As you start to put some of the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle into place, you start to see, you know, greater likelihood of where some of the pieces might fit and, and language learning is very much like that. So you start to notice that there's a gap here, that maybe this is where this piece belongs. And, uh, certainly that's been my experience, uh, you know, in Russian, for example, um, you, you know, any un, um, accentuated syllable that has the letter "o", what we would call the sound "o" in it becomes "a", you don't notice that at first.

Uh, you know, and then eventually you start to notice that, and once you've noticed that, now you're ready to notice something else. And I don't know that there's any special order for these things, except to say that the more things we have already noticed, the more new things we can start to notice. Now, is it a deliberate activity, that of noticing?

Okay. I think first of all, the more we listen and read the more we naturally almost subconsciously notice things because we're naturally, this is sort of Krashen's input hypothesis, we're just gradually acquiring the language. Our brain is starting to recognize certain patterns in the language, so that even without deliberately trying to notice anything, we start to notice things.

All right. Uh, and, but I had the experience as I listened to a mini story for the 30th time, I noticed something that I hadn't noticed before. So we are continuing to notice just through this process of listening and reading. However, okay, and some people notice better than others. Uh, if, if someone pronounces something in a foreign language, I will tend to notice that pronunciation, to pick up on it right away.

Right. And I've said, you know, uh, when I was in Japan and I'd have visitors from north America who would be introduced to Mr. Sato, people would say Mr. Sato, because it's written S A T O. So they see the name card S A T O. That should be Sato. Uh, even though they hear him pronounce his own name. So they don't notice the pronunciation.

Other people will immediately hear Sato and go Sato. So, uh, the ability to notice varies with people. Now, are there psychological reasons why some people notice better than others? Some people are more willing to just go with what they hear, whereas other people are more stuck with the way the word is written.

We have all kinds of examples of people. You know, my father who was from Czechoslovakia "word" was "ward" W O R D because to him, that's the way it should be pronounced. That's how it's written. So there was a certain resistance to the fact that in English actually it's pronounced "word" is not pronounced "ward".

Um, so I think there are many reasons why people notice certain things better than other people, particularly when it comes to pronunciation. But I'm sure the same is true in terms of noticing things in grammar. Now, what can help us notice? First of all, we have to want to notice. And second of all obviously a teacher or a grammatical explanation can help us notice.

Like I have very often read an explanation of something and then I start to notice it when I next see that in a text, whether it be a structure or even some aspect of pronunciation, however, we have to be ready. We have to be ready to receive that bit of information, because if it comes too early, we don't know enough about the language, we haven't experienced enough about the language for that hint to be useful.

So maybe having struggled with Russian for a certain amount of time and, um, say I'm able to pronounce certain things at that point. If someone points out that actually yeah, an accentuated, uh, uh, you know, syllables with "o" are pronounced "a". Now I notice it, if that had been told to me right up front at the beginning, I don't think I would have been able to retain that.

And I think I would have missed it the next time and the next time, the next time that it showed up. So there is a question of timing. And so far as noticing is concerned timing both in terms of what you're going to naturally notice and also in terms of what, you know, teachers or grammar resources or other explanations can...in terms of how useful they can be in helping you to notice.

But I do feel that in order to, and I guess this is where I agree with aspects of the, uh, noticing hypothesis, uh, you have to be able to notice things first before you can actually start to use them yourself. And, and we've all had the experience that once we noticed something that for the longest time we never noticed, once we noticed it here, all of a sudden you start to see it there.

And when you see it there and we see... and, uh, there is a term for that, which I've forgotten, but once certain things are either pointed out to us or we, we become aware of them and we start to notice them. Then we see them elsewhere. And I think noticing is very much a part of your brain starting to, you know, recognize patterns in the language so that initially your comprehension improves and eventually your ability to pronounce things correctly or to, uh, you know, use the structure correctly will improve. So noticing is very much a part of the process. I think the biggest contributor to our ability to notice is a quantity of content that we consume, reading and listening. Another important factor is our willingness to notice, our willingness to accept this, that, in other words, we, we leave aside the prejudices from our own language.

That the structure should be this way, because this is the way we say it in our language. This should be pronounced this way, because that's how it's pronounced in our language or that's how that those are the values that those letters have in our native language. So, you know, more willingness to accept and, and also the desire to want to hear what's going on.

So there is an element of wanting to notice, and then there's also the sort of external factors that can help us notice such as a teacher, such as somebody pointing something out, pointing out a mistake, for example, uh, these are all part and parcel of what helps us to notice. And I think we have to be able to notice in order to improve in a language.

So I strayed a bit from the sort of pure noticing hypothesis, but those are the ways I have noticed that noticing helps me learn languages. So, uh, thank you for listening. Bye for now.


The Noticing Hypothesis in Language Learning Die Wahrnehmungshypothese beim Sprachenlernen La hipótesis de la noción en el aprendizaje de idiomas L'hypothèse de l'observation dans l'apprentissage des langues Hipotesis Memperhatikan dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa L'ipotesi della notazione nell'apprendimento delle lingue 言語学習における気づき仮説 Hipoteza zauważania w nauce języków obcych A Hipótese da Notificação na Aprendizagem de Línguas Гипотеза замечения в обучении иностранным языкам Dil Öğreniminde Fark Etme Hipotezi 语言学习中的注意假设 語言學習中的注意假設

I think there are many reasons why people notice certain things better than other people, particularly when it comes to pronunciation. But I'm sure the same is true in terms of noticing things in grammar. Aber ich bin mir sicher, dass das Gleiche gilt, wenn es darum geht, Dinge in der Grammatik zu bemerken. Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. Today I want to talk about noticing in language learning. Hari ini saya ingin berbicara tentang memperhatikan dalam pembelajaran bahasa. Uh, there's a thing called the noticing hypothesis, which has created some controversy and in linguistic circles, but I'm going to talk about how noticing influences our ability to learn language. Uh, es gibt eine Sache, die sich Notizen-Hypothese nennt, die zu einigen Kontroversen und in Sprachkreisen geführt hat, aber ich werde darüber sprechen, wie das Bemerken unsere Fähigkeit, Sprache zu lernen, beeinflusst. Eh, ada hal yang disebut hipotesis memperhatikan, yang telah menimbulkan beberapa kontroversi dan di kalangan linguistik, tapi saya akan berbicara tentang bagaimana memperhatikan mempengaruhi kemampuan kita untuk belajar bahasa.

Remember, if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe. You can click on the bell for notifications. So I have said before that one of the best descriptions of language learning of what is involved in learning a language is something I heard at a conference of language teachers in San Diego where, um, one of the people presenting there said language learning consists of three things: the attitude of the learner, the time spent with the language, not listening to explanations in English or something, uh, so time spent with a language, attitude, time spent with the language and the ability to notice. 所以我之前说过,对语言学习最好的描述之一是我在圣地亚哥的一次语言教师会议上听到的,其中一位出席会议的人说语言学习包括三件事:学习者的态度,花在语言上的时间,不听英语解释什么的,呃,花在语言上的时间,态度,花在语言上的时间和注意的能力。 Now I notice that I notice things when I'm learning a language and I notice them at different times. 现在我注意到,当我学习语言时,我会注意到一些事情,而且我会在不同的时间注意到它们。 Now, apparently there is a thing called the noticing hypothesis, which was proposed in 1960 by a professor. 现在,显然有一个叫做“注意假说”的东西,它是由一位教授在 1960 年提出的。

And again, as with so much in the sort of academic approach to language learning, he sort of, as I can understand it, trying to read the explanations online of noticing hypothesis, he sort of presents a somewhat extreme case of the importance of noticing to language acquisition, and therefore it became sort of in opposition to, or in some ways in contradiction to what Krashen said about the importance of input, sort of just naturally absorbing the language. Und wieder, wie bei so vielen akademischen Herangehensweisen an das Sprachenlernen, versucht er, wie ich es verstehen kann, irgendwie, die Erklärungen zur Hypothese des Bemerkens online zu lesen, er präsentiert einen etwas extremen Fall der Bedeutung des Bemerkens zum Spracherwerb, und deshalb stand es irgendwie im Widerspruch zu dem, was Krashen über die Bedeutung des Inputs sagte, oder in gewisser Weise im Widerspruch zu dem, was Krashen über die Bedeutung des Inputs sagte, und nahm die Sprache einfach auf natürliche Weise auf. 再说一遍,就像语言学习的学术方法一样,据我所知,他试图在网上阅读关于注意假设的解释,他提出了一个有点极端的例子,说明注意的重要性语言习得,因此它有点反对,或者在某些方面与克拉申所说的输入的重要性相矛盾,有点自然地吸收语言。

You know, he implies that you have to kind of deliberately notice things to be able to acquire them. 你知道,他暗示你必须刻意地注意事物才能获得它们。 And, uh, so I, you know, I, I invite you to Google for it, uh, Wikipedia or elsewhere, and see if you can make sense of this linguistics debate. 而且,呃,所以我,你知道,我,我邀请你去谷歌,呃,维基百科或其他地方,看看你是否能理解这场语言学辩论。 I can't really, but I would like to talk about noticing. 我真的不能,但我想谈谈注意。 My impression of the importance of noticing to language learning. 我对注意对于语言学习的重要性的印象。

First of all, when we begin with a new language, we don't notice much. 首先,当我们开始学习一门新语言时,我们不会注意到太多。 It's all noise to us. Like if you're trying to notice the pronunciation, you can't really hear it that well. 就像如果你想注意发音一样,你并不能真正听清楚。 And so everything is kind of like a blank slate, but certain things start to fall into place naturally. 所以一切都有点像一张白纸,但某些事情开始自然地就位。 And as we, and so that we start to notice certain things. 作为我们,我们开始注意到某些事情。

We notice that, uh, you know, how certain things are pronounced and some people may notice better than others. But that's... we notice more than other things that had previously been hidden come forward. 但这是……我们注意到的事情比以前隐藏的其他事情要多。 但是......我们注意到更多的是以前被隐藏起来的其他事情。 And we start to notice them a bit like a jigsaw. 我们开始像拼图一样注意到它们。 So when you start a jigsaw puzzle, it's totally blank. 所以当你开始拼图时,它是完全空白的。

As you start to put some of the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle into place, you start to see, you know, greater likelihood of where some of the pieces might fit and, and language learning is very much like that. 当你开始将拼图游戏的某些部分放在适当的位置时,你开始看到,你知道,某些部分可能适合的可能性更大,语言学习与此非常相似。 So you start to notice that there's a gap here, that maybe this is where this piece belongs. 所以你开始注意到这里有一个缺口,也许这就是这件作品所属的地方。 And, uh, certainly that's been my experience, uh, you know, in Russian, for example, um, you, you know, any un, um, accentuated syllable that has the letter "o", what we would call the sound "o" in it becomes "a", you don't notice that at first. 而且,呃,当然这是我的经验,呃,你知道,在俄语中,例如,嗯,你,你知道,任何带有字母“o”的重读音节,我们称之为“声音” o”变成了“a”,一开始你没有注意到。

Uh, you know, and then eventually you start to notice that, and once you've noticed that, now you're ready to notice something else. 呃,你知道,然后最终你开始注意到这一点,一旦你注意到这一点,现在你就准备好注意到其他事情了。 And I don't know that there's any special order for these things, except to say that the more things we have already noticed, the more new things we can start to notice. 我不知道这些事情有什么特殊的顺序,只是说我们已经注意到的事情越多,我们就能开始注意到的新事情就越多。 Now, is it a deliberate activity, that of noticing? Ist es nun eine bewusste Aktivität, etwas zu bemerken? 现在,这是一种有意的活动,即注意吗?

Okay. I think first of all, the more we listen and read the more we naturally almost subconsciously notice things because we're naturally, this is sort of Krashen's input hypothesis, we're just gradually acquiring the language. Ich denke, je mehr wir zuhören und lesen, desto mehr bemerken wir ganz natürlich, fast unbewusst, weil wir ganz natürlich, das ist sozusagen die Input-Hypothese von Krashen, uns die Sprache allmählich aneignen. 我认为首先,我们听和读得越多,我们自然而然地几乎是下意识地注意到事物,因为我们很自然地,这有点像克拉申的输入假设,我们只是在逐渐习得语言。 Our brain is starting to recognize certain patterns in the language, so that even without deliberately trying to notice anything, we start to notice things. 我们的大脑开始识别语言中的某些模式,因此即使没有刻意去注意任何事物,我们也开始注意到事物。

All right. Uh, and, but I had the experience as I listened to a mini story for the 30th time, I noticed something that I hadn't noticed before. 呃,还有,但是我有一个经历,当我听了第30遍的小故事时,我注意到了一些我以前没有注意到的事情。 So we are continuing to notice just through this process of listening and reading. 所以我们只是通过这个听和读的过程来继续注意。 However, okay, and some people notice better than others. 不过,好吧,有些人比其他人注意到得更好。 Uh, if, if someone pronounces something in a foreign language, I will tend to notice that pronunciation, to pick up on it right away. 呃,如果,如果有人用外语发音,我会倾向于注意到那个发音,立即掌握它。

Right. And I've said, you know, uh, when I was in Japan and I'd have visitors from north America who would be introduced to Mr. Sato, people would  say Mr. Sato, because it's written S A T O. So they see the name card S A T O. That should be Sato. Y he dicho, ya sabes, eh, cuando estaba en Japón y tenía visitantes de América del Norte que serían presentados al Sr. Sato, la gente decía Sr. Sato, porque está escrito S A T O. Así que ven la tarjeta con el nombre S A T O. Eso debería ser Sato. 我说过,你知道,呃,当我在日本的时候,我有来自北美的访客,他们会被介绍给佐藤先生,人们会说佐藤先生,因为它写着 SAT O。所以他们看到名片SAT O。那应该是佐藤。 Uh, even though they hear him pronounce his own name. 呃,尽管他们听到他念出自己的名字。 So they don't notice the pronunciation. 所以他们不会注意到发音。

Other people will immediately hear Sato and go Sato. 其他人会立即听到佐藤并走向佐藤。 So, uh, the ability to notice varies with people. 所以,呃,注意的能力因人而异。 Now, are there psychological reasons why some people notice better than others? 现在,是否有心理原因导致某些人比其他人注意到得更好? Some people are more willing to just go with what they hear, whereas other people are more stuck with the way the word is written. 有些人更愿意遵循他们所听到的,而另一些人则更坚持单词的书写方式。

We have all kinds of examples of people. 我们有各种各样的人的例子。 You know, my father who was from Czechoslovakia "word" was "ward" W O R D because to him, that's the way it should be pronounced. 你知道,我来自捷克斯洛伐克的父亲“word”是“ward”WORD,因为对他来说,这就是它应该发音的方式。 That's how it's written. So there was a certain resistance to the fact that in English actually it's pronounced "word" is not pronounced "ward". 因此,对于英语中实际上发音为“word”而不是发音为“ward”的事实存在一定的抵制。

Um, so I think there are many reasons why people notice certain things better than other people, particularly when it comes to pronunciation. 嗯,所以我认为人们比其他人更能注意到某些事情有很多原因,特别是在发音方面。 But I'm sure the same is true in terms of noticing things in grammar. 但我确信在注意语法方面也是如此。 Now, what can help us notice? First of all, we have to want to notice. And second of all obviously a teacher or a grammatical explanation can help us notice. 其次,显然老师或语法解释可以帮助我们注意到。

Like I have very often read an explanation of something and then I start to notice it when I next see that in a text, whether it be a structure or even some aspect of pronunciation, however, we have to be ready. 就像我经常阅读某件事的解释,然后当我下次在文本中看到它时我开始注意到它,无论是结构还是发音的某些方面,然而,我们必须做好准备。 We have to be ready to receive that bit of information, because if it comes too early, we don't know enough about the language, we haven't experienced enough about the language for that hint to be useful. 我们必须准备好接收这些信息,因为如果来得太早,我们对这门语言就不够了解,我们对这门语言的经验还不够,所以这个提示是有用的。

So maybe having struggled with Russian for a certain amount of time and, um, say I'm able to pronounce certain things at that point. 所以也许在俄语方面已经挣扎了一段时间,嗯,说我那时能够发音某些东西了。 If someone points out that actually yeah, an accentuated, uh, uh, you know, syllables with "o" are pronounced "a". 如果有人指出,实际上是的,重音,呃,呃,你知道,带有“o”的音节发音为“a”。 Now I notice it, if that had been told to me right up front at the beginning, I don't think I would have been able to retain that. 现在我注意到了,如果一开始就告诉我这一点,我想我无法记住这一点。

And I think I would have missed it the next time and the next time, the next time that it showed up. 我想下次我会错过它,下一次,下一次它出现的时候。 So there is a question of timing. 所以存在一个时间问题。 And so far as noticing is concerned timing both in terms of what you're going to naturally notice and also in terms of what, you know, teachers or grammar resources or other explanations can...in terms of how useful they can be in helping you to notice. 就注意而言,时间安排既包括您自然会注意到的内容,也包括您知道的老师或语法资源或其他解释可以......就它们的有用程度而言帮助你注意到。

But I do feel that in order to, and I guess this is where I agree with aspects of the, uh, noticing hypothesis, uh, you have to be able to notice things first before you can actually start to use them yourself. 但我确实觉得,为了,我想这就是我同意呃,注意假设的各个方面,呃,你必须首先能够注意到事物,然后才能真正开始自己使用它们。 And, and we've all had the experience that once we noticed something that for the longest time we never noticed, once we noticed it here, all of a sudden you start to see it there. 而且,我们都有这样的经历:一旦我们注意到了很长时间以来我们从未注意到的东西,一旦我们在这里注意到它,突然间你开始在那里看到它。

And when you see it there and we see... and, uh, there is a term for that, which I've forgotten, but once certain things are either pointed out to us or we, we become aware of them and we start to notice them. 当你在那里看到它时,我们看到......而且,呃,有一个术语,我已经忘记了,但是一旦向我们或我们指出某些事情,我们就会意识到它们,然后我们开始去注意他们。 Then we see them elsewhere. 然后我们在其他地方看到他们。 And I think noticing is very much a part of your brain starting to, you know, recognize patterns in the language so that initially your comprehension improves and eventually your ability to pronounce things correctly or to, uh, you know, use the structure correctly will improve. 我认为注意在很大程度上是你大脑的一部分,开始识别语言中的模式,这样一开始你的理解能力就会提高,最终你正确发音或正确使用结构的能力将会提高。提升。 So noticing is very much a part of the process. 所以注意是这个过程的一部分。 I think the biggest contributor to our ability to notice is a quantity of content that we consume, reading and listening. 我认为对我们的注意力能力影响最大的是我们消费、阅读和聆听的内容量。 Another important factor is our willingness to notice, our willingness to accept this, that, in other words, we, we leave aside the prejudices from our own language. Otro factor importante es nuestra voluntad de darnos cuenta, nuestra voluntad de aceptar esto, que, en otras palabras, nosotros, dejemos de lado los prejuicios de nuestra propia lengua. 另一个重要因素是我们愿意注意到,我们愿意接受这一点,换句话说,我们,我们抛开我们自己语言中的偏见。

That the structure should be this way, because this is the way we say it in our language. 结构应该是这样的,因为这是我们用我们的语言表达的方式。 This should be pronounced this way, because that's how it's pronounced in our language or that's how that those are the values that those letters have in our native language. 这应该这样发音,因为这就是它在我们的语言中的发音方式,或者这些字母在我们的母语中的值就是这样的。 So, you know, more willingness to accept and, and also the desire to want to hear what's going on. Así que, ya sabes, más voluntad de aceptar y, y también el deseo de querer escuchar lo que está pasando. 所以,你知道,更愿意接受,并且也渴望听到正在发生的事情。

So there is an element of wanting to notice, and then there's also the sort of external factors that can help us notice such as a teacher, such as somebody pointing something out, pointing out a mistake, for example, uh, these are all part and parcel of what helps us to notice. Es gibt also ein Element des Willens, etwas zu bemerken, und dann gibt es auch die Art von externen Faktoren, die uns helfen können, etwas zu bemerken, wie z. B. ein Lehrer, jemand, der uns auf etwas hinweist, z. B. auf einen Fehler, äh, all das ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil dessen, was uns hilft, etwas zu bemerken. Así que hay un elemento de querer darse cuenta, y también están los factores externos que pueden ayudarnos a darnos cuenta, como un profesor, alguien que nos señale algo, un error, por ejemplo... Todo esto forma parte de lo que nos ayuda a darnos cuenta. 所以有一个想要注意的因素,然后还有一种外部因素可以帮助我们注意,比如老师,比如有人指出一些事情,指出一个错误,比如说呃,这些都是一部分。以及帮助我们注意的部分内容。 And I think we have to be able to notice in order to improve in a language.

So I strayed a bit from the sort of pure noticing hypothesis, but those are the ways I have noticed that noticing helps me learn languages. Así que me he desviado un poco de la hipótesis de la percepción pura, pero esas son las formas en las que he notado que la percepción me ayuda a aprender idiomas. So, uh, thank you for listening. Bye for now.