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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, The Mind, the Brain and Language Learning

The Mind, the Brain and Language Learning

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here.

I recently did a video where I talked about how our emotions get in the way of our language learning, even though we would like to pronounce something a certain way. I used the example of myself learning Portuguese and speaking with Brazilian people and hearing them say and, because of my Spanish, I just don't want to say , even though that's how it's said. My wife doesn't want to pronounce the _ in Spanish. Whether it be because of our culture or because of whatever prejudices we may have or other emotional sort of forms of resistance, these things get in the way of us simply accepting the new language and just going with it and flowing with it.

I mentioned the example of my father who always used to say _ instead of Nova Scotia because to him it just seemed to make more sense that it be pronounced like the original Latin or something and that he wasn't going to say Nova Scotia, even though he heard it all the time. This kind of stuff happens regularly. There was a person who commented on that video and said a lot of the emotional resistance that we have to different aspects of the language we're trying to learn is subconscious, so how do we persuade our brains not to resist emotionally, surely, that's impossible, was his question.

So I'm going to tackle that one. First of all, I think we have to decide whether or not we want to change this emotional resistance.

Let's take an example. I have a certain way of learning a language. It's based on listening and reading and sort of discovering the language naturally, acquiring words and getting a feel for the language. I was on a system the other day, just to see what the competition is doing, where they show you pictures and then give you these little snippets of phrases. Then they quickly turn around and give it to you in English and ask you to say it in the target language. Then they have you dragging and dropping words so you're doing something with word order. In other words, there is this whole pedagogical school of thought that says that we have to get the student to do something with the language – respond, say something, move words around, analyze and I have a tremendous resistance to this.

The minute I see that I'm out of there. I don't want it. I don't want to have to say anything until I've heard it a lot, until I've had a chance to absorb it. This might, in fact, be an irrational emotional reaction on my part, I don't know, but I have no desire to change it. So there's no way there that I'm going to change because I'm quite comfortable. I enjoy doing it my way, I'm not about to change. However, let's take the case of the Brazilian pronunciation. There I think my reaction is much more irrational. So how do we change emotional resistance that we have to something.

I think in many cases, if I look at immigrants here who never progress beyond a certain level in say English, it's because they're not very motivated or they want to kind of hang back in their culture, so how do we get them to change that. Well, if they don't want to change it, you can't get them to change it. If, in fact, at some level we want to change, then I think it can be done. That's where I want to bring in what I consider a very interesting book on many levels, which I have mentioned before. It's called The Mind & The Brain by, basically, Jeffrey Schwartz. What this book does, it talks about people who have obsessive-compulsive behavior.

Obsessive-compulsive behavior describes a situation where people feel they have to wash their hands every five minutes or, I don't know, they're afraid of snakes. It could be anything which becomes obsessive and very often this is treated with drugs. Jeffrey Schwartz developed a treatment which is, essentially, based on getting the patient to recognize that the neuro network that is driving him or her to wash their hands every three minutes or do something else that's obsessive sort of exists objectively in the brain and that with enough determination and with a series of exercises and practice that the mind of the patient, the determination, the will, the willingness to recognize that this circuitry that causes this person to behave in a certain way exists objectively and is not necessarily part of that person's personality or doesn't have to be part of his or her behavior. So once the person recognizes that their mind can be apart from this behavior then they can start looking at ways that the mind can influence the brain and actually change those neuro networks, change that behavior.

As the person commenting to my previous video said, we have these emotional resistances and they are subconscious, but even subconscious things in the brain, if we are determined to, we can actually influence them through our determination. So if we are resisting something, hanging back in our native culture, unwilling to, basically, let ourselves go, let's say we have the irrational fear of making a mistake or creating a bad impression. I mean the fear that we're going to make a mistake is not irrational, but the fear that we will be somehow thought less well of or that it somehow causes people not to like us, any of these other fears associated with making a mistake, are largely irrational and so, perhaps, using some of the methodology that's described by Schwartz here, we can influence our brain so that we are less concerned, less uptight, less afraid or that we don't resist certain forms of pronunciation or certain structures of the new language and that we just wholeheartedly take them up and make them part of ourselves.

Given that you want to make that change at some level and that the brain is resisting, the mind, in fact, according to Jeffrey Schwartz, can overcome the brain.

I also have mentioned before in a video that I had a little bit of experience of something somewhat related to this. When I was a little boy, my father could wiggle his ears and I wanted to be able to wiggle my ears. I would literally sit for hours just telling myself wiggle the ears and, eventually, I was able to cause a neuro network or some connection to occur in my brain. I don't know if you can see this, but I can wiggle my ears, especially this one. No, it's this one here that wiggles more. You probably can't see it, but I can assure you, I can wiggle my ears and this is something I achieved through my determination, the mind influencing the brain. So I think the answer to this question how do we overcome these irrational fears that we have or these forms of emotional resistance that we have, well if you read the book by Jeffrey Schwartz you will see that, in fact, our determination is sending some kind of electrochemical signal through the neurons.

I mean I don't understand all that stuff, but it can affect the behavior of the brain. The mind can influence the brain and that, I think, has lots of significance for language learning. So that's my answer to that person's question.

Thank you for listening.


The Mind, the Brain and Language Learning 心、脳、言語学習

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. こんにちは、スティーブカウフマンです。

I recently did a video where I talked about how our emotions get in the way of our language learning, even though we would like to pronounce something a certain way. Recientemente hice un video donde hablé sobre cómo nuestras emociones se interponen en nuestro aprendizaje de idiomas, aunque nos gustaría pronunciar algo de cierta manera. 私は最近、特定の方法で何かを発音したいのに、私たちの感情が言語学習の邪魔になる方法について話しているビデオを作りました。 I used the example of myself learning Portuguese and speaking with Brazilian people and hearing them say ________ and, because of my Spanish, I just don’t want to say ________, even though that’s how it’s said. Usé el ejemplo de mí mismo aprendiendo portugués y hablando con brasileños y escuchándolos decir y, debido a mi español, simplemente no quiero decir, aunque así es como se dice. 私は自分がポルトガル語を学び、ブラジルの人々と話し、彼らが________と言うのを聞いた例を使用しました。私のスペイン語のため、________とは言いたくありません。 My wife doesn’t want to pronounce the _____ in Spanish. Mi esposa no quiere pronunciar el _ en español. 私の妻はスペイン語で_____を発音したくありません。 Whether it be because of our culture or because of whatever prejudices we may have or other emotional sort of forms of resistance, these things get in the way of us simply accepting the new language and just going with it and flowing with it. Ya sea por nuestra cultura o por los prejuicios que podamos tener u otras formas emocionales de resistencia, estas cosas se interponen en el camino de que simplemente aceptemos el nuevo idioma y sigamos con él y fluyamos con él. それが私たちの文化のせいであろうと、私たちが持っているかもしれない偏見や他の感情的な形の抵抗のせいであろうと、これらのことは私たちが単に新しい言語を受け入れ、それと一緒に行き、それとともに流れるのを邪魔します。 无论是由于我们的文化,还是由于我们可能存在的任何偏见,或由于其他情感上的某种形式的抵制,这些事情都会妨碍我们简单地接受新语言并与之并驾齐驱。

I mentioned the example of my father who always used to say _______ instead of Nova Scotia because to him it just seemed to make more sense that it be pronounced like the original Latin or something and that he wasn’t going to say Nova Scotia, even though he heard it all the time. Mencioné el ejemplo de mi padre que siempre solía decir _ en lugar de Nova Scotia porque para él parecía tener más sentido que se pronunciara como el latín original o algo así y que él no iba a decir Nova Scotia, incluso aunque lo escuchaba todo el tiempo. ノバスコシアの代わりにいつも_______と言っていた父の例を挙げました。彼にとっては、元のラテン語か何かのように発音され、ノバスコシアとさえ言わないほうが理にかなっているようだったからです。彼はいつもそれを聞いていましたが。 This kind of stuff happens regularly. Este tipo de cosas suceden regularmente. この種のことは定期的に起こります。 There was a person who commented on that video and said a lot of the emotional resistance that we have to different aspects of the language we’re trying to learn is subconscious, so how do we persuade our brains not to resist emotionally, surely, that’s impossible, was his question. そのビデオにコメントして、私たちが学ぼうとしている言語のさまざまな側面に対する感情的な抵抗の多くは潜在意識であると言った人がいました。それで、どうすれば感情的に抵抗しないように脳を説得することができますか?不可能、彼の質問でした。

So I’m going to tackle that one. Así que voy a abordar ese. だから私はそれに取り組むつもりです。 First of all, I think we have to decide whether or not we want to change this emotional resistance. まず、この感情的な抵抗を変えたいかどうかを決めなければならないと思います。

Let’s take an example. 例を見てみましょう。 I have a certain way of learning a language. Tengo una cierta manera de aprender un idioma. 私には言語を学ぶ特定の方法があります。 It’s based on listening and reading and sort of discovering the language naturally, acquiring words and getting a feel for the language. Se basa en escuchar y leer y descubrir el idioma de forma natural, adquiriendo palabras y teniendo una idea del idioma. それは、聞くことと読むこと、そして言語を自然に発見すること、単語を習得すること、そして言語の感触をつかむことに基づいています。 I was on a system the other day, just to see what the competition is doing, where they show you pictures and then give you these little snippets of phrases. Estuve en un sistema el otro día, solo para ver qué está haciendo la competencia, donde te muestran imágenes y luego te dan estos pequeños fragmentos de frases. 私は先日、競合他社が何をしているのかを確認するためにシステムを使用していました。そこでは、写真が表示され、これらの小さなフレーズの断片が表示されます。 Then they quickly turn around and give it to you in English and ask you to say it in the target language. Luego, rápidamente se dan la vuelta y te lo dan en inglés y te piden que lo digas en el idioma de destino. それから彼らはすぐに振り返って英語であなたにそれを与え、あなたにそれを目標言語で言うように頼みます。 Then they have you dragging and dropping words so you’re doing something with word order. Luego te hacen arrastrar y soltar palabras para que hagas algo con el orden de las palabras. 次に、単語をドラッグアンドドロップして、語順で何かをしているようにします。 In other words, there is this whole pedagogical school of thought that says that we have to get the student to do something with the language – respond, say something, move words around, analyze and I have a tremendous resistance to this. En otras palabras, existe toda esta escuela de pensamiento pedagógico que dice que tenemos que lograr que el estudiante haga algo con el idioma: responda, diga algo, mueva palabras, analice y tengo una resistencia tremenda a eso. 言い換えれば、私たちは生徒にその言語で何かをさせなければならないと言っているこの教育学派全体があります–応答し、何かを言い、言葉を動かし、分析します、そして私はこれに途方もない抵抗を持っています。

The minute I see that I’m out of there. En el momento en que veo que estoy fuera de allí. 私がそこから出ているのを見た瞬間。 I don’t want it. no lo quiero 欲しくない。 I don’t want to have to say anything until I’ve heard it a lot, until I’ve had a chance to absorb it. No quiero tener que decir nada hasta que lo haya escuchado mucho, hasta que haya tenido la oportunidad de absorberlo. よく聞くまで、吸収する機会が来るまでは、何も言いたくありません。 This might, in fact, be an irrational emotional reaction on my part, I don’t know, but I have no desire to change it. De hecho, esto podría ser una reacción emocional irracional de mi parte, no lo sé, pero no tengo ningún deseo de cambiarlo. 実際、これは私の側の不合理な感情的な反応かもしれません、私は知りませんが、私はそれを変えることを望んでいません。 So there’s no way there that I’m going to change because I’m quite comfortable. Así que no hay forma de que vaya a cambiar porque estoy bastante cómodo. ですから、私はとても快適なので、私が変わる方法はありません。 I enjoy doing it my way, I’m not about to change. Disfruto haciéndolo a mi manera, no voy a cambiar. 私は自分のやり方でそれをするのを楽しんでいます、私は変わるつもりはありません。 However, let’s take the case of the Brazilian pronunciation. ただし、ブラジルの発音の場合を考えてみましょう。 There I think my reaction is much more irrational. そこでは、私の反応ははるかに非合理的だと思います。 So how do we change emotional resistance that we have to something. では、私たちが持っている感情的な抵抗をどのように変えるのでしょうか。

I think in many cases, if I look at immigrants here who never progress beyond a certain level in say English, it’s because they’re not very motivated or they want to kind of hang back in their culture, so how do we get them to change that. 多くの場合、英語で一定のレベルを超えて進まない移民を見ると、彼らはあまりやる気がないか、彼らの文化に少し立ち寄りたいと思っているからだと思います。それを変えなさい。 Well, if they don’t want to change it, you can’t get them to change it. Bueno, si no quieren cambiarlo, no puedes hacer que lo cambien. ええと、彼らがそれを変えたくないのなら、あなたは彼らにそれを変えさせることはできません。 If, in fact, at some level we want to change, then I think it can be done. Si, de hecho, en algún nivel queremos cambiar, entonces creo que se puede hacer. 実際、あるレベルで変更したいのであれば、それは可能だと思います。 That’s where I want to bring in what I consider a very interesting book on many levels, which I have mentioned before. それは私が前に述べた多くのレベルで非常に興味深い本と私が考えるものを持ち込みたいところです。 It’s called The Mind & The Brain by, basically, Jeffrey Schwartz. それは、基本的に、ジェフリー・シュワルツによってマインド&ザ・ブレインと呼ばれています。 What this book does, it talks about people who have obsessive-compulsive behavior. Lo que hace este libro, habla de personas que tienen un comportamiento obsesivo-compulsivo. この本が何をするか、それは強迫性行動を持っている人々について話します。

Obsessive-compulsive behavior describes a situation where people feel they have to wash their hands every five minutes or, I don’t know, they’re afraid of snakes. 強迫性行動は、人々が5分ごとに手を洗わなければならないと感じている状況、または私にはわかりませんが、ヘビを恐れている状況を表します。 强迫行为描述了一种情况,人们感到必须每五分钟洗一次手,或者,我不知道,他们害怕蛇。 It could be anything which becomes obsessive and very often this is treated with drugs. Podría ser cualquier cosa que se vuelva obsesivo y muy a menudo esto se trata con drogas. それは強迫観念になるものである可能性があり、非常に多くの場合、これは薬物で治療されます。 可能会成为强迫症,并且经常用药物治疗。 Jeffrey Schwartz developed a treatment which is, essentially, based on getting the patient to recognize that the neuro network that is driving him or her to wash their hands every three minutes or do something else that’s obsessive sort of exists objectively in the brain and that with enough determination and with a series of exercises and practice that the mind of the patient, the determination, the will, the willingness to recognize that this circuitry that causes this person to behave in a certain way exists objectively and is not necessarily part of that person’s personality or doesn’t have to be part of his or her behavior. Jeffrey Schwartz desarrolló un tratamiento que, esencialmente, se basa en lograr que el paciente reconozca que la red neuronal que lo impulsa a lavarse las manos cada tres minutos o a hacer otra cosa obsesiva existe objetivamente en el cerebro y eso con suficiente determinación y con una serie de ejercicios y práctica que la mente del paciente, la determinación, la voluntad, la voluntad de reconocer que este circuito que hace que esta persona se comporte de cierta manera existe objetivamente y no es necesariamente parte de esa persona. personalidad o no tiene que ser parte de su comportamiento. ジェフリー・シュワルツは、本質的に、患者に3分ごとに手を洗うように駆り立てるニューラルネットワークを認識させるか、脳内に客観的に存在するような強迫観念的な何かをすることに基づいた治療法を開発しました十分な決意と一連の演習と実践により、患者の心、決意、意志、この人を特定の方法で行動させるこの回路が客観的に存在し、必ずしもその人の一部ではないことを認識する意欲性格または彼または彼女の行動の一部である必要はありません。 杰弗里·施瓦兹(Jeffrey Schwartz)开发了一种治疗方法,该方法基本上是基于让患者认识到驱使他或她每三分钟洗一次手的神经网络或客观上存在于大脑中的其他强迫症,足够的决心,并通过一系列的练习和实践,患者的思想,决心,意愿和愿意认识到导致该人以某种方式行事的电路是客观存在的,并不一定是该人的一部分个性或不一定是他或她行为的一部分。 So once the person recognizes that their mind can be apart from this behavior then they can start looking at ways that the mind can influence the brain and actually change those neuro networks, change that behavior. したがって、精神がこの行動から離れている可能性があることを認識したら、精神が脳に影響を与え、実際にそれらの神経ネットワークを変化させ、その行動を変化させる方法を検討し始めることができます。

As the person commenting to my previous video said, we have these emotional resistances and they are subconscious, but even subconscious things in the brain, if we are determined to, we can actually influence them through our determination. Como dijo la persona que comentó mi video anterior, tenemos estas resistencias emocionales y son subconscientes, pero incluso las cosas subconscientes en el cerebro, si estamos decididos a hacerlo, podemos influir en ellas a través de nuestra determinación. 私の前のビデオにコメントしている人が言ったように、私たちはこれらの感情的な抵抗を持っており、それらは潜在意識ですが、脳内の潜在意識のものでさえ、私たちが決心すれば、私たちの決意を通して実際にそれらに影響を与えることができます。 So if we are resisting something, hanging back in our native culture, unwilling to, basically, let ourselves go, let’s say we have the irrational fear of making a mistake or creating a bad impression. ですから、私たちが何かに抵抗し、母国の文化にとらわれ、基本的に自分自身を手放すことを望まない場合、間違いを犯したり悪い印象を与えたりすることを不合理に恐れているとしましょう。 I mean the fear that we’re going to make a mistake is not irrational, but the fear that we will be somehow thought less well of or that it somehow causes people not to like us, any of these other fears associated with making a mistake, are largely irrational and so, perhaps, using some of the methodology that’s described by Schwartz here, we can influence our brain so that we are less concerned, less uptight, less afraid or that we don’t resist certain forms of pronunciation or certain structures of the new language and that we just wholeheartedly take them up and make them part of ourselves. Me refiero a que el miedo a cometer un error no es irracional, sino el miedo a que de alguna manera se piense menos bien de nosotros o que de alguna manera haga que la gente no nos quiera, cualquiera de estos otros miedos asociados con cometer un error. , son en gran parte irracionales y, por lo tanto, tal vez, utilizando parte de la metodología que describe Schwartz aquí, podemos influir en nuestro cerebro para que estemos menos preocupados, menos tensos, menos asustados o que no nos resistamos a ciertas formas de pronunciación o ciertas estructuras del nuevo lenguaje y que simplemente las asumimos de todo corazón y las hacemos parte de nosotros mismos. 私たちが間違いを犯すという恐れは不合理ではありませんが、私たちがどういうわけかよく考えられなくなったり、どういうわけか人々が私たちを好きにならないようにする恐れ、間違いを犯すことに関連するこれらの他の恐れのいずれかは主に非合理的であるため、おそらく、ここでシュワルツによって説明されている方法論のいくつかを使用して、私たちの脳に影響を与えることができます。新しい言語の構造と、私たちが心を込めてそれらを取り上げ、自分たちの一部にすること。

Given that you want to make that change at some level and that the brain is resisting, the mind, in fact, according to Jeffrey Schwartz, can overcome the brain. Dado que quieres hacer ese cambio en algún nivel y que el cerebro se resiste, la mente, de hecho, según Jeffrey Schwartz, puede vencer al cerebro. あるレベルでその変化を起こしたいこと、そして脳が抵抗していることを考えると、実際、ジェフリー・シュワルツによれば、精神は脳を克服することができます。 杰弗里·施瓦茨(Jeffrey Schwartz)认为,只要您想在某种程度上做出这种改变并且大脑在抵抗,那么思想就可以克服大脑。

I also have mentioned before in a video that I had a little bit of experience of something somewhat related to this. また、ビデオの中で、これにいくらか関連する何かを少し経験したことも述べました。 When I was a little boy, my father could wiggle his ears and I wanted to be able to wiggle my ears. Cuando era pequeño, mi padre podía mover las orejas y yo quería poder mover las mías. 私が小さい頃、父は耳を小刻みに動かすことができたので、私は耳を小刻みに動かせるようにしたかったのです。 I would literally sit for hours just telling myself wiggle the ears and, eventually, I was able to cause a neuro network or some connection to occur in my brain. Literalmente me sentaba durante horas simplemente diciéndome a mí mismo que moviera las orejas y, eventualmente, pude causar una red neuronal o alguna conexión en mi cerebro. 私は文字通り何時間も座って耳を小刻みに動かすと言い、最終的には脳内でニューラルネットワークまたは何らかの接続を発生させることができました。 I don’t know if you can see this, but I can wiggle my ears, especially this one. No sé si puedes ver esto, pero puedo mover las orejas, especialmente esta. あなたがこれを見ることができるかどうかはわかりませんが、私は私の耳、特にこれを小刻みに動かすことができます。 No, it’s this one here that wiggles more. No, es este de aquí el que se menea más. いいえ、もっと揺れるのはここです。 You probably can’t see it, but I can assure you, I can wiggle my ears and this is something I achieved through my determination, the mind influencing the brain. Probablemente no puedas verlo, pero puedo asegurarte que puedo mover las orejas y esto es algo que logré a través de mi determinación, la mente influyendo en el cerebro. あなたはおそらくそれを見ることができないでしょう、しかし私はあなたに保証することができます、私は私の耳を小刻みに動かすことができます、そしてこれは私の決意、脳に影響を与える精神を通して私が達成したものです。 So I think the answer to this question how do we overcome these irrational fears that we have or these forms of emotional resistance that we have, well if you read the book by Jeffrey Schwartz you will see that, in fact, our determination is sending some kind of electrochemical signal through the neurons. ですから、この質問に対する答えは、私たちが持っているこれらの不合理な恐れや私たちが持っているこれらの形の感情的な抵抗をどのように克服するのかと思います。ニューロンを介した一種の電気化学的信号。

I mean I don’t understand all that stuff, but it can affect the behavior of the brain. Quiero decir que no entiendo todo eso, pero puede afectar el comportamiento del cerebro. 私はそのすべてを理解しているわけではありませんが、それは脳の行動に影響を与える可能性があります。 The mind can influence the brain and that, I think, has lots of significance for language learning. La mente puede influir en el cerebro y eso, creo, tiene mucha importancia para el aprendizaje de idiomas. 精神は脳に影響を与える可能性があり、それは言語学習にとって非常に重要だと思います。 So that’s my answer to that person’s question. Así que esa es mi respuesta a la pregunta de esa persona. それがその人の質問に対する私の答えです。

Thank you for listening. ご聴取ありがとうございました。