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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, The Details of Language Learning

The Details of Language Learning

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann, today I want to talk a little bit about the details of languages.

The reason this comes up is because of the discussion we had when I put up my video on learning Japanese and I used as an example of Japanese word order or structure the sentence _. So I used the word 'Watashi' for ‘I' and that generated a fair amount of response amongst my viewers. From what I could tell, they were all non-native speakers. Some had never heard the word ‘Watashi' before and someone suggested that the use of ‘Watashi' was not appropriate and, of course, capitalized not, so it was very not appropriate. This was very interesting because I lived in Japan.

I lived there for 9 years and I have spoken Japanese since 1971. I think, mostly, if I'm speaking formally I say ‘Watashi' for whatever reason. Probably if I'm speaking more informally I might say ‘watashi'. More of than not, if I'm speaking with friends I say ‘Boku' because there are, in fact, a variety of ways of saying ‘I' in Japanese. First of all, I then went to my forum at LingQ and asked some of our native speakers there and I got some very interesting replies.

Essentially, the reply was that ‘watashi' is by far the most common form used in Japan, but that it's not inappropriate to use ‘Watashi', which is a little more formal than ‘watashi', but it's not very common. You can get into more detail. They quoted various sources and so forth. If you want to go our Japanese language blog or at least forum over at LingQ, you can go and have a look in more detail. What interested me in this was that here was a very small detail of the Japanese language, one that in 40 years no Japanese person, friend, business contact, whatever, and I have spoken a lot of Japanese, no one has ever commented on.

Generally, the reaction on our Japanese language forum was that there was nothing much wrong in using ‘Watashi', but it is less common. However, people who have been studying Japanese have been taught certain rules. So whether or not these people are able to communicate in Japanese, whether they understand a lot of Japanese or not I don't know, immediately they tune in on the fact that this rule they were given, this is how the language is, somehow here I didn't follow that convention, so this became a bit of a fuss. My view is that in language learning there is the forest and the trees.

There are the details, the nut and bolts, and then there is the big picture. In my opinion, successful language learning depends on seeing the forest, the big picture, and not being overly preoccupied with the details. It's not just the ‘Watashi' in Japanese. Even things like _ and _ in Spanish, which sometimes are difficult to get the hang of, you're not entirely confident when you start just by having read the explanations umpteen times. This doesn't prevent you from understanding. It doesn't prevent you from communicating. Similarly with the subjunctive in some of the romance languages, some of the cases where you use the subjunctive are obvious, some are less obvious, but it doesn't you from communicating.

I know that in the Canadian Public Service where people get a bilingual bonus for being bilingual, native speakers of English are tested on their French to see if they qualify for this bilingual bonus and they're marked down for getting the subjunctive wrong, which to me is absolutely ridiculous. The issue should be, if that public servant sits in a meeting and everyone is speaking in French, does he or she understand.

Can that public servant express an opinion and get their views across in French and I can assure that it's possible to do both those things without being right all the time on the subjunctive. It's also true that in language a lot of this detail we get it right sometimes and wrong sometimes. We might get it wrong and get it right the next time or get it right one time and get it wrong the next time so that constantly looking for where people have their shirttail hanging out to me is not very constructive. I, personally, don't care.

In Japanese I will continue to say ‘Watashi'. It hasn't offended anyone so far in 40 years, any native speaker, so to me it's not a big deal. Part of it is the way languages are taught, very often, the details are put up front. Again, I had the discussion somewhere when someone said Japanese is an SVO or an SOV language (subject, verb, object; subject, object, verb). I never think of a language in those terms. I don't find it helpful. All I want to know is how they say this in their language. You will soon discover in Japanese that the verb ends up at the end a lot of the time.

Sometimes there's only a verb or sometimes there's no subject. There are a whole lot of situations that you have to get used to, so being thrown this SOV, SVO at the beginning to me doesn't enlighten the learner at all. It just makes them feel that there's a lot of special rules and technical stuff they have to get into in order to speak the language, which I don't think is the case at all. I mentioned that I Googled Japanese grammar on the Internet and the first thing that pops us, as usual, is Wikipedia.

I quoted it in my last video and I'll do it again because to my mind it's so outrageous. The article begins with “The Japanese language has a regular agglutinative verb morphology. In language typology, it has many features divergent from most European languages. Its phrases are exclusively head-final and compound sentences are exclusively left-branching.” Blah, blah, blah, I mean all this kind of stuff. Now, granted, the average person starting into Japanese doesn't get hit with that, but there are a lot of people who might want to hit them with that.

I think that you first have to get the big picture, the sense of the language, increase your vocabulary, how do they say this in their language. Someone mentioned on one of our forums at LingQ and he quoted an article, which I don't have in front of me, that said prior to the 18th century languages were taught primarily through translation. In other words, this is how they say this in their language and then the whole grammar movement took over, the nuts and bolts people took over. I think that's a disadvantage. People get totally hung up on the nuts and bolts and end up having a very limited vocabulary. Again, this article this person quoted pointed out that with the arrival of these fast computer-generated corpora, all of a sudden language experts have discovered that you need a very, very large vocabulary in order to read meaningful text in another language.

Well, yeah, tell me about it. I have quite a large vocabulary in Russian, but if I move on to Dostoyevsky there's going to be a lot of words that I don't know because I've read more of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky has a somewhat different vocabulary. My day-to-day interviews on Echo Moskvy are not a problem. So, yeah, you need a lot of words. It's all about words. It's not about the niceties of these details. Again, I've said before I'm very forgiving of people who speak English.

I do business with people from many different countries and Germans are going to say ‘since many years I've been speaking English', whereas we don't say that. We say ‘for many years'. A Swedish person will say ‘it is many people in China' instead of ‘there are'. These are things just come from their language and they haven't been able to get rid of these habits. It doesn't really matter, unless you're a legal translator or something. This is the other thing, too, that makes language learning different from say engineering or some of these other sciences.

If you're an engineer and you're building a bridge, you've got to have your details down or that bridge is going to fall down. I mean that's a completely different situation from learning a language where really all you have to do is communicate. A few mistakes here and there are not going to impede communication. Now, that's not to say that you shouldn't work on improving and I do. I'm having a fine old time now going back to my Russian grammar books for the seventh, eighth, ninth time reading the same rules and every time it just seems that much more meaningful and every time I'm able to take that back to my listening and reading and identify some of those things that were described in those grammar rules.

But if you hit with the nuts and bolts up front or if you're overly concerned about the nuts and bolts, overly concerned about the details, it will, I think, impede your learning of the language. Get the big picture in and then you can go back in later and clean up some of the bits and pieces and if some of them don't get cleaned up like my ‘Watashi', then so be it.

I've enjoyed 40 years of very successful communication in Japanese and I am quite sure that that's not the only peculiarity I have in my Japanese. But if I go forward and I want to improve my Japanese, I am more interested in increasing my vocabulary so I can read Japanese literature so that I can express myself better than worrying about the few loose threads or shirttails hanging out that are to be found, undoubtedly, in all of the languages that I speak. So, thank you for listening and we look forward to your comments.

Bye for now.


The Details of Language Learning Los detalles del aprendizaje de idiomas

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann, today I want to talk a little bit about the details of languages. こんにちは、Steve Kaufmann、今日は言語の詳細について少し話したいと思います。

The reason this comes up is because of the discussion we had when I put up my video on learning Japanese and I used as an example of Japanese word order or structure the sentence _____. La razón por la que esto surge es por la discusión que tuvimos cuando puse mi video sobre aprender japonés y usé como ejemplo del orden de las palabras japonesas o la estructura de la oración _. これは、日本語の学習にビデオを載せたときの議論や、日本語の言い回しの例として使われたり、__​​___の文章を構成したりするためです。 Причина этого заключается в том, что мы провели обсуждение, когда я разместил свое видео об изучении японского языка, и я использовал в качестве примера порядок слов в японском языке или структурировал предложение _____. So I used the word 'Watashi' for ‘I' and that generated a fair amount of response amongst my viewers. Použil jsem tedy slovo „Watashi“ pro „já“ a to vyvolalo mezi mými diváky značnou odezvu. Así que usé la palabra 'Watashi' para 'yo' y eso generó una gran cantidad de respuestas entre mis espectadores. だから私は「わたし」の言葉「Watashi」を使用し、それは視聴者の間でかなりの量の反応を生み出しました。 Dus ik gebruikte het woord 'Watashi' voor 'ik' en dat genereerde behoorlijk wat reacties onder mijn kijkers. Usei a palavra 'Watashi' para 'eu' e isso gerou uma boa resposta entre os meus telespectadores. From what I could tell, they were all non-native speakers. Z toho, co jsem mohl říct, byli všichni nerodilí mluvčí. Por lo que pude ver, todos eran hablantes no nativos. 私が言うことができることから、彼らはすべて非ネイティブスピーカーでした。 Pelo que eu poderia dizer, eles eram todos falantes não nativos. Из того, что я мог сказать, они были не носителями языка. Some had never heard the word ‘Watashi' before and someone suggested that the use of ‘Watashi' was not appropriate and, of course, capitalized not, so it was very not appropriate. Einige hatten das Wort "Watashi" noch nie zuvor gehört, und jemand schlug vor, dass die Verwendung von "Watashi" nicht angemessen sei und natürlich nicht groß geschrieben werde, so dass dies sehr unangemessen sei. Algunos nunca antes habían escuchado la palabra 'Watashi' y alguien sugirió que el uso de 'Watashi' no era apropiado y, por supuesto, no estaba en mayúsculas, por lo que no era apropiado. 「ワタシ」という言葉を聞いたことがなかった人もいれば、「ワタシ」の使用は適切ではなく、もちろん大文字ではないことを示唆していました。 Alguns nunca tinham ouvido a palavra 'Watashi' antes e alguém sugeriu que o uso de 'Watashi' não era apropriado e, é claro, a letra maiúscula não era, portanto, não era muito apropriado. Некоторые никогда раньше не слышали слово «Ватаси», а кто-то предположил, что использование «Ватаси» было неуместным и, конечно, с большой буквы не было, так что это было совершенно неуместно. 有些人以前从未听过“ Watashi”一词,而有人则建议使用“ Watashi”是不合适的,当然,大写字母也不适合,因此非常不合适。 This was very interesting because I lived in Japan. 私は日本に住んでいたので、これは非常に面白かったです。 Isso foi muito interessante porque eu morava no Japão.

I lived there for 9 years and I have spoken Japanese since 1971. 私は9年間そこに住んでいて、1971年以来日本語を話しました。 Morei lá por 9 anos e falo japonês desde 1971. I think, mostly, if I’m speaking formally I say ‘Watashi' for whatever reason. Myslím, že většinou, když mluvím formálně, říkám 'Watashi' z jakéhokoli důvodu. Creo que, sobre todo, si estoy hablando formalmente, digo 'Watashi' por la razón que sea. 私が正式に話しているのであれば、何故か「わたし」と言います。 Acho que, principalmente, se estou falando formalmente, digo 'Watashi' por qualquer motivo. Probably if I’m speaking more informally I might say ‘watashi'. Pokud budu mluvit více neformálně, pravděpodobně bych řekl „watashi“. Probablemente si estoy hablando de manera más informal podría decir 'watashi'. 私がもっと非公式に話しているなら、私は「私は」と言うかもしれません。 Provavelmente, se estou falando mais informalmente, posso dizer 'watashi'. More of than not, if I’m speaking with friends I say ‘Boku' because there are, in fact, a variety of ways of saying ‘I' in Japanese. Více než ne, když mluvím s přáteli, říkám „Boku“, protože ve skutečnosti existuje mnoho způsobů, jak říci „já“ v japonštině. La mayoría de las veces, si estoy hablando con amigos, digo 'Boku' porque, de hecho, hay una variedad de formas de decir 'yo' en japonés. 私が友達と話しているならば、私は日本語で「私」と言っている様々な方法が実際にあるので、「ぼく」と言います。 Mais do que não, se estou falando com amigos, digo 'Boku' porque há, de fato, uma variedade de maneiras de dizer 'eu' em japonês. 更重要的是,如果我要与朋友交谈,我会说“ Boku”,因为事实上,日语中有多种表达“ I”的方式。 First of all, I then went to my forum at LingQ and asked some of our native speakers there and I got some very interesting replies. Nejprve jsem pak šel na své fórum na LingQ a zeptal se některých našich rodilých mluvčích a dostal jsem velmi zajímavé odpovědi. En primer lugar, fui a mi foro en LingQ y pregunté a algunos de nuestros hablantes nativos y obtuve algunas respuestas muy interesantes. まず第一に、私はそれからLingQの私のフォーラムに行き、そこで私達のネイティブスピーカーの何人かに尋ねました、そして私はいくつかの非常に興味深い回答を得ました。 Em primeiro lugar, fui ao meu fórum no LingQ e perguntei a alguns de nossos falantes nativos lá e recebi algumas respostas muito interessantes.

Essentially, the reply was that ‘watashi' is by far the most common form used in Japan, but that it’s not inappropriate to use ‘Watashi', which is a little more formal than ‘watashi', but it’s not very common. V podstatě odpověď zněla, že 'watashi' je zdaleka nejběžnější forma používaná v Japonsku, ale že není nevhodné používat 'Watashi', které je o něco formálnější než 'watashi', ale není příliš běžné. Esencialmente, la respuesta fue que 'watashi' es, con mucho, la forma más común utilizada en Japón, pero que no es inapropiado usar 'Watashi', que es un poco más formal que 'watashi', pero no es muy común. 基本的には、「watashi」は日本で最も一般的な形式であるが、「watashi」より少し正式な「Watashi」を使うのは不適切ではないが、あまり一般的ではない。 从本质上讲,答复是“ watashi”是迄今为止在日本使用的最常见的形式,但是使用“ Watashi”(比“ watashi”更正式一点)并不是不适当的,但是它不是很常见。 You can get into more detail. Můžete se dostat do podrobností. もっと詳しく知ることができます。 They quoted various sources and so forth. Citovali různé zdroje a tak dále. Citaron varias fuentes, etc. 彼らは様々な情報源などを引用した。 If you want to go our Japanese language blog or at least forum over at LingQ, you can go and have a look in more detail. Pokud chcete navštívit náš blog v japonštině nebo alespoň fórum na LingQ, můžete se jít podívat podrobněji. Si desea visitar nuestro blog en japonés o al menos un foro en LingQ, puede ir y echar un vistazo con más detalle. 私たちの日本語のブログ、あるいは少なくともLingQのフォーラムに行きたいのであれば、もっと詳しく調べることができます。 What interested me in this was that here was a very small detail of the Japanese language, one that in 40 years no Japanese person, friend, business contact, whatever, and I have spoken a lot of Japanese, no one has ever commented on. Lo que me interesó de esto fue que aquí había un detalle muy pequeño del idioma japonés, uno que en 40 años ningún japonés, amigo, contacto comercial, lo que sea, y he hablado mucho japonés, nadie lo ha comentado. 私が興味を持ったのは、40年後には日本人、友人、ビジネス関係者など何人でもなく、多くの日本人が話したことがあります。 O que me interessou nisso foi que aqui estava um minúsculo detalhe da língua japonesa, que em 40 anos nenhum japonês, amigo, contato comercial, seja o que for, e eu falei muito japonês, ninguém jamais comentou. 我对此感兴趣的是,这里有一小部分日语,在40年来,没有日语的人,朋友,业务往来等等,而且我说了很多日语,没有人发表评论。

Generally, the reaction on our Japanese language forum was that there was nothing much wrong in using ‘Watashi', but it is less common. Obecně byla reakce na našem fóru v japonštině taková, že při používání 'Watashi' nebylo nic špatného, ale je to méně obvyklé. En general, la reacción en nuestro foro en japonés fue que no había nada malo en usar 'Watashi', pero es menos común. 一般的に、私たちの日本語フォーラムでの反応は、「わたし」の使用に大きな問題はなかったが、あまり一般的ではない。 Geralmente, a reação em nosso fórum em japonês era que não havia nada de errado em usar 'Watashi', mas é menos comum. However, people who have been studying Japanese have been taught certain rules. Sin embargo, a las personas que han estado estudiando japonés se les han enseñado ciertas reglas. しかし、日本語を勉強している人には一定のルールが教えられています。 No entanto, pessoas que estudaram japonês aprenderam certas regras. 但是,一直在学习日语的人被教导某些规则。 So whether or not these people are able to communicate in Japanese, whether they understand a lot of Japanese or not I don’t know, immediately they tune in on the fact that this rule they were given, this is how the language is, somehow here I didn’t follow that convention, so this became a bit of a fuss. Entonces, si estas personas pueden o no comunicarse en japonés, si entienden mucho japonés o no, no lo sé, inmediatamente se dan cuenta del hecho de que esta regla se les dio, así es como es el idioma, de alguna manera. aquí no seguí esa convención, así que esto se convirtió en un alboroto. Quindi, se queste persone sono in grado di comunicare in giapponese o meno, se capiscono o meno molto giapponese, non lo so, si sintonizzano immediatamente sul fatto che questa regola è stata data, è così che la lingua è, in qualche modo qui non ho seguito quella convenzione, quindi questo è diventato un po 'una confusione. そういう人たちが日本語でコミュニケーションできるかどうかに関わらず、多くの日本人を理解しているかどうかはわかりませんが、すぐに彼らは与えられたルールに従います。ここで私はその大会に従わなかったので、これはちょっと大騒ぎになった。 Se essas pessoas são capazes de se comunicar em japonês ou não, se entendem muito de japonês ou não, não sei, imediatamente percebem que essa regra lhes foi dada, é assim que a língua é, de alguma forma aqui eu não segui aquela convenção, então isso se tornou um pouco complicado. 因此,无论这些人是否能够用日语交流,他们是否懂很多日语,我都不知道,他们立即听取了他们所遵循的规则,这就是语言的样子在这里我没有遵循那个约定,所以这有点大惊小怪。 My view is that in language learning there is the forest and the trees. Mi opinión es que en el aprendizaje de idiomas están el bosque y los árboles. La mia opinione è che nell'apprendimento delle lingue ci siano la foresta e gli alberi. 私の見解では、語学学習には森と木があります。

There are the details, the nut and bolts, and then there is the big picture. Están los detalles, la tuerca y los tornillos, y luego está el panorama general. 細部、ナット、ボルトがあります。そして、大きな絵があります。 首先是细节,然后是螺母和螺栓,然后是大图。 In my opinion, successful language learning depends on seeing the forest, the big picture, and not being overly preoccupied with the details. 私の意見では、語学の成功は、森林、大きな絵を見て、細部に過度に心配していないことに依存します。 It’s not just the ‘Watashi' in Japanese. No es solo el 'Watashi' en japonés. 日本語の「私」だけではありません。 Não é apenas o 'Watashi' em japonês. Even things like _____ and _____ in Spanish, which sometimes are difficult to get the hang of, you’re not entirely confident when you start just by having read the explanations umpteen times. Incluso cosas como _ y _ en español, que a veces son difíciles de entender, no estás del todo seguro cuando comienzas solo por haber leído las explicaciones incontables veces. Anche cose come _____ e _____ in spagnolo, che a volte sono difficili da imparare, non sei del tutto sicuro quando inizi solo dopo aver letto le spiegazioni innumerevoli volte. スペイン語の_____や_____のようなものでさえ、時々説明を読みにくいこともあります。 Mesmo coisas como _____ e _____ em espanhol, que às vezes são difíceis de entender, você não está totalmente confiante quando começa apenas por ter lido as explicações inúmeras vezes. This doesn’t prevent you from understanding. Esto no impide que entiendas. Questo non ti impedisce di capire. これはあなたの理解を妨げるものではありません。 Isso não o impede de compreender. It doesn’t prevent you from communicating. それはあなたが通信するのを妨げません。 Similarly with the subjunctive in some of the romance languages, some of the cases where you use the subjunctive are obvious, some are less obvious, but it doesn’t you from communicating. De manera similar, con el subjuntivo en algunas de las lenguas romances, algunos de los casos en los que usas el subjuntivo son obvios, otros son menos obvios, pero no te impide comunicarte. いくつかのロマンス言語の下位詞と同様に、あなたが下位詞を使用するケースのいくつかは明白であり、あるものはそれほど明白ではありませんが、あなたはコミュニケーションをしません。

I know that in the Canadian Public Service where people get a bilingual bonus for being bilingual, native speakers of English are tested on their French to see if they qualify for this bilingual bonus and they’re marked down for getting the subjunctive wrong, which to me is absolutely ridiculous. Ich weiß, dass im kanadischen öffentlichen Dienst, wo Menschen einen zweisprachigen Bonus erhalten, weil sie zweisprachig sind, Englisch-Muttersprachler auf ihr Französisch getestet werden, um zu sehen, ob sie sich für diesen zweisprachigen Bonus qualifizieren, und sie werden abgewertet, weil sie den Konjunktiv falsch verstehen, was zu mich ist absolut lächerlich. Sé que en el Servicio Público Canadiense, donde las personas obtienen una bonificación bilingüe por ser bilingüe, los hablantes nativos de inglés son evaluados en su francés para ver si califican para esta bonificación bilingüe y son marcados por pronunciar mal el subjuntivo, lo cual mí es absolutamente ridículo. So che nel servizio pubblico canadese, dove le persone ricevono un bonus bilingue per essere bilingue, i madrelingua inglese vengono testati sul loro francese per vedere se si qualificano per questo bonus bilingue e sono contrassegnati per aver sbagliato il congiuntivo, che a io è assolutamente ridicolo. 私が知っているのは、人々がバイリンガルであることでバイリンガルのボーナスを受け取るカナダの公共サービスでは、ネイティブスピーカーの英語がこのバイリンガルのボーナスを受ける資格があるかどうかをテストすることです。私は絶対にばかげている。 Eu sei que no Serviço Público Canadense, onde as pessoas recebem um bônus bilíngue por serem bilíngües, falantes nativos de inglês são testados em seu francês para ver se eles se qualificam para este bônus bilíngüe e são reduzidos por errar o subjuntivo, que eu é absolutamente ridículo. 我知道在加拿大的公共服务部门,人们会因双语而获得双语奖励,以英语为母语的英语使用者会接受法语测试,以查看他们是否有资格获得双语奖励,并且因误解虚拟语而被打分,我绝对是荒谬的。 The issue should be, if that public servant sits in a meeting and everyone is speaking in French, does he or she understand. El problema debería ser, si ese servidor público se sienta en una reunión y todos hablan en francés, ¿él o ella entienden? Il problema dovrebbe essere se quel funzionario pubblico partecipa a una riunione e tutti parlano in francese, capisce? 問題は、その公務員が会議に座っていて、誰もがフランス語で話しているのであれば、彼または彼女が理解していることです。

Can that public servant express an opinion and get their views across in French and I can assure that it’s possible to do both those things without being right all the time on the subjunctive. ¿Puede ese servidor público expresar una opinión y transmitir sus puntos de vista en francés y puedo asegurar que es posible hacer ambas cosas sin tener razón todo el tiempo en el subjuntivo? Può quel funzionario pubblico esprimere un'opinione e comunicare le proprie opinioni in francese e posso assicurare che è possibile fare entrambe le cose senza avere sempre ragione sul congiuntivo? その公務員は意見を表明し、フランス語で意見を得ることができますか?そして、私は、すべての法令で正しくなくても両方のことを行うことが可能であることを保証することができます。 It’s also true that in language a lot of this detail we get it right sometimes and wrong sometimes. También es cierto que en el lenguaje mucho de este detalle lo acertamos a veces y lo hacemos mal a veces. また、言語の中でこのような細部の多くが時々間違っていることがあります。 We might get it wrong and get it right the next time or get it right one time and get it wrong the next time so that constantly looking for where people have their shirttail hanging out to me is not very constructive. Podríamos hacerlo mal y hacerlo bien la próxima vez o hacerlo bien una vez y hacerlo mal la próxima vez, de modo que buscar constantemente dónde la gente me cuelga el faldón de la camisa no es muy constructivo. Potremmo sbagliarci e farlo bene la prossima volta o farlo bene una volta e sbagliare la prossima volta, quindi cercare costantemente dove le persone hanno i loro codini appesi a me non è molto costruttivo. 私たちはそれを間違って取得し、次の時間に正しく取得するか、または一度正しく取得し、次の時間を間違って取得するかもしれないので、人々が自分のシャツ・テールを持っている場所を常に探し出すことは、 I, personally, don’t care. A mí, personalmente, no me importa. 私は、個人的には、気にしません。

In Japanese I will continue to say ‘Watashi'. 私は日本語で「私」と言い続けます。 It hasn’t offended anyone so far in 40 years, any native speaker, so to me it’s not a big deal. No ha ofendido a nadie hasta ahora en 40 años, ningún hablante nativo, así que para mí no es gran cosa. 40年ぶりの話だが、ネイティブスピーカーはそれほど大したことではない。 Part of it is the way languages are taught, very often, the details are put up front. Parte de esto es la forma en que se enseñan los idiomas, muy a menudo, los detalles se ponen al frente. Parte di ciò è il modo in cui le lingue vengono insegnate, molto spesso, i dettagli sono messi in primo piano. その一部は、言語が教えられる方法であり、非常に頻繁に、詳細が前面に置かれています。 Again, I had the discussion somewhere when someone said Japanese is an SVO or an SOV language (subject, verb, object; subject, object, verb). Nuevamente, tuve la discusión en algún lugar cuando alguien dijo que el japonés es un idioma SVO o SOV (sujeto, verbo, objeto; sujeto, objeto, verbo). 繰り返しますが、誰かが日本人がSVOやSOV言語(主語、動詞、目的語、主語、動詞、動詞)であると言いました。 I never think of a language in those terms. Nunca pienso en un idioma en esos términos. 私はそれらの言葉で言語を考えることはありません。 I don’t find it helpful. No lo encuentro útil. 私はそれが役に立ちません。 All I want to know is how they say this in their language. Todo lo que quiero saber es cómo dicen esto en su idioma. 私が知りたいのは、彼らがこれを彼らの言語でどのように言うかだけです。 You will soon discover in Japanese that the verb ends up at the end a lot of the time. Pronto descubrirá que en japonés el verbo termina al final la mayor parte del tiempo. Presto scoprirai in giapponese che il verbo finisce spesso alla fine. あなたはすぐに動詞が多くの時間の最後に終わることを日本語で発見します。

Sometimes there’s only a verb or sometimes there’s no subject. A veces solo hay un verbo oa veces no hay sujeto. 動詞しかない場合もあれば、主語がない場合もあります。 There are a whole lot of situations that you have to get used to, so being thrown this SOV, SVO at the beginning to me doesn’t enlighten the learner at all. Hay un montón de situaciones a las que tienes que acostumbrarte, por lo que lanzar este SOV, SVO al principio para mí no ilustra al alumno en absoluto. Ci sono un sacco di situazioni a cui devi abituarti, quindi ricevere questo SOV, SVO all'inizio per me non illumina affatto lo studente. あなたが慣れていなければならない状況がたくさんあるので、このSOVを投げられると、当初のSVOは学習者をまったく啓発しません。 Há uma série de situações às quais você tem que se acostumar, então, sendo jogado este SOV, SVO no início para mim, não ilumina o aluno de forma alguma. It just makes them feel that there’s a lot of special rules and technical stuff they have to get into in order to speak the language, which I don’t think is the case at all. Simplemente les hace sentir que hay muchas reglas especiales y cosas técnicas que deben aprender para hablar el idioma, lo cual no creo que sea el caso en absoluto. Li fa solo sentire che ci sono molte regole speciali e cose tecniche in cui devono entrare per parlare la lingua, cosa che non credo sia affatto il caso. それは、言語を話すために取り入れる必要のある特別なルールや技術的なものがたくさんあると感じさせるだけです。私はそうは思わないでしょう。 I mentioned that I Googled Japanese grammar on the Internet and the first thing that pops us, as usual, is Wikipedia. Mencioné que busqué en Google la gramática japonesa en Internet y lo primero que nos aparece, como de costumbre, es Wikipedia. 私はインターネット上で日本語の文法をGoogleでグーグルグーグルと言いました。そして、いつものように私たちのポップスはウィキペディアです。

I quoted it in my last video and I’ll do it again because to my mind it’s so outrageous. Ich habe es in meinem letzten Video zitiert und ich werde es wieder tun, weil es meiner Meinung nach so empörend ist. Lo cité en mi último video y lo volveré a hacer porque, en mi opinión, es muy escandaloso. 私は私の最後のビデオでそれを引用し、私は再びそれを行うでしょう。私の心にはそれほど大声ではないからです。 The article begins with “The Japanese language has a regular agglutinative verb morphology. Der Artikel beginnt mit „Die japanische Sprache hat eine regelmäßige agglutinative Verbmorphologie. این مقاله با "زبان ژاپنی دارای ریخت شناسی فعل جمع کننده منظم است. L'articolo inizia con “La lingua giapponese ha una morfologia verbale agglutinante regolare. この記事は、「日本語には定期的な凝集動詞の形態があります。 In language typology, it has many features divergent from most European languages. En tipología lingüística, tiene muchas características divergentes de la mayoría de las lenguas europeas. 言語の類型学では、多くのヨーロッパ言語から分岐した多くの機能を備えています。 Its phrases are exclusively head-final and compound sentences are exclusively left-branching.” Blah, blah, blah, I mean all this kind of stuff. Sus frases son exclusivamente finales de cabeza y las oraciones compuestas son exclusivamente de ramificación izquierda. Bla, bla, bla, me refiero a todo este tipo de cosas. そのフレーズは独占的なものであり、複合語の文章は排他的に左枝分かれです」と言っています。「blah、blah、blah、私はこの種のものすべてを意味します。 它的词组完全是最后一词,复合句是完全左分支。”等等,等等,我是说所有这些东西。 Now, granted, the average person starting into Japanese doesn’t get hit with that, but there are a lot of people who might want to hit them with that. Ahora, por supuesto, la persona promedio que comienza a hablar japonés no se ve afectada por eso, pero hay muchas personas que podrían querer golpearlos con eso. Ora, è vero, la persona media che inizia in giapponese non viene colpita da questo, ma ci sono molte persone che potrebbero volerlo colpire con quello. 今では、平均的な人はそれを打つことはできませんが、それを打つ人がたくさんいます。

I think that you first have to get the big picture, the sense of the language, increase your vocabulary, how do they say this in their language. 私はあなたが最初に大きな絵、言葉の感覚、語彙を増やさなければならないと思います、彼らはどのように言葉でこれを言うのですか? Someone mentioned on one of our forums at LingQ and he quoted an article, which I don’t have in front of me, that said prior to the 18th century languages were taught primarily through translation. Alguien mencionó en uno de nuestros foros en LingQ y citó un artículo, que no tengo frente a mí, que decía que antes del siglo XVIII, los idiomas se enseñaban principalmente a través de la traducción. 誰かが私たちのフォーラムの1つにLingQで言及し、彼は18世紀以前の言語が主に翻訳を通して教えられていたと私が言っていた記事を引用しました。 In other words, this is how they say this in their language and then the whole grammar movement took over, the nuts and bolts people took over. En otras palabras, así es como dicen esto en su idioma y luego todo el movimiento gramatical se hizo cargo, la gente de tuercas y tornillos se hizo cargo. In altre parole, è così che lo dicono nella loro lingua e poi l'intero movimento grammaticale ha preso il sopravvento, le persone di dadi e bulloni hanno preso il sopravvento. 言い換えれば、これは彼らが言葉でこれを言う方法であり、それから文法全体の動きが引き継がれ、人々は引き継がれました。 I think that’s a disadvantage. それはデメリットだと思います。 People get totally hung up on the nuts and bolts and end up having a very limited vocabulary. La gente se obsesiona con los detalles y acaba teniendo un vocabulario muy limitado. Le persone rimangono totalmente bloccate dai dadi e dai bulloni e finiscono per avere un vocabolario molto limitato. 人々はナットとボルトで完全にぶら下がって、非常に限定された語彙を持つようになります。 Again, this article this person quoted pointed out that with the arrival of these fast computer-generated corpora, all of a sudden language experts have discovered that you need a very, very large vocabulary in order to read meaningful text in another language. Una vez más, este artículo citado por esta persona señaló que con la llegada de estos rápidos corpus generados por computadora, de repente los expertos en idiomas han descubierto que se necesita un vocabulario muy, muy amplio para poder leer un texto significativo en otro idioma. Ancora una volta, questo articolo citato da questa persona ha sottolineato che con l'arrivo di questi veloci corpora generati dal computer, improvvisamente esperti di lingue hanno scoperto che è necessario un vocabolario molto, molto ampio per leggere un testo significativo in un'altra lingua. 繰り返しになりますが、この記事で引用したこの記事では、これらの高速コンピュータ生成コーパスが到着すると、急激な言語専門家が、別の言語で意味のあるテキストを読むために非常に大きな語彙が必要であることを発見しました。 Nogmaals, dit artikel dat deze persoon citeerde, wees erop dat met de komst van deze snelle computergegenereerde corpora, taalexperts plotseling hebben ontdekt dat je een heel, heel groot vocabulaire nodig hebt om zinvolle tekst in een andere taal te lezen.

Well, yeah, tell me about it. Bueno, sí, cuéntame sobre eso. Bene, sì, dimmelo. I have quite a large vocabulary in Russian, but if I move on to Dostoyevsky there’s going to be a lot of words that I don’t know because I’ve read more of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky has a somewhat different vocabulary. Tengo un vocabulario bastante amplio en ruso, pero si paso a Dostoyevsky habrá muchas palabras que no sé porque he leído más de Tolstoy y Dostoyevsky tiene un vocabulario algo diferente. 私はロシア語でかなりのボキャブラリーを持っていますが、私がドストエフスキーに行くと、私が知らない言葉がたくさんあります。なぜなら私はトルストイとドストエフスキーの言葉が少し違うからです。 Tenho um vocabulário bastante extenso em russo, mas, se passar para Dostoievski, haverá muitas palavras que não conheço porque li mais sobre Tolstói e Dostoievski tem um vocabulário um tanto diferente. 我的俄语词汇量很大,但是如果我继续阅读陀思妥耶夫斯基的话,将会有很多我不知道的单词,因为我读了更多的托尔斯泰,陀思妥耶夫斯基的词汇却有所不同。 My day-to-day interviews on Echo Moskvy are not a problem. Le mie interviste quotidiane su Echo Moskvy non sono un problema. Echo Moskvyに関する私の日々のインタビューは問題ではありません。 So, yeah, you need a lot of words. そう、ええ、あなたはたくさんの言葉が必要です。 It’s all about words. それはすべて言葉です。 It’s not about the niceties of these details. No se trata de las sutilezas de estos detalles. これらの細部の細部についてではありません。 Again, I’ve said before I’m very forgiving of people who speak English. Una vez más, he dicho antes que soy muy indulgente con las personas que hablan inglés. Di nuovo, ho detto prima che perdono molto le persone che parlano inglese. また、私は英語を話す人をとても寛容にする前に、私は言っています。

I do business with people from many different countries and Germans are going to say ‘since many years I’ve been speaking English', whereas we don’t say that. Hago negocios con personas de muchos países diferentes y los alemanes van a decir 'hace muchos años que hablo inglés', mientras que nosotros no decimos eso. Faccio affari con persone di molti paesi diversi e i tedeschi diranno "da molti anni parlo inglese", mentre noi non lo diciamo. 私は多くの国々の人々と仕事をしています。ドイツ人は、何年も前から私が英語を話してきたので、言いたくはありません。 We say ‘for many years'. 私たちは「何年も」と言います。 A Swedish person will say ‘it is many people in China' instead of ‘there are'. スウェーデン人は、「そこにいる」のではなく、「中国の多くの人々だ」と言うでしょう。 These are things just come from their language and they haven’t been able to get rid of these habits. Estas son cosas que simplemente vienen de su idioma y no han podido deshacerse de estos hábitos. Queste sono cose che provengono dalla loro lingua e non sono stati in grado di sbarazzarsi di queste abitudini. これらは言語から来たものであり、これらの習慣を取り除くことができませんでした。 It doesn’t really matter, unless you’re a legal translator or something. あなたが合法的な翻訳者でなければ、それは本当に重要ではありません。 This is the other thing, too, that makes language learning different from say engineering or some of these other sciences. Questa è anche l'altra cosa che rende l'apprendimento delle lingue diverso dall'ingegneria o da alcune di queste altre scienze. これは、言葉の学習を工学や他の科学とは異なるものにするもう一つのことです。

If you’re an engineer and you’re building a bridge, you’ve got to have your details down or that bridge is going to fall down. Si eres ingeniero y estás construyendo un puente, tienes que tener tus datos abajo o ese puente se va a caer. Se sei un ingegnere e stai costruendo un ponte, devi avere i tuoi dettagli o quel ponte cadrà. あなたがエンジニアであり、橋を建設しようとしている場合は、詳細を把握していなければなりません。 I mean that’s a completely different situation from learning a language where really all you have to do is communicate. 私は、実際にあなたがしなければならないのはコミュニケーションだけです。 A few mistakes here and there are not going to impede communication. Unos pocos errores aquí y allá no van a impedir la comunicación. ここでのいくつかの間違いはコミュニケーションを妨げないでしょう。 Now, that’s not to say that you shouldn’t work on improving and I do. さて、それはあなたが改善に取り組むべきではないと言っているわけではありません。 I’m having a fine old time now going back to my Russian grammar books for the seventh, eighth, ninth time reading the same rules and every time it just seems that much more meaningful and every time I’m able to take that back to my listening and reading and identify some of those things that were described in those grammar rules. Me lo estoy pasando muy bien ahora volviendo a mis libros de gramática rusa por séptima, octava, novena vez leyendo las mismas reglas y cada vez parece mucho más significativo y cada vez que puedo llevar eso de vuelta a mi escucha y lectura e identificar algunas de esas cosas que fueron descritas en esas reglas gramaticales. Mi sto divertendo un sacco ora tornando ai miei libri di grammatica russa per la settima, ottava, nona volta leggendo le stesse regole e ogni volta sembra molto più significativo e ogni volta sono in grado di riportarlo a il mio ascolto e la lettura e identificare alcune di quelle cose che sono state descritte in quelle regole grammaticali. 私は、古い規則を読んで、今度は同じルールを読んでいる第七、第八、第九の時間のロシア語の文法書に戻ってきました。そして、それがはるかに意味があり、毎回それを取り戻すことができるたびに私の聴いたり読んだりして、それらの文法の規則に記述されているもののいくつかを特定します。

But if you hit with the nuts and bolts up front or if you’re overly concerned about the nuts and bolts, overly concerned about the details, it will, I think, impede your learning of the language. Aber wenn Sie vorne mit den Schrauben und Muttern schlagen oder wenn Sie sich übermäßig Sorgen um die Schrauben und Muttern machen, wenn Sie sich übermäßig um die Details sorgen, wird dies, glaube ich, Ihr Erlernen der Sprache behindern. しかし、あなたがナットでぶつけて前に立てたり、ナットやボルトを心配しすぎて細部に深く関わっていないと、言語の学習を妨げることになるでしょう。 Get the big picture in and then you can go back in later and clean up some of the bits and pieces and if some of them don’t get cleaned up like my ‘Watashi', then so be it. Obtenga el panorama general y luego puede volver más tarde y limpiar algunos de los pedazos y si algunos de ellos no se limpian como mi 'Watashi', entonces que así sea. Prendi il quadro generale e poi puoi tornare più tardi e ripulire alcuni pezzi e se alcuni di loro non vengono ripuliti come il mio "Watashi", allora così sia. 大きな写真を撮ったら、後で戻ってきれいなものを取り除くことができます。もしそれらのうちのいくつかが私の 'Watashi'のようにきれいにならないならば、そうしてください。

I’ve enjoyed 40 years of very successful communication in Japanese and I am quite sure that that’s not the only peculiarity I have in my Japanese. Ho goduto di 40 anni di comunicazione di grande successo in giapponese e sono abbastanza sicuro che non sia l'unica particolarità che ho nel mio giapponese. 私は日本語で40年ものコミュニケーションを成功させてきました。私は日本人の唯一の特異性ではないと確信しています。 But if I go forward and I want to improve my Japanese, I am more interested in increasing my vocabulary so I can read Japanese literature so that I can express myself better than worrying about the few loose threads or shirttails hanging out that are to be found, undoubtedly, in all of the languages that I speak. Aber wenn ich vorwärts gehe und mein Japanisch verbessern möchte, bin ich mehr daran interessiert, meinen Wortschatz zu erweitern, damit ich japanische Literatur lesen kann, damit ich mich besser ausdrücken kann, als mir Sorgen um die wenigen losen Fäden oder Hemdschwänze zu machen, die heraushängen zweifellos in allen Sprachen, die ich spreche. Pero si sigo adelante y quiero mejorar mi japonés, estoy más interesado en aumentar mi vocabulario para poder leer literatura japonesa para poder expresarme mejor que preocuparme por los pocos hilos sueltos o los faldones de camisa colgando que se encuentran. , sin duda, en todos los idiomas que hablo. Ma se vado avanti e voglio migliorare il mio giapponese, sono più interessato ad aumentare il mio vocabolario in modo da poter leggere la letteratura giapponese in modo da potermi esprimere meglio che preoccuparmi per i pochi fili sciolti o le code di camicia che si trovano in giro. , senza dubbio, in tutte le lingue che parlo. しかし、もし私が前進して日本語を上達させたいのであれば、私はボキャブラリーを増やすことにもっと興味があるので、日本の文学を読んで、間違いなく、私が話すすべての言語で。 So, thank you for listening and we look forward to your comments. Entonces, gracias por escuchar y esperamos sus comentarios.

Bye for now.