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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, Similarities And Differences Between Slavic Languages

Similarities And Differences Between Slavic Languages

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann.

I decided to move outside for this video. I can't see very well here squinting with the sun in my eyes. Hopefully, this works out; I'll have a look later on. Slavic Languages -- My experience in learning to various degrees of fluency four different Slavic languages.

I'm going to talk a little bit longer than my recent three-four minutes videos, so those who aren't interested or don't like the longer videos can turn off the video right now. One thing I should say, too, to me these videos are a form of sitting around a coffee table and talking, so I often don't know what I'm going to say when I start out. I really wish that some of the people who are part of my YouTube community lived nearby so that we could get together regularly and chat about different things, but of course we can't. One of the great things about learning languages is that it's a way of discovering the world.

Of course, we create our own language worlds and we do that by finding things of interest, at least I do, whether it be in libraries on the internet or wherever it might be. Through that we create our own language world and we discover things about the world. When I wrote my book on language learning, I had this reference to Zhuangzi and Taoist philosophy and I think it was Laozi that said we can discover the whole world by looking outside our window or something. I mean we have this tremendous ability to learn about so many things today without going very far. Slavic Languages -- If we look at a map of the world we see this area north of the Black Sea, this vast area of steppe land where apparently the Proto-Slavic people originated from.

Today, we have a variety of of Slavic languages and they differ from each other because of the different sort of historical influences that effected the development of these languages. Another thing that I firmly believe is that culture or language is not in any way associated with our genes or DNA so that language doesn't equal some kind of ethnic division necessarily.

Often it matches, but it doesn't have to match. So we have what they normally talk about as the eastern Slavic languages, which is Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian, the western Slavic languages, which is Polish, Czech, Slovakian, and then the southern Slavic languages, which is the languages of the former Yugoslavia, Serbo-Croat, Slovenian, Bulgarian and so forth. My experience has been that I studied Russian first and I would recommend that because Slavic language speakers, that's a large group of people.

Geographically, it covers obviously most of Russia and it's not just the sort of ethnic Russians who are Russian speakers. Russian is sort of a lingua franca in Central Asia and other countries of the former tsarist empire the Soviet Union. So it covers all of that right into Eastern Europe. So I started learning Russian because that was the biggest one and where I had exposure to Russian literature as a teenager and wanted to read those books in the original language.

Then with the development of the whole Ukrainian crisis, I started watching Ukrainian television and couldn't understand what the Ukrainians were saying only what the Russians were saying. Yet, it sounded so similar I felt as if I should understand it and there were words there that were similar, but I just didn't quite get the gist of what they were saying. This gets back, too, to this idea that you can't just have a few words.

Some people say if you have a thousand words, 70% of any context, but in fact that is never true because very often the key words are just those words that you don't understand, so I started learning Ukrainian. I should step back. I did Czech before Ukrainian and the reason for that was my parents were born in what became Czechoslovakia. They were born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, so I always wanted to learn that language. I never understood any of it and I figured now with Russian it would be easier. Well, it's easier, but the grammar of those Slavic languages that I have studied is remarkably similar. There are minor differences between Polish, Russian, Ukrainian and so forth, but remarkably similar, at least as similar as the differences between French, Spanish and Italian.

So it's grammatically very similar; however, quite different when it comes to vocabulary, more different than Spanish is from Italian or from French. In a way, in terms of vocabulary the sort of outlier, the one with the largest lexical difference or distance, as they say, seems to be Russian. In other words, I found that Czech, Polish and Ukrainian in terms of their vocabulary were closer together than was Russian. Although, grammatically, Ukrainian was closer to Russian, perhaps, and certainly in the writing system they use. It is, in fact, a form of Cyrillic. The reasons for this, of course, are all historical.

There was nothing that said a thousand years ago when the Proto-Slavs were breaking up wherever they were -- whenever it was, I don't remember what I read -- that there would be these divisions that we have today, but there were influences like the Orthodox Church and Church Slavonic. There was the impact of the Mongol invasions, which meant that the original eastern Slavic nation built around Kiev split up and so you have Muscovy up north. Then the southern part of the Kievan Rus' increasingly was under the influence of Poland or the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and so they developed more as part of that political entity.

In fact, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had a lot more Ukrainians and Belarusians in it than Lithuanians. The Lithuanians were insignificant and the Lithuanian leadership gradually spoke more and more Polish as Polish became the dominant language. The Poles, as is often the case with societies where you have more than one language group, became quite intolerant in their approach to the Orthodox Ukrainians.

That's why at some point a portion of the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Melnitzky, I think, broke away and went off to seek help from the Russians. With that and over time as part of the Ukraine came under Russian control, of course, now the Russians were less tolerant of the Ukrainians so they tried to suppress the Ukrainian language.

So you had all of that kind of evolution. Similarly, between the Czechs and the Poles there were a lot of kings that were common to Poland and Czech Lands, Moravia.

In fact, going back a thousand years there was even a greater Moravia and then in those lands you had the Germans coming in. So lots of different influences, including the influence of the Catholic Church as the Poles and the Czechs became part of the Catholic world. All of these things influence the language.

However, as a learner, if I were to learn those languages I would go in the following order. I would learn Russian first because it's the biggest, biggest in terms of numbers of speakers, biggest in terms of, rightly or wrongly, the extent to which their writers are celebrated around the world. They're more famous than Polish, Czech or Ukrainian writers. This might be a prejudice on my part, but I would start with Russian. With that, you'll get the basics of how the grammar works. Although, certain minor things are different and, of course, the endings are completely different, but the principles under which these languages operate are more or less the same. Then with each language you have to learn the vocabulary of that language. Fortunately, for each one of those four languages I have found ample resources via the internet, whether it be audio books and eBooks for Russian.

There's an abundance of books that you can download and import into LingQ. As I've said many times, I've found Ekho Moskvy a phenomenal resource because every day there's tens of interviews with transcripts put up. With Czech I've found this history series . Unfortunately, they no longer publish the transcripts for that, but that was very helpful to me. You can find eBooks and audio books for Czech. Similarly, with Polish I was able to find eBooks and audio books. I haven't had the same success with finding Ukrainian eBooks and audio books because wherever you search it's all basically this is free, that is free.

I'm not that interested in free, I'm happy to pay for a decent eBook or audio book. So with Ukrainian I rely largely on , which is a very interesting source of podcasts daily on events in Ukraine both in Russian and Ukrainian and _ where often they will have texts with audio. So there are resources on the internet for those languages and as you discover them you discover this Slavic world and there are certain characteristics in common.

I was asked whether I found that there were these similarities between Slavic peoples and I must say that I find that there are some, but more than that it depends on individual people. There are the sort of intellectuals who are more call it worldly. There are those that are more stridently they're the best. There's a whole range and I think that's probably true for most cultures. So I am very happy that I went after four languages within the Slavic collection of languages and I may go after maybe Serbo-Croatian, particularly if I decide to go there on holidays.

Similarly, I have my group of romance languages and it's fun to explore the differences between Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French and so forth and, of course, Romanian as a bit of an outlier. The Germanic languages, between my Swedish, my English, my German and the little bit that I've looked at Dutch I don't think it would be difficult to learn. All I can say is it's fun to explore these different language families.

Over the course of history, different people who spoke one language maybe were converted into speakers of another language. So there's really no connection between genetics, genetic code or anything in language, it's more a matter of circumstance in history and exploring these languages is a great way to explore what we are as human beings. I should say, also, on my Asian-language side obviously Chinese or Mandarin was a good base for Japanese and Korean, even though those languages, although they borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese, are part of a different language family.

So there you have it in the sunshine squinting.

I hope this was of interest. For those who like the longer ramble, you got it. We'll talk again, bye for now.


Similarities And Differences Between Slavic Languages Likheter og forskjeller mellom slaviske språk

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann.

I decided to move outside for this video. I can’t see very well here squinting with the sun in my eyes. Hopefully, this works out; I’ll have a look later on. Slavic Languages -- My experience in learning to various degrees of fluency four different Slavic languages.

I’m going to talk a little bit longer than my recent three-four minutes videos, so those who aren’t interested or don’t like the longer videos can turn off the video right now. Voy a hablar un poco más que mis videos recientes de tres a cuatro minutos, por lo que aquellos que no estén interesados o no les gusten los videos más largos pueden apagar el video ahora mismo. 最近の3〜4分のビデオよりも少し長く話すので、長いビデオに興味がない、または気に入らない人は、今すぐビデオをオフにすることができます。 One thing I should say, too, to me these videos are a form of sitting around a coffee table and talking, so I often don’t know what I’m going to say when I start out. Una cosa que debo decir, también, para mí estos videos son una forma de sentarse alrededor de una mesa de café y hablar, por lo que a menudo no sé lo que voy a decir cuando empiezo. 私にも言わなければならないのは、これらのビデオはコーヒーテーブルの周りに座って話している形なので、始めたときに何を言おうとしているのかわからないことがよくあります。 I really wish that some of the people who are part of my YouTube community lived nearby so that we could get together regularly and chat about different things, but of course we can’t. I really wish that some of the people who are part of my YouTube community lived nearby so that we could get together regularly and chat about different things, but of course we can't. Realmente desearía que algunas de las personas que forman parte de mi comunidad de YouTube vivieran cerca para poder reunirnos regularmente y conversar sobre diferentes cosas, pero por supuesto que no podemos. 私のYouTubeコミュニティに参加している人たちの何人かが近くに住んでいて、定期的に集まってさまざまなことについてチャットできるようにしたいと思っていますが、もちろんできません。 One of the great things about learning languages is that it’s a way of discovering the world. Una de las mejores cosas de aprender idiomas es que es una forma de descubrir el mundo.

Of course, we create our own language worlds and we do that by finding things of interest, at least I do, whether it be in libraries on the internet or wherever it might be. Por supuesto, creamos nuestros propios mundos lingüísticos y lo hacemos encontrando cosas de interés, al menos yo lo hago, ya sea en bibliotecas en Internet o donde sea. Through that we create our own language world and we discover things about the world. When I wrote my book on language learning, I had this reference to Zhuangzi and Taoist philosophy and I think it was Laozi that said we can discover the whole world by looking outside our window or something. I mean we have this tremendous ability to learn about so many things today without going very far. Slavic Languages -- If we look at a map of the world we see this area north of the Black Sea, this vast area of steppe land where apparently the Proto-Slavic people originated from.

Today, we have a variety of of Slavic languages and they differ from each other because of the different sort of historical influences that effected the development of these languages. 今日、私たちはさまざまなスラブ言語を持っていますが、これらの言語の開発に影響を与えた歴史的影響の種類が異なるため、それらは互いに異なります。 Another thing that I firmly believe is that culture or language is not in any way associated with our genes or DNA so that language doesn’t equal some kind of ethnic division necessarily. 私が固く信じているもう一つのことは、文化や言語は私たちの遺伝子やDNAとはまったく関係がないので、言語は必ずしもある種の民族的区分と等しくないということです。

Often it matches, but it doesn’t have to match. 通常,它匹配,但是不必匹配。 So we have what they normally talk about as the eastern Slavic languages, which is Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian, the western Slavic languages, which is Polish, Czech, Slovakian, and then the southern Slavic languages, which is the languages of the former Yugoslavia, Serbo-Croat, Slovenian, Bulgarian and so forth. My experience has been that I studied Russian first and I would recommend that because Slavic language speakers, that’s a large group of people. 私の経験では、最初にロシア語を勉強しました。スラブ語を話す人は大勢の人であるため、これをお勧めします。

Geographically, it covers obviously most of Russia and it’s not just the sort of ethnic Russians who are Russian speakers. Russian is sort of a lingua franca in Central Asia and other countries of the former tsarist empire the Soviet Union. ロシア語は、中央アジアや旧皇帝帝国ソビエト連邦の他の国々の一種の共通語です。 So it covers all of that right into Eastern Europe. つまり、東ヨーロッパに至るまでのすべての権利を網羅しています。 So I started learning Russian because that was the biggest one and where I had exposure to Russian literature as a teenager and wanted to read those books in the original language.

Then with the development of the whole Ukrainian crisis, I started watching Ukrainian television and couldn’t understand what the Ukrainians were saying only what the Russians were saying. Yet, it sounded so similar I felt as if I should understand it and there were words there that were similar, but I just didn’t quite get the gist of what they were saying. This gets back, too, to this idea that you can’t just have a few words.

Some people say if you have a thousand words, 70% of any context, but in fact that is never true because very often the key words are just those words that you don’t understand, so I started learning Ukrainian. 千の言葉があると言う人もいますが、実際には、キーワードはあなたが理解できない言葉であることが多いので、それは決して真実ではありません。そこで私はウクライナ語を学び始めました。 I should step back. 私は後退する必要があります。 I did Czech before Ukrainian and the reason for that was my parents were born in what became Czechoslovakia. 私はウクライナ人の前にチェコ人をしました、そしてその理由は私の両親がチェコスロバキアになったところに生まれたからです。 They were born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, so I always wanted to learn that language. I never understood any of it and I figured now with Russian it would be easier. 私はそれのどれも理解していませんでした、そして私は今ロシア語でそれがより簡単であると思いました。 我什么都不懂,现在我觉得用俄语会更容易。 Well, it’s easier, but the grammar of those Slavic languages that I have studied is remarkably similar. まあ、それは簡単ですが、私が研究したそれらのスラブ言語の文法は非常に似ています。 There are minor differences between Polish, Russian, Ukrainian and so forth, but remarkably similar, at least as similar as the differences between French, Spanish and Italian. ポーランド語、ロシア語、ウクライナ語などにはわずかな違いがありますが、少なくともフランス語、スペイン語、イタリア語の違いと同じくらい、非常に似ています。

So it’s grammatically very similar; however, quite different when it comes to vocabulary, more different than Spanish is from Italian or from French. つまり、文法的に非常に似ています。しかし、語彙に関してはかなり異なり、スペイン語とはイタリア語やフランス語とは大きく異なります。 In a way, in terms of vocabulary the sort of outlier, the one with the largest lexical difference or distance, as they say, seems to be Russian. ある意味、語彙の観点からは、一種の外れ値であり、語彙の違いや距離が最も大きいのは、彼らが言うように、ロシア語のようです。 In other words, I found that Czech, Polish and Ukrainian in terms of their vocabulary were closer together than was Russian. 言い換えれば、チェコ語、ポーランド語、ウクライナ語は、ロシア語よりも語彙が近いことがわかりました。 Although, grammatically, Ukrainian was closer to Russian, perhaps, and certainly in the writing system they use. 文法的には、ウクライナ語はおそらくロシア語に近かったが、確かに彼らが使用する書記体系では。 It is, in fact, a form of Cyrillic. The reasons for this, of course, are all historical.

There was nothing that said a thousand years ago when the Proto-Slavs were breaking up wherever they were -- whenever it was, I don’t remember what I read -- that there would be these divisions that we have today, but there were influences like the Orthodox Church and Church Slavonic. There was the impact of the Mongol invasions, which meant that the original eastern Slavic nation built around Kiev split up and so you have Muscovy up north. Then the southern part of the Kievan Rus' increasingly was under the influence of Poland or the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and so they developed more as part of that political entity. Toen kwam het zuidelijke deel van de Kievan Rus' steeds meer onder de invloed van Polen of het Pools-Litouwse Gemenebest en zo ontwikkelden ze zich meer als onderdeel van die politieke entiteit. Então, a parte sul da Rus de Kiev estava cada vez mais sob a influência da Polônia ou da Comunidade Polaco-Lituana e, portanto, eles se desenvolveram mais como parte dessa entidade política. 然后,基辅罗斯的南部越来越受到波兰或波兰-立陶宛联邦的影响,因此它们发展成为该政治实体的一部分。

In fact, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had a lot more Ukrainians and Belarusians in it than Lithuanians. The Lithuanians were insignificant and the Lithuanian leadership gradually spoke more and more Polish as Polish became the dominant language. Os lituanos eram insignificantes e a liderança lituana falava cada vez mais polonês à medida que o polonês se tornava a língua dominante. The Poles, as is often the case with societies where you have more than one language group, became quite intolerant in their approach to the Orthodox Ukrainians.

That’s why at some point a portion of the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Melnitzky, I think, broke away and went off to seek help from the Russians. だから、ある時点で、メルニツキーの指揮下にあるウクライナのコサックの一部が壊れて、ロシア人に助けを求めに出かけたのだと思います。 With that and over time as part of the Ukraine came under Russian control, of course, now the Russians were less tolerant of the Ukrainians so they tried to suppress the Ukrainian language.

So you had all of that kind of evolution. Similarly, between the Czechs and the Poles there were a lot of kings that were common to Poland and Czech Lands, Moravia. 同样,在捷克人和波兰人之间,有很多国王是波兰和摩拉维亚的捷克土地所共有的。

In fact, going back a thousand years there was even a greater Moravia and then in those lands you had the Germans coming in. De fato, voltando mil anos atrás, havia uma Morávia ainda maior e então nessas terras você tinha os alemães chegando. 实际上,距今已有一千多年的历史,摩拉维亚甚至更大,然后在这些土地上就有德国人来了。 So lots of different influences, including the influence of the Catholic Church as the Poles and the Czechs became part of the Catholic world. All of these things influence the language.

However, as a learner, if I were to learn those languages I would go in the following order. しかし、学習者として、これらの言語を学ぶとしたら、次の順序で進みます。 I would learn Russian first because it’s the biggest, biggest in terms of numbers of speakers, biggest in terms of, rightly or wrongly, the extent to which their writers are celebrated around the world. 私が最初にロシア語を学ぶのは、ロシア語が話者の数の点で最大であり、その作家が世界中で祝われる程度の点で、正しいか間違っているかという点で最大だからです。 They’re more famous than Polish, Czech or Ukrainian writers. This might be a prejudice on my part, but I would start with Russian. With that, you’ll get the basics of how the grammar works. Although, certain minor things are different and, of course, the endings are completely different, but the principles under which these languages operate are more or less the same. Hoewel bepaalde kleine dingen anders zijn en, natuurlijk, de eindes compleet anders zijn, maar de principes waaronder deze talen opereren zijn min of meer hetzelfde. Embora algumas coisas menores sejam diferentes e, claro, os finais sejam completamente diferentes, mas os princípios sob os quais essas linguagens operam são mais ou menos os mesmos. Then with each language you have to learn the vocabulary of that language. Fortunately, for each one of those four languages I have found ample resources via the internet, whether it be audio books and eBooks for Russian.

There’s an abundance of books that you can download and import into LingQ. As I’ve said many times, I’ve found Ekho Moskvy a phenomenal resource because every day there’s tens of interviews with transcripts put up. With Czech I’ve found this history series ________. Unfortunately, they no longer publish the transcripts for that, but that was very helpful to me. You can find eBooks and audio books for Czech. Similarly, with Polish I was able to find eBooks and audio books. I haven’t had the same success with finding Ukrainian eBooks and audio books because wherever you search it’s all basically this is free, that is free.

I’m not that interested in free, I’m happy to pay for a decent eBook or audio book. So with Ukrainian I rely largely on ________, which is a very interesting source of podcasts daily on events in Ukraine both in Russian and Ukrainian and _________ where often they will have texts with audio. So there are resources on the internet for those languages and as you discover them you discover this Slavic world and there are certain characteristics in common. したがって、インターネット上にはこれらの言語のリソースがあり、それらを発見すると、このスラブの世界が発見され、共通の特定の特徴があります。

I was asked whether I found that there were these similarities between Slavic peoples and I must say that I find that there are some, but more than that it depends on individual people. スラブの人々の間にこれらの類似点があるかどうか尋ねられました、そして私はいくつかあることを私が見つけたと言わなければなりません、しかしそれ以上にそれは個々の人々に依存します。 Me perguntaram se eu achava que existiam essas semelhanças entre os povos eslavos e devo dizer que acho que existem algumas, mas mais do que isso depende de cada povo. There are the sort of intellectuals who are more call it worldly. それをより世俗的に呼んでいる種類の知識人がいます。 Há o tipo de intelectual que mais chama isso de mundano. 有些知识分子更称其为世俗。 There are those that are more stridently they’re the best. より厳しく彼らが最高であるものがあります。 Er zijn er die meer schril zijn, ze zijn de beste. 有些人更加坚定地认为自己是最好的。 There’s a whole range and I think that’s probably true for most cultures. Há toda uma gama e acho que isso provavelmente é verdade para a maioria das culturas. So I am very happy that I went after four languages within the Slavic collection of languages and I may go after maybe Serbo-Croatian, particularly if I decide to go there on holidays.

Similarly, I have my group of romance languages and it’s fun to explore the differences between Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French and so forth and, of course, Romanian as a bit of an outlier. The Germanic languages, between my Swedish, my English, my German and the little bit that I’ve looked at Dutch I don’t think it would be difficult to learn. All I can say is it’s fun to explore these different language families.

Over the course of history, different people who spoke one language maybe were converted into speakers of another language. So there’s really no connection between genetics, genetic code or anything in language, it’s more a matter of circumstance in history and exploring these languages is a great way to explore what we are as human beings. 因此,遗传学,遗传密码或语言中的任何内容之间实际上没有任何联系,更多的是历史情况,探索这些语言是探索我们作为人类的好方法。 I should say, also, on my Asian-language side obviously Chinese or Mandarin was a good base for Japanese and Korean, even though those languages, although they borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese, are part of a different language family.

So there you have it in the sunshine squinting. Então você tem isso na luz do sol apertando os olhos. 因此,在斜视的阳光下,就可以拥有它。

I hope this was of interest. For those who like the longer ramble, you got it. より長いランブルが好きな人のために、あなたはそれを手に入れました。 Para aqueles que gostam do passeio mais longo, você conseguiu. We’ll talk again, bye for now. さようなら、今はまた話します。