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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, Learning Japanese, Chinese and Korean Compared

Learning Japanese, Chinese and Korean Compared

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. I was asked to do a video, today in fact, about the differences between learning Japanese and Chinese. I appreciate getting specific requests. It's always nice to respond to listeners/viewers who are interested in a particular subject, so I thought I would look try to look at these differences, both in terms of how I study the two languages -- I'm going to throw Korean in, as well, three Asian languages -- and what I think are general differences in terms of difficulty and so forth.

Remember that I studied Chinese as a full-time language student paid for by the Canadian Government because I was a diplomat and they were training me to learn Chinese. I had three hours in the morning and then I had lots of hours full-time to devote to reading, listening and building up my skill level in Chinese. I lived in Hong Kong, which was not a place where Mandarin Chinese was spoken, so I did not have the benefit of being immersed in the language. In Japan I studied it entirely on my own, but I had the advantage of living in Japan. Korean I am studying here in Vancouver, so again I'm on my own and don't have the language surrounding me.

First of all, as you may know, I believe that the best way to learn a language is to devote a lot of time to listening, reading and vocabulary accumulation. You can speak whenever you want to start speaking, but until you have a lot of words it's very difficult to have meaningful conversations and I like doing things that are meaningful in the language.

Now, with Chinese an immediate problem is that until you have learned enough characters you cannot read anything very interesting or meaningful in the language, so that makes Chinese quite difficult. I made a special effort to learn the most frequent 1,000 characters. I had flashcards for them and I used to write them out on these checked exercise books where I had sort of a primitive spaced repetition system that I've described before where I would write the character out seven to 10 times and then put the meaning or the pronunciation over three or four columns to the right, pick up another flashcard and do the same thing until I ran into that first character and I would do that literally every day.

Once I had the 1,000 most common characters that I deliberately wrote out longhand to try to learn, thereafter as I encountered characters in my reading it was enough to write them out five to 10 times. Of course you keep on forgetting, but forgetting, rewriting, relearning, seeing them in context and eventually they started to stick. With characters after a while you start to get used to the different components, the radicals as they are called, so that helps you remember these characters and you get better and better at learning them. When you first start out it seems like an impossible task to remember the stroke order, 10, 12, 13 different strokes for just one character.

So the reading in the case of Chinese initially is a big obstacle, but once you have the characters it becomes very easy to build vocabulary because different combinations of the characters that you now know correspond to different words the way we count words in English. That was regard to reading.

Bear in mind when I studied Chinese I had to write an exam. As it turned out, after less than a year I would have to be able to translate newspaper editorials from Chinese into English, from English in to Chinese, write a diplomatic note, so I had to focus on my writing. With Japanese I was studying it only in order to be able to use it and therefore I essentially never wrote it, so as long as I could read it I was happy. The problem in Japanese is that a lot of the sort of beginner material, the easier reading material is very heavy to hiragana and I found it very difficult to read hiragana. The other thing is because the hiragana is a syllable-type system I wanted to move to text that had a lot of characters as soon as possible, like newspapers and stuff like that, but of course I couldn't understand the newspapers. It was too quick for me if I listened to the radio news or something, so I was stuck with reading a lot of the beginner material.

One of the mysteries for me in language instruction is that people who write textbooks like to provide children's stories, stories about Taro who rode a turtle underneath the ocean, fairy stories, stories about flying carp on whatever festival day. Subjects I would never read about in English, I would have no interest in these subjects whatsoever. The same is true in Korean, lots of these “cultural-type” content items for beginners or children's stories which are really not of very much interest. I remember there was a series called Naganuma where I just read on and on and on in hiragana and found it quite boring and was very happy when I was able to get to texts that were of more interest.

In a sense, Japanese is easier to read because it's a phonetic system, but there are two different phonetic systems and I never enjoyed reading in katakana. You don't get enough of a dosage of it, at least I didn't, that I'm still not very good at my katakana. I prefer to read text with a lot of characters, even if at times I pronounce these characters in the Chinese way, I know what the meaning is. Reading-wise, Japanese is probably easier because you only need about 2,000, whereas in Chinese you have only characters to go with.

The reading of Korean is the easiest of all because it's an alphabet like we understand an alphabet. The difficulty with Korean, just as in Japanese or perhaps slightly more so, is there are a lot of words that are based on Chinese and if you read them in the phonetic script you often don't know what they are, so that presents certain difficulties. So for Japanese definitely you should learn the Chinese characters because it makes it a lot easier to reading. Reading is major tool for language learning for vocabulary accumulation. I don't know how you would accumulate sort of an adult vocabulary in Japanese if you can't read characters and read interesting and meaningful text.

Insofar as the sort of word order or grammatical structure of the languages, I think every language is different and you just have to get used to it. When you start out it feels strange, but certainly Chinese is easier than Japanese or Korean, easier to us as English speakers or speakers of European languages, because the word order is very often more similar to what we're used to and in many cases simpler. There are no conjugations or declensions to deal with, it's ‘I go today, I go tomorrow', very simple. ‘You go, he go, we go, they go', it doesn't change. There are some specific structures that are peculiar to Chinese and you just have to get used to them and they seem strange at first. For example, we use the relative pronoun ‘which', whereas in Chinese they talk about ‘the you ate dinner.' The dinner you ate is ‘the you ate dinner'. There are some different orders there that you have to get used to and it just takes time, so with enough reading and listening it eventually starts to feel natural.

There are more strange-to-us structures in Japanese and you have the problem of the different levels of politeness which to some extent exists in all languages, but is a much bigger deal in Japanese and in Korean. For a long time it just seems that you can't get used to that, but eventually you do through enough exposure.

With Korean right now I'm experiencing the difficulty that the way the future is constructed I just can't get my brain tied around it. I've seen the explanations, I've seen examples and when I speak I have a lot of difficulty coming up with those structures, but I know from previous experience that with enough exposure, enough listening and reading, eventually these structures will become natural to me. So, yes, Chinese is easier than Japanese or Korean insofar as the structure of the language is concerned.

Insofar as pronunciation, I think that Chinese is the most difficult because of the tones. However, the actual sounds themselves, a lot of them are quite similar to English. There are some difficult sounds, but not so many and it's not surprising that there are quite a few English speakers who are absolutely fluent and flawless speakers of Chinese, such as the famous Dashan who is Canadian and a personality on TV in China. I think all three of them are fairly straightforward when it comes to pronunciation.

The tones are a problem in Chinese and I think that's where, again, you need to do a lot of listening and listening for the intonation. As I've said many times, I found it very useful to listen to these shun chun comic dialogues because the comedians exaggerate the intonation and if you can get the intonation as part of a series of phrases or even pick up on the music of the language then the tones will slot into place. Not 100%, but 60, 70, 80% of the time as you get better at it.

As far as understanding the language, I think Chinese probably represents the greatest difficulty in terms of comprehension because there are so many homonyms, that is words that sound the same but have different meaning, and because different parts of China have different tones and pronounce these words differently. So the ‘jer' sound is ‘zer' in some places, the ‘shur' becomes ‘sa', so all of a sudden there are more homonyms because they aren't distinguishing between the ‘jer', the ‘zer' and the ‘shur' and the ‘sa'. So Chinese from that perspective is more difficult to understand.

I find Japanese quite easy to understand and Korean it's too early for me to tell because I'm just getting into it. I have the sense that, there again, there are no tones to deal with in Japanese or Korean, so that makes it easier to pronounce and easier to understand when the language is spoken. One of the problems I had with Japanese, but to some extent is true of all languages, is I remember myself being frustrated that so many of the words sounded the same, "kawarimasu", "wakarimasu". It is a fact that Japanese has fewer sounds in it than most languages. Of the languages I've learned it's the one with the fewest different sounds, "la, ki, ku, ke, ko" times however many, so that makes it more difficult at first because the words have a tendency to sound the same. So difficulty, I found Russian difficult. I find trying to go from Russian into Czech difficult where it's similar, but there are some different structures. It's always a challenge, but it's just a matter of giving yourself enough time and enough exposure with the language and not getting frustrated when you go to speak and you can't quite get the hang of their structure and you can't remember words. Don't worry about it. If you continue the intensive input eventually these things will become more natural and the brain will get used to it. I don't care if you're a Westerner learning an Asian language or an Asian learning a Western language or learning a language from the Amazon or an Aboriginal language our brains will eventually get used to the new patterns and you just have to exposure yourself enough to it.

So to that extent, comparing the difficulty level of Chinese to Japanese, I'm not sure that's useful. If you have Chinese and you go to Japanese you're at a big advantage because you already have the characters, hopefully. If you're a Japanese person, if you're an Asian language speaker, native speaker or otherwise, of the East Asian languages you have of course an advantage. I mean the challenges of the language are there and if you're motivated enough and you commit the time, if you're flexible, if you don't fight the new structures and find them strange and resist them and so forth, then you will learn them.

I don't know if that answers the question, but I've talked for almost 14 minutes on the subject and so I look forward to hearing your comments. Thank you.


Learning Japanese, Chinese and Korean Compared

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. I was asked to do a video, today in fact, about the differences between learning Japanese and Chinese. 今日、実際、日本語と中国語の学習の違いについてビデオを撮るように頼まれました。 I appreciate getting specific requests. 特定のリクエストをいただければ幸いです。 Я ценю получение конкретных запросов. It’s always nice to respond to listeners/viewers who are interested in a particular subject, so I thought I would look try to look at these differences, both in terms of how I study the two languages -- I’m going to throw Korean in, as well, three Asian languages -- and what I think are general differences in terms of difficulty and so forth. 特定のテーマに興味のあるリスナーや視聴者に対応するのはいつでもいいので、2つの言語をどのように勉強するかという観点から、これらの違いを見てみようと思いました。韓国語を取り入れます。 、同様に、3つのアジア言語-そして私が思うのは難易度などの点で一般的な違いです。 回复对特定主题感兴趣的听众/观看者总是很高兴的,所以我想我会尝试着看一下这些差异,包括在学习两种语言的方式上,我将韩语引入以及三种亚洲语言-我认为这是难度等方面的普遍差异。

Remember that I studied Chinese as a full-time language student paid for by the Canadian Government because I was a diplomat and they were training me to learn Chinese. 私は外交官であり、彼らが私に中国語を学ぶように訓練していたので、私はカナダ政府によって支払われたフルタイムの語学学生として中国語を勉強したことを思い出してください。 I had three hours in the morning and then I had lots of hours full-time to devote to reading, listening and building up my skill level in Chinese. 午前中は3時間でしたが、その後、中国語での読解、リスニング、スキルレベルの向上に専念するためにフルタイムで多くの時間を費やしました。 早上我有三个小时,然后有很多小时全职致力于阅读,听力和提高我的中文技能水平。 I lived in Hong Kong, which was not a place where Mandarin Chinese was spoken, so I did not have the benefit of being immersed in the language. 私は北京語が話される場所ではなかった香港に住んでいたので、その言語に没頭するメリットはありませんでした。 In Japan I studied it entirely on my own, but I had the advantage of living in Japan. 日本では完全に自分で勉強しましたが、日本に住むという利点がありました。 Korean I am studying here in Vancouver, so again I’m on my own and don’t have the language surrounding me. 韓国語私はここバンクーバーで勉強しているので、やはり私は一人で、周りの言語がありません。

First of all, as you may know, I believe that the best way to learn a language is to devote a lot of time to listening, reading and vocabulary accumulation. まず、ご存知かもしれませんが、言語を学ぶ最良の方法は、リスニング、リーディング、語彙の蓄積に多くの時間を費やすことだと思います。 You can speak whenever you want to start speaking, but until you have a lot of words it’s very difficult to have meaningful conversations and I like doing things that are meaningful in the language. 話し始めたいときはいつでも話すことができますが、言葉がたくさん出るまでは意味のある会話をするのは非常に難しく、私はその言語で意味のあることをするのが好きです。

Now, with Chinese an immediate problem is that until you have learned enough characters you cannot read anything very interesting or meaningful in the language, so that makes Chinese quite difficult. Ahora, con el chino, un problema inmediato es que hasta que haya aprendido suficientes caracteres, no puede leer nada muy interesante o significativo en el idioma, por lo que el chino es bastante difícil. さて、中国語の当面の問題は、十分な文字を学ぶまで、その言語で非常に興味深いものや意味のあるものを読むことができないため、中国語が非常に難しくなることです。 I made a special effort to learn the most frequent 1,000 characters. 私は最も頻繁な1,000文字を学ぶために特別な努力をしました。 I had flashcards for them and I used to write them out on these checked exercise books where I had sort of a primitive spaced repetition system that I’ve described before where I would write the character out seven to 10 times and then put the meaning or the pronunciation over three or four columns to the right, pick up another flashcard and do the same thing until I ran into that first character and I would do that literally every day. 私は彼らのためにフラッシュカードを持っていました、そして私はこれらのチェックされた練習帳にそれらを書きました、そこで私は前に説明した一種の原始的な間隔反復システムを持っていました、そこで私は文字を7から10回書き、そして意味を置くか右側の3列または4列の発音、別のフラッシュカードを手に取り、最初の文字に出くわすまで同じことを行います。文字通り毎日それを行います。 我为他们准备了抽认卡,并经常将它们写在这些经检查的练习簿上,在那里我有了某种原始的间隔重复系统,在此之前,我先将字符写出7至10次,然后将含义或在右边三到四列的发音,拿起另一个抽认卡,然后做同样的事情,直到遇到第一个字符,然后我每天都会这样做。

Once I had the 1,000 most common characters that I deliberately wrote out longhand to try to learn, thereafter as I encountered characters in my reading it was enough to write them out five to 10 times. Una vez que tuve los 1,000 caracteres más comunes que deliberadamente escribí a mano para tratar de aprender, a partir de entonces, cuando encontré caracteres en mi lectura, fue suficiente para escribirlos de cinco a 10 veces. 覚えようと意図的に手書きで書いた最も一般的な1,000文字を手に入れたら、その後、読書中に文字に出会ったので、5〜10回書き出すだけで十分でした。 После того, как у меня было 1000 наиболее распространенных символов, которые я намеренно выписал от руки, чтобы попытаться выучить, впоследствии, когда я столкнулся с символами в моем чтении, было достаточно написать их пять-десять раз. 一旦有了1,000个最常见的汉字,我刻意写出长篇大论来尝试学习,此后,当我在阅读中遇到汉字时,就足以将它们写出五到十次。 Of course you keep on forgetting, but forgetting, rewriting, relearning, seeing them in context and eventually they started to stick. Por supuesto, sigues olvidando, pero olvidando, reescribiendo, volviendo a aprender, viéndolos en contexto y eventualmente comenzaron a quedarse. もちろん、あなたは忘れ続けますが、忘れ、書き直し、再学習し、文脈の中でそれらを見て、最終的には固執し始めました。 Конечно, вы продолжаете забывать, но забываете, переписываете, переучиваетесь, видите их в контексте, и в конце концов они начинают придерживаться. With characters after a while you start to get used to the different components, the radicals as they are called, so that helps you remember these characters and you get better and better at learning them. しばらくすると、さまざまなコンポーネント、つまり部首と呼ばれるものに慣れ始めます。これにより、これらの文字を覚えて、学習を上手に行うことができます。 When you first start out it seems like an impossible task to remember the stroke order, 10, 12, 13 different strokes for just one character. 最初に始めたとき、1人のキャラクターに対して10、12、13の異なるストロークの書き順を覚えるのは不可能な作業のように思えます。

So the reading in the case of Chinese initially is a big obstacle, but once you have the characters it becomes very easy to build vocabulary because different combinations of the characters that you now know correspond to different words the way we count words in English. Entonces, la lectura en el caso del chino inicialmente es un gran obstáculo, pero una vez que tienes los caracteres, se vuelve muy fácil construir vocabulario porque las diferentes combinaciones de los caracteres que ahora conoces corresponden a diferentes palabras de la forma en que contamos las palabras en inglés. ですから、中国語の場合の読み方は最初は大きな障害ですが、文字を取得すると、英語での単語の数え方に対応する文字の組み合わせが異なるため、語彙を増やすのが非常に簡単になります。 That was regard to reading. それは読書に関するものでした。

Bear in mind when I studied Chinese I had to write an exam. 私が中国語を勉強したとき、私は試験を書かなければならなかったことを覚えておいてください。 As it turned out, after less than a year I would have to be able to translate newspaper editorials from Chinese into English, from English in to Chinese, write a diplomatic note, so I had to focus on my writing. 結局のところ、1年も経たないうちに、新聞の社説を中国語から英語に、英語から中国語に翻訳し、外交文書を書くことができなければならなかったので、私は自分の執筆に集中しなければなりませんでした。 With Japanese I was studying it only in order to be able to use it and therefore I essentially never wrote it, so as long as I could read it I was happy. Con el japonés, lo estaba estudiando solo para poder usarlo y, por lo tanto, esencialmente nunca lo escribí, así que mientras pude leerlo, estaba feliz. 日本語は使えるようにするためだけに勉強していたので、基本的には書いたことがなく、読める限り嬉しかったです。 The problem in Japanese is that a lot of the sort of beginner material, the easier reading material is very heavy to hiragana and I found it very difficult to read hiragana. 日本語の問題点は、初心者向けの資料が多く、読みやすい資料はひらがなに非常に重く、ひらがなを読むのが非常に難しいことです。 The other thing is because the hiragana is a syllable-type system I wanted to move to text that had a lot of characters as soon as possible, like newspapers and stuff like that, but of course I couldn’t understand the newspapers. La otra cosa es que debido a que el hiragana es un sistema de tipos de sílabas, quería pasar a un texto que tuviera muchos caracteres lo antes posible, como periódicos y cosas por el estilo, pero, por supuesto, no podía entender los periódicos. もう一つは、ひらがなは音節型なので、新聞などのようにできるだけ早く文字の多い文章に移したかったのですが、もちろん新聞がわかりませんでした。 It was too quick for me if I listened to the radio news or something, so I was stuck with reading a lot of the beginner material. Era demasiado rápido para mí si escuchaba las noticias de la radio o algo así, así que me quedé atrapado leyendo mucho material para principiantes. ラジオのニュースなどを聞くと速すぎたので、初心者向けの資料をたくさん読むことに悩まされました。

One of the mysteries for me in language instruction is that people who write textbooks like to provide children’s stories, stories about Taro who rode a turtle underneath the ocean, fairy stories, stories about flying carp on whatever festival day. Uno de los misterios para mí en la enseñanza de idiomas es que a las personas que escriben libros de texto les gusta proporcionar historias para niños, historias sobre Taro que montó una tortuga debajo del océano, cuentos de hadas, historias sobre carpas voladoras en cualquier día festivo. 教科書を書く人は、童話、海中をカメに乗った太郎の話、おとぎ話、お祭りの日に鯉を飛ばす話などを教えてくれるのが好きだというのが、私にとっての謎のひとつです。 Subjects I would never read about in English, I would have no interest in these subjects whatsoever. 私が英語で読むことのない科目は、これらの科目にはまったく興味がありません。 我永远不会用英语读过的主题,无论如何我都不会有兴趣。 The same is true in Korean, lots of these “cultural-type” content items for beginners or children’s stories which are really not of very much interest. 同じことが韓国語にも当てはまります。初心者や童話向けのこれらの「文化的な」コンテンツアイテムの多くは、あまり興味がありません。 I remember there was a series called Naganuma where I just read on and on and on in hiragana and found it quite boring and was very happy when I was able to get to texts that were of more interest. Recuerdo que había una serie llamada Naganuma donde leía una y otra vez en hiragana y la encontraba bastante aburrida y estaba muy feliz cuando podía llegar a textos que eran más interesantes. ひらがなで何度も何度も読んだ長沼というシリーズがあったのを覚えていますが、とてもつまらなくて、もっと興味のある文章にたどり着くことができてとても嬉しかったです。

In a sense, Japanese is easier to read because it’s a phonetic system, but there are two different phonetic systems and I never enjoyed reading in katakana. En cierto sentido, el japonés es más fácil de leer porque es un sistema fonético, pero hay dos sistemas fonéticos diferentes y nunca disfruté leyendo en katakana. ある意味、日本語はふりがななので読みやすいのですが、ふりがなが2つあり、カタカナで読むのが面白くありませんでした。 You don’t get enough of a dosage of it, at least I didn’t, that I’m still not very good at my katakana. No obtienes una dosis suficiente, al menos yo no, que todavía no soy muy bueno en mi katakana. あなたはそれの十分な投与量を得ることができません、少なくとも私はそうしませんでした、それは私がまだ私のカタカナがあまり得意ではないということです。 你没有得到足够的剂量,至少我没有,我对我的片假名仍然不太擅长。 I prefer to read text with a lot of characters, even if at times I pronounce these characters in the Chinese way, I know what the meaning is. Prefiero leer textos con muchos caracteres, incluso si a veces los pronuncio a la manera china, sé cuál es el significado. 文字の多い文章を読むのが好きですが、中国語で発音しても、その意味はわかります。 Reading-wise, Japanese is probably easier because you only need about 2,000, whereas in Chinese you have only characters to go with. En cuanto a la lectura, el japonés es probablemente más fácil porque solo necesita alrededor de 2,000, mientras que en chino solo tiene caracteres para acompañar. 読み方に関しては、日本語はおそらく2,000程度しか必要ないので簡単ですが、中国語では文字しかありません。 З точки зору читання японська, ймовірно, легша, тому що вам потрібно лише близько 2000, тоді як у китайській у вас є лише символи. 在阅读方面,日语可能会更容易,因为您只需要2,000左右,而中文则只有字符。

The reading of Korean is the easiest of all because it’s an alphabet like we understand an alphabet. La lectura del coreano es la más fácil de todas porque es un alfabeto como nosotros entendemos un alfabeto. 私たちがアルファベットを理解しているように、韓国語はアルファベットなので、韓国語を読むのが最も簡単です。 Читати корейською мовою найлегше з усіх, тому що це алфавіт, як ми розуміємо алфавіт. 读韩语是最容易的,因为它像我们理解的字母一样是字母。 The difficulty with Korean, just as in Japanese or perhaps slightly more so, is there are a lot of words that are based on Chinese and if you read them in the phonetic script you often don’t know what they are, so that presents certain difficulties. La dificultad con el coreano, al igual que con el japonés o quizás un poco más, es que hay muchas palabras que se basan en el chino y si las lees en la escritura fonética a menudo no sabes cuáles son, por lo que presenta ciertas dificultades. 韓国語の難しさは、日本語と同じか、それより少し多いかもしれませんが、中国語をベースにした単語がたくさんあり、発音記号で読んだ場合、それらが何であるかわからないことがよくあります。困難。 So for Japanese definitely you should learn the Chinese characters because it makes it a lot easier to reading. Entonces, para el japonés definitivamente deberías aprender los caracteres chinos porque hace que sea mucho más fácil de leer. ですから、日本人にとっては間違いなく漢字を学ぶべきです。なぜならそれはとても読みやすくなるからです。 Reading is major tool for language learning for vocabulary accumulation. La lectura es una herramienta importante para el aprendizaje de idiomas para la acumulación de vocabulario. 読書は語彙蓄積のための言語学習のための主要なツールです。 I don’t know how you would accumulate sort of an adult vocabulary in Japanese if you can’t read characters and read interesting and meaningful text. No sé cómo acumularías una especie de vocabulario adulto en japonés si no puedes leer caracteres y leer textos interesantes y significativos. 文字が読めず、面白くて意味のある文章が読めなかったら、どうやって大人の語彙を日本語で貯めることができるのかわかりません。

Insofar as the sort of word order or grammatical structure of the languages, I think every language is different and you just have to get used to it. 言語の語順や文法構造の種類に関しては、すべての言語が異なり、それに慣れる必要があると思います。 When you start out it feels strange, but certainly Chinese is easier than Japanese or Korean, easier to us as English speakers or speakers of European languages, because the word order is very often more similar to what we’re used to and in many cases simpler. 始めたときは奇妙に感じますが、確かに中国語は日本語や韓国語よりも簡単で、英語を話す人やヨーロッパ言語を話す人としては簡単です。語順は私たちが慣れ親しんでいるものとよく似ているためです。よりシンプル。 There are no conjugations or declensions to deal with, it’s ‘I go today, I go tomorrow', very simple. No hay conjugaciones o declinaciones con las que lidiar, es 'voy hoy, voy mañana', muy simple. 対処する活用や曲用はありません。「今日行く、明日行く」という非常にシンプルなものです。 ‘You go, he go, we go, they go', it doesn’t change. 「あなたが行く、彼が行く、私たちが行く、彼らが行く」、それは変わらない。 There are some specific structures that are peculiar to Chinese and you just have to get used to them and they seem strange at first. 中国語特有の特定の構造がいくつかあり、それらに慣れる必要があり、最初は奇妙に見えます。 For example, we use the relative pronoun ‘which', whereas in Chinese they talk about ‘the you ate dinner.' たとえば、関係代名詞「which」を使用しますが、中国語では「あなたが夕食を食べた」と話します。 Наприклад, ми використовуємо відносний займенник «який», тоді як китайською мовою говорять про «ти обідав». The dinner you ate is ‘the you ate dinner'. あなたが食べた夕食は「あなたが夕食を食べた」です。 Обід, який ви з'їли, це "ви вечеряли". There are some different orders there that you have to get used to and it just takes time, so with enough reading and listening it eventually starts to feel natural. あなたが慣れなければならないいくつかの異なる注文があり、それはただ時間がかかるので、十分に読んだり聞いたりすると、最終的には自然に感じ始めます。 Там є кілька різних порядків, до яких потрібно звикнути, і на це потрібен час, тому, якщо достатньо читати та слухати, це зрештою починає відчуватися природно.

There are more strange-to-us structures in Japanese and you have the problem of the different levels of politeness which to some extent exists in all languages, but is a much bigger deal in Japanese and in Korean. Hay estructuras más extrañas para nosotros en japonés y tienes el problema de los diferentes niveles de cortesía que existen hasta cierto punto en todos los idiomas, pero es mucho más importante en japonés y coreano. 日本語にはもっと奇妙な構造があり、すべての言語にある程度存在する礼儀正しさのレベルが異なるという問題がありますが、日本語と韓国語でははるかに大きな問題です。 For a long time it just seems that you can’t get used to that, but eventually you do through enough exposure. Durante mucho tiempo parece que no puedes acostumbrarte a eso, pero eventualmente lo haces a través de suficiente exposición. 長い間、それに慣れることができないように思われますが、最終的には十分な露出を介して行います。 Довгий час здавалося, що ви не можете звикнути до цього, але врешті-решт ви це звикнете через достатньо впливу.

With Korean right now I’m experiencing the difficulty that the way the future is constructed I just can’t get my brain tied around it. Con el coreano en este momento estoy experimentando la dificultad de que la forma en que se construye el futuro simplemente no puedo atar mi cerebro alrededor de él. 今韓国人で、未来を築く方法が難しいので、頭を悩ませることはできません。 З корейською зараз я відчуваю труднощі, пов’язані з тим, як будується майбутнє, і я просто не можу прив’язати свій розум до цього. 现在有了韩语,我遇到了这样的困难,即未来的构建方式使我束手无策。 I’ve seen the explanations, I’ve seen examples and when I speak I have a lot of difficulty coming up with those structures, but I know from previous experience that with enough exposure, enough listening and reading, eventually these structures will become natural to me. 説明を見たり、例を見たり、話すときにそれらの構造を思いつくのは非常に難しいですが、以前の経験から、十分な露出、十分なリスニングとリーディングがあれば、最終的にこれらの構造は自然になることを知っています私に。 Я бачив пояснення, я бачив приклади, і коли я говорю, мені важко придумати ці структури, але я знаю з попереднього досвіду, що якщо достатньо ознайомитися, достатньо слухати та читати, зрештою ці структури стануть природними до мене. So, yes, Chinese is easier than Japanese or Korean insofar as the structure of the language is concerned. ですから、そうです、言語の構造に関する限り、中国語は日本語や韓国語よりも簡単です。 Отже, так, китайська мова легша за японську чи корейську в тому, що стосується структури мови. 因此,是的,就语言的结构而言,中文比日文或韩文容易。

Insofar as pronunciation, I think that Chinese is the most difficult because of the tones. 発音に関しては、中国語が音色のせいで一番難しいと思います。 Що стосується вимови, я думаю, що китайська найскладніша через тональність. However, the actual sounds themselves, a lot of them are quite similar to English. しかし、実際の音自体は、英語と非常によく似ています。 Проте самі звуки, багато з них дуже схожі на англійські. There are some difficult sounds, but not so many and it’s not surprising that there are quite a few English speakers who are absolutely fluent and flawless speakers of Chinese, such as the famous Dashan who is Canadian and a personality on TV in China. Hay algunos sonidos difíciles, pero no tantos y no es de extrañar que haya bastantes angloparlantes que hablan chino con absoluta fluidez y perfección, como el famoso Dashan, que es canadiense y una personalidad de la televisión en China. 難しい音もありますが、それほど多くはありません。カナダ人で有名な大山や中国のテレビの個性など、中国語を完全に流暢で完璧に話す英語を話す人がかなりいるのも当然です。 Є кілька важких звуків, але їх не так багато, і не дивно, що є чимало англомовних, які абсолютно вільно й бездоганно володіють китайською, як-от знаменитий Дашан, який є канадцем і є особистістю на телебаченні в Китаї. I think all three of them are fairly straightforward when it comes to pronunciation. 発音に関しては、3つすべてがかなり簡単だと思います。 Я думаю, що всі троє досить прості, коли справа доходить до вимови. 我认为当涉及到发音时,这三者都很简单。

The tones are a problem in Chinese and I think that’s where, again, you need to do a lot of listening and listening for the intonation. 中国語では声調が問題であり、ここでも、イントネーションを聞くために多くのことを聞く必要があると思います。 У китайській мові тон є проблемою, і я думаю, що тут, знову ж таки, потрібно багато прислухатися та прислухатися до інтонації. 音调是中文中的一个问题,我认为那是需要再次进行大量聆听和聆听语调的地方。 As I’ve said many times, I found it very useful to listen to these shun chun comic dialogues because the comedians exaggerate the intonation and if you can get the intonation as part of a series of phrases or even pick up on the music of the language then the tones will slot into place. Como he dicho muchas veces, me resultó muy útil escuchar estos diálogos cómicos de shun chun porque los comediantes exageran la entonación y si puedes obtener la entonación como parte de una serie de frases o incluso recoger la música de la idioma, entonces los tonos encajarán en su lugar. 何度も言ったように、コメディアンはイントネーションを誇張していて、一連のフレーズの一部としてイントネーションを取得したり、言語の場合、トーンは所定の位置に挿入されます。 Як я вже говорив багато разів, мені було дуже корисно слухати ці комічні діалоги Shun Chun, тому що коміки перебільшують інтонацію, і якщо ви можете отримати інтонацію як частину серії фраз або навіть підхопити музику мови, тоді тони стануть на свої місця. Not 100%, but 60, 70, 80% of the time as you get better at it. 100%ではなく、60、70、80%の確率で上手くなります。 Не на 100%, але в 60, 70, 80% випадків, коли ви станете краще. 当您变得更好时,不是100%,而是60、70、80%的时间。

As far as understanding the language, I think Chinese probably represents the greatest difficulty in terms of comprehension because there are so many homonyms, that is words that sound the same but have different meaning, and because different parts of China have different tones and pronounce these words differently. 言語を理解する限り、同音異義語、つまり同じように聞こえるが意味が異なる単語が非常に多く、中国のさまざまな地域で音色が異なり、これらを発音するため、中国語はおそらく理解の点で最も難しいと思います別の言葉。 Що стосується розуміння мови, я вважаю, що китайська, ймовірно, представляє найбільшу складність з точки зору розуміння, тому що є дуже багато омонімів, тобто слів, які звучать однаково, але мають різне значення, і тому, що різні частини Китаю мають різні інтонації та їх вимову. слова по-різному. So the ‘jer' sound is ‘zer' in some places, the ‘shur' becomes ‘sa', so all of a sudden there are more homonyms because they aren’t distinguishing between the ‘jer', the ‘zer' and the ‘shur' and the ‘sa'. したがって、「jer」の音は「zer」である場所もあり、「shur」は「sa」になります。したがって、「jer」、「zer」、および「zer」を区別していないため、突然、同音異義語が増えます。 「shur」と「sa」。 Тож звук «jer» у деяких місцях стає «zer», «shur» стає «sa», тож раптом з’являється більше омонімів, оскільки вони не розрізняють «jer», «zer» і «шур» і «са». 所以在某些地方“ jer”的声音是“ zer”,“ shur”变成“ sa”,所以突然之间有更多的谐音,因为它们没有区分“ jer”,“ zer”和“ shur”和“ sa”。 So Chinese from that perspective is more difficult to understand. したがって、その観点からの中国語は理解するのがより困難です。 Тож китайську з цієї точки зору зрозуміти складніше.

I find Japanese quite easy to understand and Korean it’s too early for me to tell because I’m just getting into it. 日本語はとてもわかりやすく、韓国語は始めたばかりなので、話すのは時期尚早です。 Я вважаю, що японську мову досить легко зрозуміти, а корейську мені ще рано говорити, тому що я тільки починаю її вивчати. I have the sense that, there again, there are no tones to deal with in Japanese or Korean, so that makes it easier to pronounce and easier to understand when the language is spoken. 繰り返しになりますが、日本語や韓国語で扱う音色がないので、口頭言語を話すときに発音しやすく、理解しやすいと思います。 One of the problems I had with Japanese, but to some extent is true of all languages, is I remember myself being frustrated that so many of the words sounded the same, "kawarimasu", "wakarimasu". 私が日本語で抱えていた問題の1つは、すべての言語にある程度当てはまりますが、「かわります」、「わかります」という言葉が同じように聞こえることに不満を感じたことを覚えています。 It is a fact that Japanese has fewer sounds in it than most languages. Es un hecho que el japonés tiene menos sonidos que la mayoría de los idiomas. 日本語はほとんどの言語よりも音が少ないのは事実です。 Of the languages I’ve learned it’s the one with the fewest different sounds, "la, ki, ku, ke, ko" times however many, so that makes it more difficult at first because the words have a tendency to sound the same. 私が学んだ言語の中で、「ラ、キ、ク、ケ、コ」の音の違いが最も少ない言語であるため、単語は同じように聞こえる傾向があるため、最初は難しくなります。 So difficulty, I found Russian difficult. とても難しいので、私はロシア語が難しいと感じました。 Так складно, мені важко було російську. I find trying to go from Russian into Czech difficult where it’s similar, but there are some different structures. ロシア語からチェコ語に行くのは似ているので難しいと思いますが、いくつかの異なる構造があります。 Мені важко спробувати перейти з російської на чеську, де це схоже, але є деякі інші структури. It’s always a challenge, but it’s just a matter of giving yourself enough time and enough exposure with the language and not getting frustrated when you go to speak and you can’t quite get the hang of their structure and you can’t remember words. それは常に挑戦ですが、それはあなた自身に十分な時間と言語に十分な露出を与え、あなたが話しに行くときにイライラしないことの問題であり、あなたは彼らの構造のコツを完全に理解することができず、あなたは言葉を思い出せません。 Це завжди виклик, але це лише питання приділяти собі достатньо часу та достатнього впливу на мову та не розчаровуватися, коли ви починаєте говорити, і ви не можете повністю зрозуміти їхню структуру та не можете запам’ятати слова. Don’t worry about it. 心配しないでください。 If you continue the intensive input eventually these things will become more natural and the brain will get used to it. 集中的な入力を続けると、最終的にこれらのことがより自然になり、脳はそれに慣れます。 Якщо ви продовжите інтенсивний вхід, зрештою ці речі стануть більш природними, і мозок звикне до цього. I don’t care if you’re a Westerner learning an Asian language or an Asian learning a Western language or learning a language from the Amazon or an Aboriginal language our brains will eventually get used to the new patterns and you just have to exposure yourself enough to it. あなたがアジアの言語を学ぶ西洋人であろうと、西洋の言語を学ぶアジア人であろうと、アマゾンやアボリジニの言語から言語を学ぶのであろうと、私たちの脳は最終的に新しいパターンに慣れ、あなたは自分自身を暴露する必要がありますそれに十分です。 Мені байдуже, чи ти житель Заходу, який вивчає азіатську мову, чи азіат, який вивчає західну мову, чи вивчаєш мову з Амазонки, чи мову аборигенів, наш мозок з часом звикне до нових моделей, і ти просто маєш відкрити себе достатньо для цього.

So to that extent, comparing the difficulty level of Chinese to Japanese, I’m not sure that’s useful. ですから、その程度、中国語と日本語の難易度を比較すると、それが役立つかどうかはわかりません。 Таким чином, порівнюючи рівень складності китайської та японської мов, я не впевнений, що це корисно. If you have Chinese and you go to Japanese you’re at a big advantage because you already have the characters, hopefully. あなたが中国語を持っていて、日本語に行くなら、あなたはすでにキャラクターを持っているので、うまくいけば、あなたは大きなアドバンテージになります。 Якщо ви володієте китайською мовою і переходите до японської, ви маєте велику перевагу, тому що у вас уже є ієрогліфи, сподіваюся. 如果您有中文并且会日语,那么您将有很大的优势,因为您已经拥有了字符(希望如此)。 If you’re a Japanese person, if you’re an Asian language speaker, native speaker or otherwise, of the East Asian languages you have of course an advantage. あなたが日本人なら、アジア言語を話す人、ネイティブスピーカー、またはその他の人なら、もちろん東アジア言語の利点があります。 Якщо ви японець, якщо ви розмовляєте азійською мовою, є носієм мови Східної Азії чи іншим чином, ви, звичайно, маєте перевагу. I mean the challenges of the language are there and if you’re motivated enough and you commit the time, if you’re flexible, if you don’t fight the new structures and find them strange and resist them and so forth, then you will learn them. つまり、言語の課題があり、十分なモチベーションがあり、時間を費やしている場合、柔軟性がある場合、新しい構造と戦わず、奇妙なことに気づき、抵抗する場合などです。それらを学びます。 Я маю на увазі, що виклики мови існують, і якщо ви достатньо вмотивовані, ви приділяєте час, якщо ви гнучкі, якщо ви не боретеся з новими структурами, не вважаєте їх дивними, не противитесь їм і так далі, тоді ви навчиться їх.

I don’t know if that answers the question, but I’ve talked for almost 14 minutes on the subject and so I look forward to hearing your comments. No sé si eso responde a la pregunta, pero he hablado durante casi 14 minutos sobre el tema y espero escuchar sus comentarios. それが質問に答えるかどうかはわかりませんが、私はこの件について14分近く話しましたので、あなたのコメントを聞くのを楽しみにしています。 Я не знаю, чи це відповідь на запитання, але я говорив на цю тему майже 14 хвилин, тому з нетерпінням чекаю ваших коментарів. Thank you. ありがとうございました。