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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, Language Learning is a Subconscious Process

Language Learning is a Subconscious Process

Hi there, this is Steve here again.

Today I want to talk about how language learning is, essentially, a subconscious process. I saw these words in a forum discussion. Actually, it was a group at LinkedIn that I belong to, which includes language teachers, and there they were talking about how grammar instruction and error correction really doesn't have much impact on our language learning. Now, of course, this concept, which is something that Krashen has put forward which is supported by a lot of research, of course is challenged by teachers.

Because if teachers can't be engaged in error correction and in teaching grammar, well, what are they going to do. So there's a lot of sort of natural resistance to this concept, even though much research supports the idea. I have found, personally, that much of my learning takes place subconsciously. I learn my words without necessarily knowing how I learnt them. I have never found that deliberate study of lists, Anki or this kind of thing is where I learn most of my words, nor do I learn most of my ability to speak correctly from studying grammar rules. That's not to say that those activities can't help because it is an exposure to the language.

They are activities which, to some extent, help us notice things, but they are not the main means by which we learn a language because, as was said in this forum, language learning is largely a subconscious activity. All of a sudden you can start to say things, if you have exposed yourself to enough of the language. I think this makes language learning quite different from learning math or learning science. But since I haven't been doing much learning of math or science since I left high school, I can't really say for sure. Now, I was reminded of this, also, by a recent experience with my Romanian learning.

First of all, I should say that we live in a wonderful world. All the people who criticize globalization, I don't understand them. There are more people living more healthy and productive lives at a higher standard of living today than ever and we have this ability to access people all around the world. So I can talk via Skype with my Romanian tutors. I can access information. I'm now learning about Romania, Bessarabia, Bukovina, relations with Russia, tsarist Russia, how King Karaoke came to the land in the 19th century, all this kind of stuff, so that Romania is not such a far away strange land and I have my tutors. One thing before I get back to my main point here.

It's wonderful that a lot of these Internet polyglots are meeting in Budapest on the 18th of May, which isn't very far away, four days from now. I'll probably do another video when we get closer to the date, but I salute them, that initiative, which is another example of how people come together today in this world using this technology. So, to my mind, globalization is a good thing not a bad thing. However, getting back to the subject of subconscious learning, I had two tutors in Romanian and I should say that I'm starting to speak in Romanian much earlier than I ever did in Czech or Russian or Korean for a variety of reasons, one of which is that it's a lot easier because so much of the vocabulary is similar to the vocabulary in other romance languages and some of it is similar Slavic languages.

So I find it a lot easier to remember the vocabulary, to the point that now in LingQ when I import news items there's only 10% unknown words there for me or new words. Now, some of the words that I've saved I don't yet know, but words that I meet for the first time there's about 10%. Many of them I already know from Italian and many of them are actually names, so I'm flying in Romanian. So now I'm starting to speak much earlier (A) because it's easier, but (B) because I have to be in Romania next month and, of course, even through the vocabulary is so similar, it's still very difficult to understand when people speak.

I can understand better when I read and I also want to crank up my speaking ability. Normally, I would wait a month or two and then do it and I'd be able to speak much better, so now I'm kind of struggling to speak Romanian. At any rate, I had two tutors, they're both ladies, neither of whom were trained teachers and we have a great time.

We talk about what they're doing, what I did during the day, my plans to visit Romania or whatever comes to mind and it's very enjoyable. At the end of the 30-minute discussion, I get a list of some of the phrases that I used incorrectly or where I struggled to find the word and these, of course, I import into LingQ and I study, saving these words and phrases. This is input for me. This is content which has a high degree of resonance because these are things that I tried to say. I don't learn all the words right away or all the phrases, but I become quite aware of them and I think I notice them better when I next come across them in other contexts so I decided to step up my Romanian learning.

I decided to add yet another tutor and this time it's a man. I figured I should also be speaking to a man because I may find it more difficult, the intonation or whatever might be difficult with a man. At any rate, I felt I should have a man as well as a woman so we started our conversation. Now, this man is a trained teacher and because he's a trained teacher he insisted, at least initially, on doing things his way.

So, first of all, he wants to correct all of my mistakes on the fly and he wants to use English to explain. Every time he uses a word he gives me the English, just to make sure I understood. I kept saying look, if I don't understand I'll tell you. In the meantime, just use Romanian and don't correct my mistakes, put them all in my report so that I can study them later on. Then he said well, you know, really you should speak in very short sentences. For the first few weeks very simple sentences like my name is Steve and then, after a while, we can move to more complicated sentences. I said I just want to talk naturally and have an interesting, hopefully, conversation.

He said well, all right, but I think we then need to choose a theme. So why don't we pretend that you are in a store and we can talk about the different items that you would find in the store. I said I don't want to have an artificial discussion or role playing about a store. I just want to have a natural conversation and I want to use simple sentences, complicated sentences, present tense, past tense, future tense, whatever I want to use, whatever comes up in the discussion. So, with great reluctance, he agreed; although, he still continued to interject with English. I think he's coming around.

He seems like a really nice guy. He has an interesting job as an editor of educational magazines and educational books in Romania. So I'm looking forward to developing that relationship with him, but it reminded me. Here I am. I can tell the tutor what I want to do because we're doing this across Skype. It's my nickel and I decide how the time is going to be used, but if I were in a classroom I would be powerless. The teacher would be able to do role playing, tell us whether to speak in short sentences or long sentences and, basically, run the proceedings. Getting back to the original point that language is a subconscious process, we need exposure.

We need, obviously, lots of reading and listening and when we speak we need to speak naturally. We do a few things to, basically, focus in on some of the areas where we're having trouble, but if we just allow ourselves to hear the language and use the language the brain is going to pick it up, largely, in an incidental or subconscious way. That is why the focus on what they call form-based instruction or teaching grammar or error correction is really not all that effective. One example, again which was used on this forum at LinkedIn, was the third person singular in English.

It's taught early and often – I go, you go, he goes; we go, you go, they go -- yet it's perhaps one of the most common mistakes that people make because just instruction people or giving people drills in certain rules of grammar doesn't mean that those rules are going to kick in. They will kick in subconsciously, naturally, at some point. Although I rambled, as usual, all over the place, the theme is language learning is a subconscious process.

Therefore, give yourself lots of exposure and don't get upset when you don't learn things just because you studied them. Thank you for listening.


Language Learning is a Subconscious Process

Hi there, this is Steve here again. Hallo, hier ist Steve wieder. こんにちは、スティーブです。

Today I want to talk about how language learning is, essentially, a subconscious process. Heute möchte ich darüber sprechen, dass das Sprachenlernen im Wesentlichen ein unterbewusster Prozess ist. 今日は、言語学習が本質的に潜在意識のプロセスである方法についてお話したいと思います。 I saw these words in a forum discussion. 私はフォーラムの議論でこれらの言葉を見ました。 Actually, it was a group at LinkedIn that I belong to, which includes language teachers, and there they were talking about how grammar instruction and error correction really doesn’t have much impact on our language learning. Tatsächlich war es eine Gruppe bei LinkedIn, zu der ich gehöre, zu der auch Sprachlehrer gehören, und dort sprachen sie darüber, dass Grammatikunterricht und Fehlerkorrekturen wirklich keinen großen Einfluss auf unser Sprachenlernen haben. En realidad, era un grupo en LinkedIn al que pertenezco, que incluye profesores de idiomas, y allí estaban hablando sobre cómo la instrucción gramatical y la corrección de errores realmente no tienen mucho impacto en nuestro aprendizaje de idiomas. 実は、私が所属しているLinkedInのグループで、語学教師も含まれていました。そこで彼らは、文法の指導と誤り訂正が私たちの語学学習にあまり影響を与えないことについて話していました。 Na verdade, era um grupo do LinkedIn ao qual pertenço, que inclui professores de línguas, e lá eles estavam falando sobre como a instrução gramatical e a correção de erros realmente não têm muito impacto no nosso aprendizado de línguas. Now, of course, this concept, which is something that Krashen has put forward which is supported by a lot of research, of course is challenged by teachers. Nun, dieses Konzept, das Krashen vorgebracht hat und das durch viele Forschungen unterstützt wird, wird natürlich von den Lehrern in Frage gestellt. Ahora, por supuesto, este concepto, que es algo que Krashen ha propuesto y que está respaldado por una gran cantidad de investigaciones, por supuesto es cuestionado por los maestros. さて、もちろん、クラシェンが提唱したこの概念は、多くの研究によって裏付けられており、もちろん教師によって挑戦されています。 Teraz, oczywiście, ta koncepcja, którą zaproponował Krashen, poparta wieloma badaniami, jest oczywiście kwestionowana przez nauczycieli. Agora, é claro, esse conceito, que Krashen apresentou e que é apoiado por muitas pesquisas, é certamente desafiado pelos professores. 当然,现在,Krashen提出的这一概念得到了很多研究的支持,当然也受到了教师的挑战。

Because if teachers can’t be engaged in error correction and in teaching grammar, well, what are they going to do. Denn wenn Lehrer sich nicht mit Fehlerkorrektur und Grammatikunterricht beschäftigen können, was werden sie dann tun? Porque si los profesores no se pueden dedicar a la corrección de errores ya la enseñanza de la gramática, pues qué van a hacer. なぜなら、教師が誤り訂正や文法の指導に従事できない場合、彼らは何をするのかということです。 Ponieważ jeśli nauczyciele nie mogą angażować się w korekcję błędów i nauczanie gramatyki, cóż, co zamierzają zrobić. Porque se os professores não podem se dedicar à correção de erros e ao ensino de gramática, bem, o que eles farão. So there’s a lot of sort of natural resistance to this concept, even though much research supports the idea. Es gibt also eine Menge natürlicher Widerstände gegen dieses Konzept, obwohl viele Forschungen die Idee unterstützen. Así que hay mucha especie de resistencia natural a este concepto, aunque mucha investigación apoya la idea. したがって、多くの研究がこの概念を支持しているとしても、この概念には多くの種類の自然な抵抗があります。 Portanto, há um tipo de resistência natural a esse conceito, embora muitas pesquisas apóiem a ideia. I have found, personally, that much of my learning takes place subconsciously. Ich persönlich habe festgestellt, dass ein Großteil meines Lernens unterbewusst stattfindet. Personalmente, he descubierto que gran parte de mi aprendizaje tiene lugar de forma subconsciente. 私は個人的に、私の学習の多くが無意識のうちに行われていることに気づきました。 Osobiście przekonałem się, że znaczna część mojej nauki odbywa się podświadomie. Eu descobri, pessoalmente, que muito do meu aprendizado ocorre subconscientemente. I learn my words without necessarily knowing how I learnt them. Ich lerne meine Wörter, ohne unbedingt zu wissen, wie ich sie gelernt habe. Aprendo mis palabras sin saber necesariamente cómo las aprendí. 私は自分の言葉をどうやって学んだかを必ずしも知らなくても自分の言葉を学びます。 Uczę się swoich słów, niekoniecznie wiedząc, jak je poznałem. I have never found that deliberate study of lists, Anki or this kind of thing is where I learn most of my words, nor do I learn most of my ability to speak correctly from studying grammar rules. Ich habe nie festgestellt, dass ich beim bewussten Studium von Listen, Anki oder dergleichen die meisten meiner Wörter lerne, noch lerne ich den größten Teil meiner Fähigkeit, richtig zu sprechen, durch das Studium von Grammatikregeln. Nunca he encontrado que el estudio deliberado de listas, Anki o este tipo de cosas es donde aprendo la mayoría de mis palabras, ni aprendo la mayor parte de mi capacidad para hablar correctamente estudiando las reglas gramaticales. リストやAnkiなどを意図的に勉強することで、ほとんどの単語を学ぶことができます。また、文法規則を学ぶことで、正しく話す能力のほとんどを学ぶこともできません。 Eu nunca descobri que o estudo deliberado de listas, Anki ou esse tipo de coisa é onde eu aprendo a maioria das minhas palavras, nem aprendo a maior parte da minha habilidade de falar corretamente ao estudar as regras gramaticais. 我从来没有发现对清单,Anki或此类事物的刻意研究是我学习大部分单词的地方,也没有通过学习语法规则来学习我大部分正确说话的能力。 That’s not to say that those activities can’t help because it is an exposure to the language. Das soll nicht heißen, dass diese Aktivitäten nicht helfen können, weil es eine Exposition gegenüber der Sprache ist. Eso no quiere decir que esas actividades no puedan ayudar porque es una exposición al idioma. それは言語への露出であるため、それらの活動が役に立たないということではありません。 Isso não quer dizer que essas atividades não possam ajudar porque são uma exposição ao idioma.

They are activities which, to some extent, help us notice things, but they are not the main means by which we learn a language because, as was said in this forum, language learning is largely a subconscious activity. Es sind Aktivitäten, die uns bis zu einem gewissen Grad helfen, Dinge zu bemerken, aber sie sind nicht das Hauptmittel, mit dem wir eine Sprache lernen, denn, wie in diesem Forum gesagt wurde, ist das Sprachenlernen weitgehend eine unterbewusste Aktivität. これらはある程度気付くのに役立つ活動ですが、このフォーラムで述べたように、言語学習は主に潜在意識の活動であるため、言語を学ぶための主要な手段ではありません。 São atividades que, até certo ponto, nos ajudam a perceber as coisas, mas não são o principal meio pelo qual aprendemos uma língua porque, como foi dito neste fórum, a aprendizagem de línguas é em grande parte uma atividade subconsciente. All of a sudden you can start to say things, if you have exposed yourself to enough of the language. Plötzlich kann man anfangen, Dinge zu sagen, wenn man sich genug der Sprache ausgesetzt hat. De repente, você pode começar a dizer coisas, se tiver se exposto o suficiente da linguagem. I think this makes language learning quite different from learning math or learning science. Ich denke, das unterscheidet das Sprachenlernen ganz vom Lernen von Mathematik oder Naturwissenschaften. これにより、言語学習は数学や科学の学習とはかなり異なるものになると思います。 But since I haven’t been doing much learning of math or science since I left high school, I can’t really say for sure. Aber da ich seit meinem Abitur nicht viel Mathematik oder Naturwissenschaften gelernt habe, kann ich das nicht genau sagen. Pero como no he estado aprendiendo mucho sobre matemáticas o ciencias desde que dejé la escuela secundaria, no puedo decirlo con certeza. Ma dal momento che non ho fatto molti studi di matematica o scienze da quando ho lasciato il liceo, non posso davvero dirlo con certezza. でも、高校を卒業してから数学や理科のことをあまり学んでいないので、はっきりとは言えません。 Now, I was reminded of this, also, by a recent experience with my Romanian learning. Daran wurde ich jetzt auch durch eine kürzliche Erfahrung mit meinem Rumänischlernen erinnert. Bem, também me lembrei disso por uma experiência recente com meu aprendizado do romeno.

First of all, I should say that we live in a wonderful world. En primer lugar, debo decir que vivimos en un mundo maravilloso. まず第一に、私たちは素晴らしい世界に住んでいると言わなければなりません。 All the people who criticize globalization, I don’t understand them. グローバリゼーションを批判するすべての人々、私は彼らを理解していません。 Todas as pessoas que criticam a globalização, eu não as entendo. There are more people living more healthy and productive lives at a higher standard of living today than ever and we have this ability to access people all around the world. Hay más personas que viven vidas más saludables y productivas con un nivel de vida más alto que nunca y tenemos esta capacidad de acceder a personas de todo el mundo. 今日、これまで以上に高い生活水準でより健康的で生産的な生活を送る人々が増えており、私たちは世界中の人々にアクセスするこの能力を持っています。 Existem mais pessoas vivendo de forma mais saudável e produtiva com um padrão de vida mais elevado hoje do que nunca e temos essa capacidade de acessar pessoas em todo o mundo. So I can talk via Skype with my Romanian tutors. I can access information. Ich kann auf Informationen zugreifen. I’m now learning about Romania, Bessarabia, Bukovina, relations with Russia, tsarist Russia, how King Karaoke came to the land in the 19th century, all this kind of stuff, so that Romania is not such a far away strange land and I have my tutors. Ich lerne jetzt über Rumänien, Bessarabien, die Bukowina, die Beziehungen zu Russland, das zaristische Russland, wie König Karaoke im 19. habe meine Nachhilfelehrer. 私は今、ルーマニア、ベッサラビア、ブコビナ、ロシアとの関係、ロシア帝国主義、19世紀にカラオケ王がどのようにこの地にやってきたのか、このようなことすべてを学んでいます。私の家庭教師がいます。 Agora estou aprendendo sobre a Romênia, Bessarábia, Bucovina, as relações com a Rússia, a Rússia czarista, como o rei Karaokê veio para a terra no século 19, todo esse tipo de coisa, para que a Romênia não seja uma terra estranha tão distante e eu tenho meus tutores. One thing before I get back to my main point here. Eine Sache, bevor ich zu meinem Hauptpunkt zurückkomme. Una cosa antes de volver a mi punto principal aquí. ここで私の主要なポイントに戻る前に1つのこと。 Jedna rzecz, zanim wrócę do mojego głównego punktu tutaj. Uma coisa antes de voltar ao meu ponto principal aqui.

It’s wonderful that a lot of these Internet polyglots are meeting in Budapest on the 18th of May, which isn’t very far away, four days from now. Es ist wunderbar, dass sich viele dieser Internet-Polyglotten am 18. Mai in Budapest treffen, das nicht weit entfernt ist, in vier Tagen. Es maravilloso que muchos de estos políglotas de Internet se reúnan en Budapest el 18 de mayo, que no está muy lejos, dentro de cuatro días. これらのインターネットポリグロットの多くが、今から4日後、それほど遠くない5月18日にブダペストで会合しているのは素晴らしいことです。 To cudowne, że wielu z tych internetowych poliglotów spotyka się w Budapeszcie 18 maja, co nie jest zbyt daleko, za cztery dni. É maravilhoso que muitos desses poliglotas da Internet estejam se reunindo em Budapeste no dia 18 de maio, que não é muito longe, daqui a quatro dias. I’ll probably do another video when we get closer to the date, but I salute them, that initiative, which is another example of how people come together today in this world using this technology. Probablemente haré otro video cuando nos acerquemos a la fecha, pero los saludo, esa iniciativa, que es otro ejemplo de cómo las personas se unen hoy en este mundo usando esta tecnología. 日付が近づいたら別のビデオを作成するかもしれませんが、そのイニシアチブに敬意を表します。これは、このテクノロジーを使用して今日この世界で人々が集まる方法のもう1つの例です。 Provavelmente farei outro vídeo quando estivermos mais próximos da data, mas saúdo a eles, essa iniciativa, que é mais um exemplo de como as pessoas se reúnem hoje neste mundo usando essa tecnologia. So, to my mind, globalization is a good thing not a bad thing. Entonces, en mi opinión, la globalización es algo bueno, no algo malo. ですから、私の考えでは、グローバリゼーションは悪いことではなく良いことです。 However, getting back to the subject of subconscious learning, I had two tutors in Romanian and I should say that I’m starting to speak in Romanian much earlier than I ever did in Czech or Russian or Korean for a variety of reasons, one of which is that it’s a lot easier because so much of the vocabulary is similar to the vocabulary in other romance languages and some of it is similar Slavic languages. Sin embargo, volviendo al tema del aprendizaje subconsciente, tuve dos tutores en rumano y debo decir que estoy empezando a hablar en rumano mucho antes que en checo, ruso o coreano por una variedad de razones, una de ellas lo cual es que es mucho más fácil porque gran parte del vocabulario es similar al vocabulario en otras lenguas romances y parte de él es similar a las lenguas eslavas. しかし、潜在意識の学習のテーマに戻ると、ルーマニア語で2人の講師がいて、さまざまな理由で、チェコ語、ロシア語、韓国語よりもはるかに早くルーマニア語で話し始めていると言えます。つまり、語彙の多くが他のロマンス言語の語彙に類似しており、一部はスラブ語に類似しているため、はるかに簡単です。

So I find it a lot easier to remember the vocabulary, to the point that now in LingQ when I import news items there’s only 10% unknown words there for me or new words. Así que me resulta mucho más fácil recordar el vocabulario, hasta el punto de que ahora en LingQ, cuando importo artículos de noticias, solo hay un 10 % de palabras desconocidas para mí o palabras nuevas. そのため、語彙を覚えるのがはるかに簡単になりました。LingQでニュースアイテムをインポートすると、不明な単語や新しい単語が10%しかありません。 Então eu acho muito mais fácil lembrar o vocabulário, a tal ponto que agora no LingQ, quando eu importo notícias, há apenas 10% de palavras desconhecidas para mim ou novas. Now, some of the words that I’ve saved I don’t yet know, but words that I meet for the first time there’s about 10%. Ora, alcune delle parole che ho salvato non lo so ancora, ma le parole che ho incontrato per la prima volta sono circa il 10%. さて、保存した単語の中にはまだわからないものもありますが、初めて出会う単語は約10%です。 Agora, algumas das palavras que salvei ainda não sei, mas palavras que encontro pela primeira vez são cerca de 10%. Many of them I already know from Italian and many of them are actually names, so I’m flying in Romanian. بسیاری از آنها را از ایتالیایی می شناسم و بسیاری از آنها در واقع نام هستند ، بنابراین من به رومانیایی پرواز می کنم. それらの多くは私がすでにイタリア語で知っていて、それらの多くは実際には名前なので、私はルーマニア語で飛んでいます。 Wielu z nich znam już po włosku, a wiele z nich to w rzeczywistości imiona, więc lecę po rumuńsku. So now I’m starting to speak much earlier (A) because it’s easier, but (B) because I have to be in Romania next month and, of course, even through the vocabulary is so similar, it’s still very difficult to understand when people speak. だから今、私はずっと早く話し始めています(A)簡単だからですが、(B)来月ルーマニアに行かなければならないので、もちろん、語彙がとても似ているので、いつ理解するのはまだ非常に難しいです人々は話します。 Agora estou começando a falar muito antes (A) porque é mais fácil, mas (B) porque tenho que estar na Romênia no próximo mês e, claro, mesmo com o vocabulário tão parecido, ainda é muito difícil entender quando pessoas falam.

I can understand better when I read and I also want to crank up my speaking ability. Ich kann besser verstehen, wenn ich lese, und ich möchte auch meine Sprechfähigkeit verbessern. Posso capire meglio quando leggo e voglio anche alzare le mie capacità di parlare. 読むと理解が深まり、話す能力も高めたいです。 Ik kan beter begrijpen als ik lees en ik wil ook mijn spreekvaardigheid opkrikken. Posso entender melhor quando leio e também quero aumentar minha capacidade de falar. Normally, I would wait a month or two and then do it and I’d be able to speak much better, so now I’m kind of struggling to speak Romanian. Normalmente, aspetterei un mese o due e poi farlo e sarei in grado di parlare molto meglio, quindi ora sto cercando di parlare rumeno. 通常、私は1、2か月待ってからそれを行うと、はるかに上手に話すことができるようになるので、今はルーマニア語を話すのに少し苦労しています。 At any rate, I had two tutors, they’re both ladies, neither of whom were trained teachers and we have a great time. De todos modos, tuve dos tutores, ambas son damas, ninguna de las cuales era maestra capacitada y nos lo pasamos muy bien. とにかく、私には2人の家庭教師がいました。どちらも女性で、どちらも訓練を受けた教師ではありませんでした。私たちは素晴らしい時間を過ごしています。 W każdym razie miałem dwóch nauczycieli, obaj są damami, z których żadni nie byli wytrenowanymi nauczycielami i świetnie się bawimy. De qualquer forma, eu tive duas professoras, ambas mulheres, nenhuma das quais foi professora treinada e nós nos divertimos muito.

We talk about what they’re doing, what I did during the day, my plans to visit Romania or whatever comes to mind and it’s very enjoyable. 彼らが何をしているのか、私が日中に何をしたのか、ルーマニアを訪問する計画など、頭に浮かんだことは何でも話します。とても楽しいです。 At the end of the 30-minute discussion, I get a list of some of the phrases that I used incorrectly or where I struggled to find the word and these, of course, I import into LingQ and I study, saving these words and phrases. Al final de la discusión de 30 minutos, obtengo una lista de algunas de las frases que usé incorrectamente o en las que tuve problemas para encontrar la palabra y estas, por supuesto, las importo a LingQ y las estudio, guardando estas palabras y frases. . This is input for me. Esta es una entrada para mí. This is content which has a high degree of resonance because these are things that I tried to say. Dies ist ein Inhalt, der ein hohes Maß an Resonanz aufweist, da dies Dinge sind, die ich zu sagen versucht habe. Este es un contenido que tiene un alto grado de resonancia porque son cosas que traté de decir. 私が言おうとしたことなので、共鳴度の高いコンテンツです。 Este é um conteúdo que tem um alto grau de ressonância porque são coisas que tentei dizer. I don’t learn all the words right away or all the phrases, but I become quite aware of them and I think I notice them better when I next come across them in other contexts so I decided to step up my Romanian learning. No aprendo todas las palabras de inmediato o todas las frases, pero me doy cuenta de ellas y creo que las noto mejor cuando las encuentro en otros contextos, así que decidí intensificar mi aprendizaje de rumano. 私はすぐにすべての単語やすべてのフレーズを学ぶわけではありませんが、私はそれらにかなり気づき、次に他の文脈でそれらに出くわしたときにそれらに気付くと思うので、ルーマニア語の学習を強化することにしました。 Não aprendo todas as palavras imediatamente ou todas as frases, mas fico bastante ciente delas e acho que as noto melhor quando as encontro em outros contextos, então decidi aumentar meu aprendizado de romeno.

I decided to add yet another tutor and this time it’s a man. 私はさらに別の家庭教師を追加することにしました、そして今度はそれは男です。 I figured I should also be speaking to a man because I may find it more difficult, the intonation or whatever might be difficult with a man. Pensé que también debería estar hablando con un hombre porque puede que me resulte más difícil, la entonación o lo que sea que pueda ser difícil con un hombre. 男性と話すのも難しいと思ったのは、男性にとっては難しい、イントネーションなど、難しいと感じるかもしれないからです。 Achei que também deveria falar com um homem porque posso achar mais difícil a entonação ou o que quer que seja difícil com um homem. At any rate, I felt I should have a man as well as a woman so we started our conversation. En cualquier caso, sentí que debería tener un hombre además de una mujer, así que comenzamos nuestra conversación. De qualquer forma, senti que deveria ter um homem além de uma mulher, então começamos nossa conversa. Now, this man is a trained teacher and because he’s a trained teacher he insisted, at least initially, on doing things his way. Ahora, este hombre es un maestro capacitado y porque es un maestro capacitado insistió, al menos inicialmente, en hacer las cosas a su manera. さて、この男は訓練を受けた教師であり、彼は訓練を受けた教師であるため、少なくとも最初は自分のやり方で物事を行うことを主張しました。 Agora, esse homem é um professor treinado e, como ele é um professor treinado, ele insistiu, pelo menos inicialmente, em fazer as coisas do seu jeito.

So, first of all, he wants to correct all of my mistakes on the fly and he wants to use English to explain. Entonces, antes que nada, quiere corregir todos mis errores sobre la marcha y quiere usar el inglés para explicar. Przede wszystkim chce poprawić wszystkie moje błędy w locie i chce używać angielskiego do wyjaśnienia. 因此,首先,他想即时纠正我的所有错误,并且他想用英语来解释。 Every time he uses a word he gives me the English, just to make sure I understood. Cada vez que usa una palabra, me da el inglés, solo para asegurarse de que entendí. 彼が単語を使うたびに、私が理解していることを確認するために、彼は私に英語を教えてくれます。 Toda vez que ele usa uma palavra, ele me dá o inglês, apenas para ter certeza de que eu entendi. I kept saying look, if I don’t understand I’ll tell you. Seguía diciendo mira, si no entiendo te lo digo. 私は見てと言い続けました、私が理解できないならば、私はあなたに話します。 Wciąż powtarzałam spojrzenie, jeśli nie rozumiem, powiem ci. In the meantime, just use Romanian and don’t correct my mistakes, put them all in my report so that I can study them later on. Mientras tanto, solo use rumano y no corrija mis errores, póngalos todos en mi informe para que pueda estudiarlos más tarde. それまでの間、ルーマニア語を使用し、間違いを訂正せずに、後で調査できるようにすべてをレポートに入れてください。 Nesse ínterim, é só usar romeno e não corrigir meus erros, coloque-os todos no meu relatório para que eu possa estudá-los mais tarde. Then he said well, you know, really you should speak in very short sentences. Luego dijo bueno, ya sabes, realmente deberías hablar en oraciones muy cortas. それから彼はよく言いました、あなたが知っている、本当にあなたは非常に短い文章で話すべきです。 Então ele disse bem, você sabe, realmente deveria falar em frases muito curtas. For the first few weeks very simple sentences like my name is Steve and then, after a while, we can move to more complicated sentences. 最初の数週間は私の名前のような非常に単純な文はスティーブですが、しばらくすると、より複雑な文に移ることができます。 I said I just want to talk naturally and have an interesting, hopefully, conversation.

He said well, all right, but I think we then need to choose a theme. Dijo bien, está bien, pero creo que entonces tenemos que elegir un tema. So why don’t we pretend that you are in a store and we can talk about the different items that you would find in the store. Entonces, ¿por qué no pretendemos que estás en una tienda y podemos hablar sobre los diferentes artículos que encontrarías en la tienda? Então, por que não fingimos que você está em uma loja e podemos conversar sobre os diferentes itens que você encontraria na loja. I said I don’t want to have an artificial discussion or role playing about a store. I just want to have a natural conversation and I want to use simple sentences, complicated sentences, present tense, past tense, future tense, whatever I want to use, whatever comes up in the discussion. 自然な会話をしたいだけで、簡単な文章、複雑な文章、現在形、過去形、未来形、使いたいもの、ディスカッションで出てくるものは何でも使いたいです。 So, with great reluctance, he agreed; although, he still continued to interject with English. Entonces, con gran desgana, accedió; aunque, todavía continuó intercalando con el inglés. Então, com grande relutância, ele concordou; embora, ele ainda continuou a interferir com o inglês. I think he’s coming around. Creo que se está acercando. Penso che stia arrivando. 彼が来ていると思います。 Myślę, że on się zbliża. Eu acho que ele está chegando.

He seems like a really nice guy. Parece un tipo muy agradable. 彼は本当にいい人のようです。 He has an interesting job as an editor of educational magazines and educational books in Romania. Tiene un trabajo interesante como editor de revistas educativas y libros educativos en Rumania. So I’m looking forward to developing that relationship with him, but it reminded me. Así que espero desarrollar esa relación con él, pero me recordó. Quindi non vedo l'ora di sviluppare questa relazione con lui, ma mi ha ricordato. Então, estou ansioso para desenvolver esse relacionamento com ele, mas isso me lembrou. Here I am. Aquí estoy. I can tell the tutor what I want to do because we’re doing this across Skype. Puedo decirle al tutor lo que quiero hacer porque estamos haciendo esto a través de Skype. Posso dizer ao tutor o que quero fazer porque estamos fazendo isso pelo Skype. It’s my nickel and I decide how the time is going to be used, but if I were in a classroom I would be powerless. Es mi moneda y yo decido cómo se va a utilizar el tiempo, pero si estuviera en un salón de clases sería impotente. それは私のニッケルであり、時間をどのように使用するかを決定しますが、私が教室にいた場合、私は無力になります。 To mój nick i ja decyduję, w jaki sposób ma być wykorzystany czas, ale gdybym był w klasie, byłbym bezsilny. É meu níquel e eu decido como o tempo será usado, mas se eu estivesse em uma sala de aula, estaria impotente. The teacher would be able to do role playing, tell us whether to speak in short sentences or long sentences and, basically, run the proceedings. El profesor podría hacer juegos de roles, decirnos si hablar en oraciones cortas o largas y, básicamente, llevar a cabo los procedimientos. 先生はロールプレイングをしたり、短い文章で話すか長い文章で話すかを教えてくれ、基本的には議事を実行することができます。 De leraar zou een rollenspel kunnen spelen, ons vertellen of we in korte of lange zinnen moeten spreken en, in feite, de procedure leiden. O professor seria capaz de fazer dramatizações, dizer-nos se devemos falar frases curtas ou longas e, basicamente, conduzir o processo. 老师将能够进行角色扮演,告诉我们说短句还是长句,并基本上运行程序。 Getting back to the original point that language is a subconscious process, we need exposure. 言語は潜在意識のプロセスであるという元のポイントに戻ると、私たちは露出が必要です。

We need, obviously, lots of reading and listening and when we speak we need to speak naturally. We do a few things to, basically, focus in on some of the areas where we’re having trouble, but if we just allow ourselves to hear the language and use the language the brain is going to pick it up, largely, in an incidental or subconscious way. We do a few things to, basically, focus in on some of the areas where we're having trouble, but if we just allow ourselves to hear the language and use the language the brain is going to pick it up, largely, in an incidental or subconscious way. Hacemos algunas cosas para, básicamente, centrarnos en algunas de las áreas en las que estamos teniendo problemas, pero si nos permitimos escuchar el idioma y utilizarlo, el cerebro lo captará, en gran medida, en un manera incidental o subconsciente. 基本的に、私たちは問題を抱えているいくつかの領域に焦点を当てるためにいくつかのことをしますが、私たちが自分自身に言語を聞いて使用することを許可すると、脳は主にそれを拾うでしょう偶発的または潜在意識的な方法。 Fazemos algumas coisas para, basicamente, nos concentrar em algumas das áreas em que estamos tendo problemas, mas se apenas nos permitirmos ouvir a linguagem e usá-la, o cérebro vai captar, em grande parte, em um forma incidental ou subconsciente. That is why the focus on what they call form-based instruction or teaching grammar or error correction is really not all that effective. Es por eso que el enfoque en lo que llaman instrucción basada en formularios o enseñanza de gramática o corrección de errores realmente no es tan efectivo. そのため、フォームベースの指導や文法の指導、誤り訂正と呼ばれるものに焦点を当てることは、それほど効果的ではありません。 É por isso que o foco no que eles chamam de instrução baseada em formulário ou no ensino de gramática ou correção de erros não é realmente tão eficaz. One example, again which was used on this forum at LinkedIn, was the third person singular in English. Un ejemplo, nuevamente que se usó en este foro en LinkedIn, fue la tercera persona del singular en inglés. LinkedInのこのフォーラムで使用された1つの例は、英語で単数形の3人称です。 Jednym z przykładów, który został użyty na tym forum na LinkedIn, była trzecia osoba w liczbie pojedynczej w języku angielskim. Um exemplo, novamente usado neste fórum do LinkedIn, foi a terceira pessoa do singular em inglês.

It’s taught early and often – I go, you go, he goes; we go, you go, they go -- yet it’s perhaps one of the most common mistakes that people make because just instruction people or giving people drills in certain rules of grammar doesn’t mean that those rules are going to kick in. Se enseña temprano ya menudo: yo voy, tú vas, él va; nosotros vamos, tú vas, ellos van; sin embargo, es quizás uno de los errores más comunes que cometen las personas porque solo instruir a las personas o darles ejercicios en ciertas reglas de gramática no significa que esas reglas se van a activar. Viene insegnato presto e spesso: io vado, tu vai, lui va; noi andiamo, tu vai, loro vanno - eppure è forse uno degli errori più comuni che le persone fanno, perché solo istruire le persone o dare alle persone esercitazioni in certe regole grammaticali non significa che quelle regole possano dare il calcio d'inizio. それは早くそして頻繁に教えられます–私は行きます、あなたは行きます、彼は行きます。私たちは行きます、あなたは行きます、彼らは行きます-それでもそれはおそらく人々が犯す最も一般的な間違いの1つです。 Jest nauczany wcześnie i często - idę, idziesz, on idzie; Idziemy, idziemy, oni idą - ale jest to prawdopodobnie jeden z najczęstszych błędów popełnianych przez ludzi, ponieważ samo instruowanie ludzi lub dawanie ludziom ćwiczeń z pewnymi regułami gramatyki nie oznacza, że ​​te zasady będą działać. É ensinado cedo e freqüentemente - eu vou, você vai, ele vai; nós vamos, você vai, eles vão - mas talvez seja um dos erros mais comuns que as pessoas cometem, porque apenas instruir as pessoas ou instruí-las em determinadas regras gramaticais não significa que essas regras serão ativadas. They will kick in subconsciously, naturally, at some point. Se activarán subconscientemente, naturalmente, en algún momento. W pewnym momencie zaczną podświadomie, naturalnie. Eles entrarão inconscientemente, naturalmente, em algum momento. Although I rambled, as usual, all over the place, the theme is language learning is a subconscious process. Obwohl ich wie immer überall herumwanderte, ist das Thema Sprachenlernen ein unbewusster Prozess. Aunque divagué, como de costumbre, por todos lados, el tema es que el aprendizaje de idiomas es un proceso subconsciente. いつものように、あちこちを歩き回っていましたが、テーマは言語学習は潜在意識のプロセスです。 Embora eu tenha divagado, como sempre, em todo o lugar, o tema é que o aprendizado de idiomas é um processo subconsciente.

Therefore, give yourself lots of exposure and don’t get upset when you don’t learn things just because you studied them. Por lo tanto, date mucha exposición y no te enfades cuando no aprendes cosas solo porque las estudiaste. したがって、自分自身に多くの露出を与え、あなたがそれらを勉強したという理由だけで物事を学ばなくても動揺しないでください。 Portanto, dê muita exposição a si mesmo e não fique chateado quando não aprender as coisas apenas porque as estudou. 因此,要给自己提供很多机会,不要因为学习了东西而不会学到不高兴。 Thank you for listening.