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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, Language & History

Language & History

Today. I want to talk about language and history.

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here today, wanna talk about language and history, uh, but if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe. You can click on the bell to get notifications, come and join me at LingQ, where I learn languages. So, you know, I've been... embarked on this sort of effort to learn the languages of the Middle East, uh, to learn more about the history and I'm amazed at what I'm discovering.

Uh, and it's just so fascinating to penetrate this world. And I just wanted to share with you because I find it quite exciting. So, so I had my Arabic period and I did some reading and I have to do more reading about the, Arab world and the history of Arab people before Islam, after Islam. Uh, and so forth, but now I'm into my, um, Persian period, but what's interesting is that the history of Iran...

so, and of course now, not only have I been listening to the stories or the episodes, the course we have at LingQ on the history of Iran, I've also been listening to our course that saw Sahra did for us on the different, different ethnic groups in Iran. And of course, it's very interesting because in Iran, of course, whatever it is...

80% of the population is, is a Farsi people, Persians, if you want Farsi people. And, um, whatever number 15, 18% are... I'm going to end up with more than a hundred percent, but it doesn't matter are Azeri Turks. And then we have, you know, Kurds and Turkmens and Arabs and other sort of linguistic groups, which are essentially Persian.

So what's interesting in all of this is because I now start to read, not only do I hear Sahra describe the different sort of other, also Armenians for example, and who are Christian. And there are some Jews in Iran, but, but she describes how these different groups, some are on the border with sort of a, another country that has more of the same population, which would be the case with Azeris, which would be the case with Kurds, which would be the case with Arabs.

Obviously not the case with Armenians because the Armenians are not located near the border with Armenia. I'm not even sure there is a border with Armenia, but...so I, I read about that, that she provided that, you know, I get the terminology and all in the Persian language, but then I read up in English.

And right now, for example, there's a major, um, you know, conflict in the border between Azerbaijan, or even within Azerbaijan and between them and Armenia and different countries are interfering, Iran, Turkey, Russia, US, whatever. Well, what's interesting is I have this big thick book on the history of modern Iran, and it starts with the Safavid Dyntisty, Dynasty, which was founded by, and I'm not entirely clear on this, but it was founded by a person

Ismail

I think. Who who was from this Azerbaijan area. And depending on which source I read, he was either, an Azerbaijani, uh, therefore Turk, or he was a Turkmen, but his forces were primarily Turkmen. And so it was a group of people from this region who are not Iranians, who basically took over

iran after the country had been, you know, in great disarray as a result of the Mongol invasions and so forth and so on. And so it's very interesting. It's this, it's kind of similar to say in China, where for the last thousand years of their history, they were for a good part of the time dominated by, uh, sort of peoples from inner Asia, Manchurians, Mongolians and stuff.

Uh, and similarly in Iran, uh, there were a number of, uh, dynasties that were founded by Turkmens or Azeris or, uh Uzbeks or whatever, I don't know enough yet. So, so that's in a sense, fascinating. And he imposed the Shia religion on the Iranians, uh, very ruthlessly. Uh, but then it's interesting to see that the Azeris in terms of sort of the connection sort of language versus

call it ethnicity DNA. Uh, the Kurds, their language is related to the Iranian language family, which includes Baluchi and Pashto in, in, in Pakistan and Afghanistan. And even the Ossetians, uh, in Southern Russia and in disputed area in Georgia. So that's that language group, but language doesn't necessarily match genetics.

So that the people in the Caucuses, even the Georgians. Uh, and, and it's a number of say, Azeri Iranians may share more DNA with Georgians than they do with Persians, depending on where these Persians come from. And so there's this whole mixture and the same is true for people who would now say some Syrians.

So, so there's, depending on when the language and how the language is imposed on people who were originally living there. Uh, the people that we identify by their language, maybe that's all you can say about them, that this is their language. And because that's their language, then they identify a certain way.

But that doesn't mean somehow that genetically they are that group. Uh, I mean the same is true throughout history. Why don't we talk about Celts or any other group? We don't really know if we're talking about, you know, as a unique tribe genetically, or whether we're talking about a group of people who had a certain language imposed on them for whatever historical reason and who now identify, or maybe that same group called Celts has many languages.

In fact, in many cases they did. So it's very interesting that that language gets us into history and enables us to see, you know, certain things and enables us to discover that language is only one layer of identity. Uh, and historically these identity markers have changed. So people might identify primarily by their religion here again in Iran, there's a Shia relationship.

And then as I read these books, I learned more about what she, uh, She is, uh, is, uh, cause I could never quite understand why there was this difference between the Sunni and the Shia. And I still don't, but I'm getting closer, because another thing I've found is not only in language learning, but in everything we learn, we kind of have to cover the same ground many, many times before things start to become clear.

It's not because you read it once, say a grammar explanation or a description of what distinguishes a Shia from a Sunni and the Twelvers and. Whatever, you know, all this stuff, Ali and stuff. It doesn't make much of an impression until you have come across it in different contexts. And then it starts to become clear.

And then when you hear about it in say Persian or in Arabic, it, it resonates even more. So, uh, all I'm saying is, as someone like myself was interested in history, engaging with the languages of an area, uh, it helps you explore all these relationships. And that reminds me that, uh, while I'm in Persian now, and occasionally I refresh my Arabic, I am going to get back to Turkish because the Turks have had an amazing influence on the history of, you know, the, you know, call it the whole area from, from Turkey to India, uh, that the Turks were always out there ready to come in and beat up on the sedentary people and impose their will.

So. Essentially Moogle India was a Turkish empire with Persian speaking bureaucrats and the Persians were always the, sort of the Mandarins and the people who, who provided the bureaucracy and the ministers. I mean, I'm exaggerating to simplify, but that's kind of the impression. And many of the dynasties in Iran were started by one form of Turk or another.

And they were always, you know, ready to do, whether it be Timor or whether it be, uh, you know, the Safavids or, or other groups. Uh, so that whole complex of relationships is something that through my study of those languages, I'm going to not only learn about in those languages, but I will then be encouraged, stimulated to go and read up about them in say, English or French where I, you know, obviously can,

you know, read and get that information faster, but language and history in my mind are intimately connected. Anyway. Thanks for listening. Bye for now. .


Language & History Language & History 言語と歴史

Today. 今日。 I want to talk about language and history.

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here today, wanna talk about language and history, uh, but if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe. You can click on the bell to get notifications, come and join me at LingQ, where I learn languages. ベルをクリックして通知を受け取り、言語を学ぶLingQに参加してください。 So, you know, I've been... embarked on this sort of effort to learn the  languages of the Middle East, uh, to learn more about the history and I'm amazed at what I'm discovering. Weißt du, ich habe ... diese Art von Bemühungen unternommen, um die Sprachen des Nahen Ostens zu lernen, um mehr über die Geschichte zu erfahren, und ich bin erstaunt über das, was ich entdecke. ですから、私は中東の言語を学び、歴史についてもっと学ぶために、この種の努力に着手してきました。

Uh, and it's just so fascinating to penetrate this world. ええと、この世界に浸透するのはとても魅力的です。 And I just wanted to share with you because I find it quite exciting. とてもエキサイティングだと思うので、あなたと共有したかっただけです。 So, so I had my Arabic period and I did some reading and I have to do more reading about the, Arab world and the history of Arab people before Islam, after Islam. それで、私はアラビア語の時代を過ごし、いくつかの読書をしましたが、アラブ世界と、イスラム教の前、イスラム教後のアラブ人の歴史についてもっと読まなければなりません。 Uh, and so forth, but now I'm into my, um, Persian period, but what's interesting is that the history of Iran... ええと、そして今、私はペルシャ時代に入りましたが、興味深いのはイランの歴史です...

so, and of course now, not only have I been listening to the stories or the episodes, the course we have at LingQ on the history of Iran, I've also been listening to our course that saw Sahra did for us on the different, different ethnic groups in Iran. ですから、もちろん今、ストーリーやエピソードを聞いているだけでなく、イランの歴史に関する LingQ のコースも聞いています。 、イランのさまざまな民族グループ。 And of course, it's very interesting because in Iran, of course, whatever it is... そしてもちろん、イランではもちろん、それが何であれ...

80% of the population is, is a Farsi people, Persians, if you want Farsi people. 人口の80%は、ペルシア人といえばペルシア人です。 And, um, whatever number 15, 18% are... I'm going to end up with more than a hundred percent, but it doesn't matter are Azeri Turks. そして、ええと、15、18% が何であろうと... 最終的には 100% 以上になりますが、アゼリ トルコ人であることは問題ではありません。 En, eh, wat nummer 15 ook is, 18% is... Ik eindig met meer dan honderd procent, maar het maakt niet uit of het Azeri Turken zijn. And then we have, you know, Kurds and Turkmens and Arabs and other sort of linguistic groups, which are essentially Persian. そして、ご存知のように、クルド人、トルクメン人、アラブ人、その他の言語グループがあり、それらは基本的にペルシャ語です。

So what's interesting in all of this is because I now start to read, not only do I hear Sahra describe the different sort of other, also Armenians for example, and who are Christian. これらすべてで興味深いのは、私が今読み始めたからです.Sahraが別の種類の他の人、たとえばアルメニア人、そしてキリスト教徒について説明しているのを聞くだけではありません. And there are some Jews in Iran, but, but she describes how these different groups, some are on the border with sort of a, another country that has more of the same population, which would be the case with Azeris, which would be the case with Kurds, which would be the case with Arabs. イランには何人かのユダヤ人がいますが、彼女は、これらの異なるグループ、一部は、同じ人口のより多い別の国と国境を接していることを説明しています。クルド人の場合、アラブ人の場合も同様です。

Obviously not the case with Armenians because the Armenians are not located near the border with Armenia. アルメニア人はアルメニアとの国境近くに位置していないため、明らかにアルメニア人には当てはまりません。 I'm not even sure there is a border with Armenia, but...so I, I read about that, that she provided that, you know, I get the terminology and all in the Persian language, but then I read up in English. アルメニアとの国境があるかどうかさえ定かではありません.英語。

And right now, for example, there's a major, um, you know, conflict in the border between Azerbaijan, or even within Azerbaijan and between them and Armenia and different countries are interfering, Iran, Turkey, Russia, US, whatever. そして今、例えば、アゼルバイジャンの国境、あるいはアゼルバイジャン内でさえ、アルメニアとさまざまな国が干渉している、イラン、トルコ、ロシア、米国など、大きな紛争があります。 Well, what's interesting is I have this big thick book on the history of modern Iran, and it starts with the Safavid Dyntisty, Dynasty, which was founded by, and I'm not entirely clear on this, but it was founded by a person 興味深いのは、現代のイランの歴史に関する分厚い本を私が持っていることです。それはサファヴィー朝から始まり、王朝が設立されました。これについては完全にはわかりませんが、ある人物によって設立されました。

Ismail

I think. Who who was from this Azerbaijan area. このアゼルバイジャン地域から来たのは誰ですか。 And depending on which source I read, he was either, an Azerbaijani, uh, therefore Turk, or he was a Turkmen, but his forces were primarily Turkmen. そして、私が読んだ情報源に応じて、彼はアゼルバイジャン人、つまりトルコ人であるか、トルクメン人でしたが、彼の軍隊は主にトルクメン人でした. And so it was a group of people from this region who are not Iranians, who basically took over そして、基本的に乗っ取ったのはイラン人ではないこの地域の人々のグループでした

iran after the country had been, you know, in great disarray as a result of the Mongol invasions and so forth and so on. モンゴルの侵略などの結果として、国が大きな混乱に陥った後のイラン。 And so it's very interesting. そして、それは非常に興味深いです。 It's this, it's kind of similar to say in China, where for the last thousand years of their history, they were for a good part of the time dominated by, uh, sort of peoples from inner Asia, Manchurians, Mongolians and stuff. これは、中国で言うのと似ていますが、彼らの歴史の最後の1000年の間、彼らはかなりの時間、内アジア、満州人、モンゴル人などからのある種の人々によって支配されていました.

Uh, and similarly in Iran, uh, there were a number of, uh, dynasties that were founded by Turkmens or Azeris or, uh Uzbeks or whatever, I don't know enough yet. ええと、そして同様にイランでも、ええと、トルクメン人やアゼリ人、あるいはウズベク人などによって設立された多くの王朝がありましたが、私はまだ十分に知りません. So, so that's in a sense, fascinating. ですから、それはある意味で魅力的です。 And he imposed the Shia religion on the Iranians, uh, very ruthlessly. そして彼はシーア派の宗教をイラン人に押し付けました、非常に容赦なく。 Uh, but then it's interesting to see that the Azeris in terms of sort of the connection sort of language versus ええと、でも興味深いのは、接続の種類の言語と

call it ethnicity DNA. それを民族性DNAと呼んでください。 Uh, the Kurds, their language is related to the Iranian language family, which includes Baluchi and Pashto in, in, in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Uh, de Koerden, hun taal is verwant aan de Iraanse taalfamilie, waaronder Baluchi en Pashto in, in, in Pakistan en Afghanistan. And even the Ossetians, uh, in Southern Russia and in disputed area in Georgia. そしてオセチア人でさえ、ええと、ロシア南部とグルジアの係争地域にいます。 So that's that language group, but language doesn't necessarily match genetics.

So that the people in the Caucuses, even the Georgians. Uh, and, and it's a number of say, Azeri Iranians may share more DNA with Georgians than they do with Persians, depending on where these Persians come from. ええと、そして、そしてそれは多くのことですが、アゼルバイジャン人は、ペルシア人がどこから来たのかによって、ペルシア人よりもグルジア人とより多くのDNAを共有するかもしれません。 And so there's this whole mixture and the same is true for people who would now say some Syrians.

So, so there's, depending on when the language and how the language is imposed on people who were originally living there. Uh, the people that we identify by their language, maybe that's all you can say about them, that this is their language. And because that's their language, then they identify a certain way. そしてそれが彼らの言語なので、彼らは特定の方法を特定します。

But that doesn't mean somehow that genetically they are that group. Uh, I mean the same is true throughout history. Why don't we talk about Celts or any other group? ケルト人や他のグループについて話してみませんか? We don't really know if we're talking about, you know, as a unique tribe genetically, or whether we're talking about a group of people who had a certain language imposed on them for whatever historical reason and who now identify, or maybe that same group called Celts has many languages.

In fact, in many cases they did. 実際、多くの場合、彼らはそうしました。 So it's very interesting that that language gets us into history and enables us to see, you know, certain things and enables us to discover that language is only one layer of identity. ですから、その言語が私たちを歴史に引き込み、特定のことを見ることができ、言語がアイデンティティの1つの層にすぎないことを発見できることは非常に興味深いことです。 Uh, and historically these identity markers have changed. Uh, en historisch gezien zijn deze identiteitsmarkeringen veranderd. So people might identify primarily by their religion here again in Iran, there's a Shia relationship.

And then as I read these books, I learned more about what she, uh, She is, uh, is, uh, cause I could never quite understand why there was this difference between the Sunni and the Shia. And I still don't, but I'm getting closer, because another thing I've found is not only in language learning, but in everything we learn, we kind of have to cover the same ground many, many times before things start to become clear. そして、私はまだそうしていませんが、私が見つけたもう一つのことは言語学習だけでなく、私たちが学ぶすべてのことにおいて、物事が始まる前に何度も同じ分野をカバーしなければならないので、私は近づいています明確にするために。

It's not because you read it once, say a grammar explanation or a description of what distinguishes a Shia from a Sunni and the Twelvers and. Het is niet omdat je het een keer hebt gelezen, zeg maar een grammaticale uitleg of een beschrijving van wat een sjiiet onderscheidt van een soenniet en de twaalf en. 这不是因为您阅读过一次,不是说语法解释,也不是描述什叶派与逊尼派和十二国派的区别。 Whatever, you know, all this stuff, Ali and stuff. It doesn't make much of an impression until you have come across it in different contexts. And then it starts to become clear.

And then when you hear about it in say Persian or in Arabic, it, it resonates even more. So, uh, all I'm saying is, as someone like myself was interested in history, engaging with the languages of an area, uh, it helps you explore all these relationships. And that reminds me that, uh, while I'm in Persian now, and occasionally I refresh my Arabic, I am going to get back to Turkish because the Turks have had an amazing influence on the history of, you know, the, you know, call it the whole area from, from Turkey to India, uh, that the Turks were always out there ready to come in and beat up on the sedentary people and impose their will. Und das erinnert mich daran, dass ich, während ich jetzt auf Persisch bin und gelegentlich mein Arabisch auffrische, wieder auf Türkisch zurückkehren werde, weil die Türken einen erstaunlichen Einfluss auf die Geschichte von Ihnen hatten Wissen Sie, nennen Sie es das ganze Gebiet von der Türkei bis nach Indien, ähm, dass die Türken immer da draußen waren, um die sesshaften Menschen zu verprügeln und ihren Willen durchzusetzen. そしてそれは、ええと、私が今ペルシャにいる間、そして時々アラビア語をリフレッシュしている間、トルコ語があなたの歴史に驚くべき影響を与えたので、私はトルコ語に戻るつもりであることを思い出させますトルコからインドまでの地域全体と呼んでください。トルコ人は常にそこにいて、座りがちな人々を殴り、意志を押し付ける準備ができていました。

So. Essentially Moogle India was a Turkish empire with Persian speaking bureaucrats and the Persians were always the, sort of the Mandarins and the people who, who provided the bureaucracy and the ministers. In wezen was Moogle India een Turks rijk met Perzisch sprekende bureaucraten en de Perzen waren altijd het soort Mandarijnen en de mensen die voor de bureaucratie en de ministers zorgden. I mean, I'm exaggerating to simplify, but that's kind of the impression. Ich übertreibe, um es zu vereinfachen, aber das ist eine Art Eindruck. And many of the dynasties in Iran were started by one form of Turk or another.

And they were always, you know, ready to do, whether it be Timor or whether it be, uh, you know, the Safavids or, or other groups. En ze waren altijd, weet je, klaar om te doen, of het nu Timor is of de Safavids of andere groepen. Uh, so that whole complex of relationships is something that through my study of those languages, I'm going to not only learn about in those languages, but I will then be encouraged, stimulated to go and read up about them in say, English or French where I, you know, obviously can, اوه، این مجموعه روابط چیزی است که از طریق مطالعه من در آن زبان ها، نه تنها در مورد آن زبان ها یاد می گیرم، بلکه تشویق می شوم و تشویق می شوم که بروم و در مورد آنها به زبان انگلیسی مطالعه کنم. یا فرانسوی جایی که من، می دانید، بدیهی است که می توانم، ええと、人間関係の複雑さ全体がそれらの言語の研究を通して私がそれらの言語で学ぶだけでなく、それから私が行って、例えば英語でそれらについて読むように励まされ、刺激されるものであるようにまたは私が知っているフランス語で、明らかにできる、

you know, read and get that information faster, but language and history in my mind are intimately connected. あなたは知っている、読んで、その情報をより速く得るが、私の心の中の言語と歴史は密接に関連している。 Anyway. Thanks for listening. Bye for now. .