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Steve's Language Learning Tips, Language Fundamentals

Language Fundamentals

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here again.

Today I want to talk about a subject that often comes up and people often challenge me on and that is this issue of learning the basics, learning the fundamentals. How do we learn the fundamentals of a language? My answer is we don't, at least I'm not able to do so. There are people, there's Tim Ferriss who has his How to Learn Any Language in an Hour where he deconstructs the language and there are other people. I just finished watching a video by a Russian person who lives in Sweden talking about learning languages on your own and he says that we should begin by reading a little book on linguistics or even learning Esperanto to get a sense of the grammatical terminology that's used so we can master the grammar from the beginning. I can't do that. I am sure there are people who can do that who are linguistic experts who can read the rules and immediately understand how the language functions.

I can't because I have found that the rules vary so much from language to language. Very often the way things are said, some of the basic structures in a new language, which Russian was for me or Czech or Japanese, are so different from my own that the explanations of how they work don't make much sense to me. They don't make sense until I have had a lot of exposure to the language. My own advice to people is not to worry about it.

I learned Japanese and Chinese without being aware of a single grammatical term. With Russian I did get more involved because Russian is more complicated in terms of grammar. I know that there are these aspects of verbs, but I still don't fully understand the difference and I've read the explanations many, many times. There are lots of these rules and lots of these different structures and I just find that I prefer to go on my merry way acquiring words, learning, understanding more and bit by bit some of these rules become clearer. I don't believe you can nail down the fundamentals, not at all, unless you are particularly gifted or have a special predilection for grammar.

It's not something that works for me and I don't think it works for the majority of people because the majority of people that I have spoken to complain about being turned off their language studies in school because of the emphasis on grammar. That doesn't mean that I don't think you should learn to speak properly, but I think you learn to speak properly by paying attention to the patterns of the language. I think that's something we can do, looking at examples and right from the beginning making an effort to notice what is happening in the language, notice how it is different from our own language and that's fun to do.

If we struggle to identify these patterns on our own and struggle to understand text and there's always patterns that don't make sense to us, I think then when we eventually are familiar enough with that pattern that we can actually read an explanation of that pattern and make sense of it we learn it better. Again, there was an article in Time Magazine about how if we bumble along and struggle on our own we learn better than if we are given a ready-made formula explanation from the teacher.

It's much better to have experienced something on your own then maybe get a little help afterwards to point you in the right direction, at least then you have some experience what is the nature of the problem. So I very much believe and I've said this before but it comes up time and time again, nailing the fundamentals. I was recently on a thread at this How to Learn Any Language forum and this was again one of the comments, you have to begin by learning the fundamentals.

I just find this completely alien to how I have learned languages. All the more power to the people who do it that way, but I think there are a lot of people who cannot deal with these rules up front. To those people I would suggest just discover the language. Learn a few words and don't worry if it's a bit fuzzy. Struggling with that fuzziness is actually helping you. You do have to go back and occasionally look at the explanations, but every time you look at the explanations if you find that you don't fully understand them or you can't remember the rules or the ending don't worry about it. It's all part of that bumbling process, that struggling process that's going to help you learn. Another thing, again in that video by the professor from University in Sweden, was the idea that every time we see a word or learn a word we should repeat it; we should try to use it.

Again, I think this is just not practical because we want to have as large as possible a passive vocabulary so that we can read, so that we can understand native speakers who always have a much larger vocabulary than we have. The words we need to use are actually quite a small subset of the words we need to understand, so the idea that you would limit yourself only to vocabulary that you are able to use to me is impractical. I am motivated to read novels.

Not everybody wants to read novels, read about history, but I am motivated to have intelligent conversations with people and those people in the foreign language will all have a much larger vocabulary than I have. I need to understand them first and foremost and I need to have a subset that I can use. Now, there are ways. We do, eventually, have to work on the active vocabulary and I do that by reviewing vocabulary, as I've said before, reading in grammar books the answers rather than the questions or reading the examples that we create at LingQ. In every link we've got five-10 examples, sometimes fewer, reading them, reading them out loud now and spending some time doing that on those words that I think are important to me and those structures that are important to me.

I can only spend a limited amount of time on that because I'm still motivated to expand my vocabulary so that I can understand more, so that I can pick up a book and enjoy it. All I'm saying is that it's a long process and the idea that you can somehow nail down the fundamentals at the beginning, I don't believe it.

I think you can have a general overview and I always recommend that people get themselves a little starter book in a language and that's really all you need. It could be Teach Yourself , it could be Assimil. To me, it doesn't matter whether it's colloquial or whatever it is, if you read through that you'll get some sense of some of the issues in the language. A lot of this stuff just flies by you. You read it yes, but you don't really quite know what they mean. I mean this thing is well worn because I have to go back time and time again and as I have had more experience with the language these things start to make more and more sense to me. So the fundamentals, don't worry about the fundamentals, learn about enjoying the language.

The big decision we have to make is where to spend the time. If you have eight hours a day then you have one range of decisions to make and you have to have a variety of activities in order to keep you on task, otherwise the brain goes numb after a while. If you only have a limited amount of time then you have to fit it in. Listening obviously fits in very nicely, reading, if you have the time to watch a movie, fine, but there's always that decision. Should I work on expanding my passive vocabulary or should I work on trying to activate more of that vocabulary. This also depends on your needs.

Now that I'm going to Prague, as I get closer and closer to that date, I will be working harder to try to prepare some of that vocabulary and make sure that I'm close to being able to activate it. When the need arises when I'm in Prague, I'm confident that a lot of those words are just going to start coming out. I know that I should write more, writing is very good, but again I don't have the time and perhaps the motivation to do so. These are always choices we have to make. I think this is where I disagree with a number of these other people who are focusing on activating the vocabulary up front, learning the fundamentals up front.

I find it very difficult to do and I think there's nothing wrong for those of us who don't enjoy doing that. For those that do go for it. Those who are like me who don't, enjoy the language, enjoy it passively, enjoy listening, enjoy reading, enjoy discovering more and more of it and when you have the need and the opportunity to use it you'll find that a lot of it will come out, it will start to be activated. Yes, you'll make some mistakes and as you confront your mistakes in your conversations and so forth and so on that will also help you notice, again, when you're listening and reading. So learning the fundamentals up front, I don't think it's possible to do.

That's my take on it and I look forward to your views. People often say that I think everybody learns the same way and I shouldn't be pontificating. Well, other people can say how they like to learn languages and I'm going to say how I like to learn languages. I know from talking to many people that a lot of learners do not like to be forced to speak right up front. A lot of learners have a lot of trouble dealing with grammar up front because it's very difficult to get a hold of without a lot of experience. So to however many of the learners out there I offer my advice, they can take it or leave it.

There is no shortage of people on the Internet offering advice on language learning and people can choose and experiment and see what works best for them. Thanks for listening.

Language Fundamentals Grundlagen der Sprache Fundamentos lingüísticos Les fondamentaux de la langue Fondamenti di lingua 言語の基礎 언어 기초 Podstawy języka Fundamentos da língua Основы языка Grundläggande språk Dil Temelleri Мовні основи 语言基础 語言基礎

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here again. Olá, aqui é Steve Kaufmann novamente.

Today I want to talk about a subject that often comes up and people often challenge me on and that is this issue of learning the basics, learning the fundamentals. Hoy quiero hablar de un tema que surge a menudo y sobre el que la gente suele desafiarme y es esta cuestión de aprender lo básico, aprender los fundamentos. 今日は、よく出てくるテーマや、よく挑戦されるテーマについてお話したいと思います。それが、基礎を学び、基礎を学ぶというこの問題です。 Dzisiaj chciałbym porozmawiać o temacie, który często pojawia się i ludzie często rzucają mi wyzwanie i to jest kwestia uczenia się podstaw, uczenia się podstaw. Hoje quero falar sobre um assunto que surge frequentemente e sobre o qual as pessoas me desafiam, que é a questão de aprender o básico, aprender os fundamentos. How do we learn the fundamentals of a language? Jak poznajemy podstawy języka? Como é que aprendemos os fundamentos de uma língua? My answer is we don’t, at least I’m not able to do so. Mi respuesta es que no, al menos yo no soy capaz de hacerlo. 私の答えは、少なくとも私はそうすることができないということです。 Moja odpowiedź brzmi, że nie, przynajmniej nie jestem w stanie tego zrobić. A minha resposta é que não temos, pelo menos eu não sou capaz de o fazer. There are people, there’s Tim Ferriss who has his How to Learn Any Language in an Hour where he deconstructs the language and there are other people. 人々がいます、彼が言語を解体する時間でどんな言語も学ぶ方法を持っているティム・フェリスがいます、そして他の人々がいます。 Er zijn mensen, er is Tim Ferriss die zijn How to Learn Any Language in a Hour heeft waarin hij de taal deconstrueert en er zijn andere mensen. Há pessoas, há o Tim Ferriss que tem o seu How to Learn Any Language in an Hour onde ele desconstrói a língua e há outras pessoas. I just finished watching a video by a Russian person who lives in Sweden talking about learning languages on your own and he says that we should begin by reading a little book on linguistics or even learning Esperanto to get a sense of the grammatical terminology that’s used so we can master the grammar from the beginning. Acabo de terminar de ver un vídeo de una persona rusa que vive en Suecia en el que habla sobre aprender idiomas por tu cuenta y dice que deberíamos empezar por leer un pequeño libro de lingüística o incluso aprender esperanto para hacernos una idea de la terminología gramatical que se utiliza y así poder dominar la gramática desde el principio. スウェーデンに住むロシア人が自分で言語を学ぶことについて話しているビデオを見終わったところです。彼は、言語学に関する小さな本を読むか、エスペラントを学ぶことから始めて、そのように使用されている文法用語を理解する必要があると言います。最初から文法をマスターすることができます。 Acabei de ver um vídeo de um russo que vive na Suécia que fala sobre a aprendizagem de línguas por conta própria e diz que devemos começar por ler um pequeno livro sobre linguística ou mesmo aprender esperanto para termos uma noção da terminologia gramatical que é usada, para podermos dominar a gramática desde o início. I can’t do that. Nie mogę tego zrobić. Não posso fazer isso. I am sure there are people who can do that who are linguistic experts who can read the rules and immediately understand how the language functions. Tenho a certeza de que há pessoas que podem fazer isso, que são especialistas linguísticos, que podem ler as regras e compreender imediatamente o funcionamento da língua.

I can’t because I have found that the rules vary so much from language to language. ルールが言語ごとに大きく異なることがわかったので、私はできません。 Nie mogę, ponieważ odkryłem, że zasady różnią się tak bardzo w zależności od języka. Não posso, porque descobri que as regras variam muito de língua para língua. Very often the way things are said, some of the basic structures in a new language, which Russian was for me or Czech or Japanese, are so different from my own that the explanations of how they work don’t make much sense to me. 多くの場合、物事の言い方は、ロシア語が私にとって、チェコ語または日本語であった新しい言語の基本構造のいくつかは、私自身のものとは非常に異なるため、それらがどのように機能するかについての説明は私にはあまり意味がありません。 Muitas vezes, a forma como as coisas são ditas, algumas das estruturas básicas de uma nova língua, que foi o russo para mim, o checo ou o japonês, são tão diferentes da minha que as explicações sobre o seu funcionamento não fazem muito sentido para mim. They don’t make sense until I have had a lot of exposure to the language. 私がその言語にたくさん触れるまで、それらは意味がありません。 Nie mają sensu, dopóki nie mam dużego kontaktu z językiem. Só fazem sentido depois de ter tido muito contacto com a língua. My own advice to people is not to worry about it. Mi consejo es que la gente no se preocupe. 人々への私自身のアドバイスはそれについて心配しないことです。 O meu conselho é que as pessoas não se preocupem com isso.

I learned Japanese and Chinese without being aware of a single grammatical term. Aprendí japonés y chino sin conocer ni un solo término gramatical. Saya belajar bahasa Jepang dan Mandarin tanpa mengetahui satu pun istilah tata bahasa. 文法用語を意識せずに日本語と中国語を学びました。 With Russian I did get more involved because Russian is more complicated in terms of grammar. Con el ruso sí que me he implicado más porque el ruso es más complicado en cuanto a gramática. ロシア語は文法的に複雑なので、私はロシア語にもっと関わりました。 I know that there are these aspects of verbs, but I still don’t fully understand the difference and I’ve read the explanations many, many times. 動詞にはこういう側面があることは知っていますが、それでも違いがよくわからず、何度も説明を読んでいます。 Sei que há estes aspectos dos verbos, mas ainda não percebo bem a diferença e já li as explicações muitas e muitas vezes. There are lots of these rules and lots of these different structures and I just find that I prefer to go on my merry way acquiring words, learning, understanding more and bit by bit some of these rules become clearer. これらのルールはたくさんあり、さまざまな構造がたくさんあります。私は、言葉を習得し、学び、理解し、少しずつこれらのルールのいくつかがより明確になるように、陽気な方法で進むことを好むことがわかりました。 Há muitas destas regras e muitas destas estruturas diferentes e eu acho que prefiro continuar o meu caminho alegre, adquirindo palavras, aprendendo, compreendendo mais e, pouco a pouco, algumas destas regras tornam-se mais claras. I don’t believe you can nail down the fundamentals, not at all, unless you are particularly gifted or have a special predilection for grammar. No creo que puedas dar con los fundamentos, en absoluto, a menos que estés especialmente dotado o tengas una predilección especial por la gramática. あなたが特に才能があるか、文法に特別な好みを持っていない限り、あなたが基本を釘付けにすることはできないと私は信じています。 Não creio que se possa dominar os fundamentos, de forma alguma, a menos que se seja particularmente dotado ou tenha uma predileção especial pela gramática. 我认为,除非你特别有天赋或对语法有特殊的偏好,否则你根本无法掌握基础知识。

It’s not something that works for me and I don’t think it works for the majority of people because the majority of people that I have spoken to complain about being turned off their language studies in school because of the emphasis on grammar. Není to něco, co pro mě funguje a nemyslím si, že to funguje pro většinu lidí, protože většina lidí, se kterými jsem mluvil, si stěžovala na to, že jim ve škole zakázali studium jazyků kvůli důrazu na gramatiku. Ini bukanlah sesuatu yang cocok untuk saya dan saya rasa tidak cocok untuk sebagian besar orang karena sebagian besar orang yang pernah saya ajak bicara mengeluh bahwa pelajaran bahasa mereka di sekolah tidak berjalan dengan baik karena penekanan pada tata bahasa. それは私にとってはうまくいくものではなく、文法に重点を置いているために学校での語学学習がオフになっていると不平を言う人が大多数いるため、大多数の人にとってはうまくいかないと思います。 To nie jest coś, co działa dla mnie i nie sądzę, że działa to dla większości ludzi, ponieważ większość osób, z którymi rozmawiałem, skarży się na to, że w szkole zostały wyłączone studia językowe ze względu na nacisk na gramatykę. Não é algo que funcione para mim e não creio que funcione para a maioria das pessoas, porque a maioria das pessoas com quem falei queixa-se de ter sido afastada dos seus estudos linguísticos na escola devido à ênfase na gramática. That doesn’t mean that I don’t think you should learn to speak properly, but I think you learn to speak properly by paying attention to the patterns of the language. To neznamená, že si nemyslím, že byste se měli naučit správně mluvit, ale myslím, že se naučíte správně mluvit tím, že budete věnovat pozornost vzorcům jazyka. Eso no significa que no crea que se deba aprender a hablar correctamente, pero creo que se aprende a hablar correctamente prestando atención a los patrones de la lengua. Bukan berarti saya tidak menyarankan Anda untuk belajar berbicara dengan benar, tetapi saya pikir Anda belajar berbicara dengan benar dengan memperhatikan pola-pola bahasa. それはあなたが正しく話すことを学ぶべきではないと私が思うという意味ではありませんが、あなたは言語のパターンに注意を払うことによって正しく話すことを学ぶと思います。 Isso não significa que eu não ache que se deva aprender a falar corretamente, mas acho que se aprende a falar corretamente prestando atenção aos padrões da língua. I think that’s something we can do, looking at examples and right from the beginning making an effort to notice what is happening in the language, notice how it is different from our own language and that’s fun to do. Myslím, že to je něco, co můžeme udělat, když se podíváme na příklady a hned od začátku se budeme snažit všímat si toho, co se děje v jazyce, všímat si, jak se liší od našeho vlastního jazyka, a to je zábava. それは私たちにできることだと思います。例を見て、最初からその言語で何が起こっているかに気づき、それが私たちの言語とどのように違うかに気づき、それをするのは楽しいことです。 Penso que isso é algo que podemos fazer, olhando para exemplos e, desde o início, fazendo um esforço para perceber o que está a acontecer na língua, perceber como é diferente da nossa própria língua e isso é divertido de fazer.

If we struggle to identify these patterns on our own and struggle to understand text and there’s always patterns that don’t make sense to us, I think then when we eventually are familiar enough with that pattern that we can actually read an explanation of that pattern and make sense of it we learn it better. Pokud se sami snažíme identifikovat tyto vzorce a snažíme se porozumět textu a vždy existují vzorce, které nám nedávají smysl, myslím si, že když se nakonec s tímto vzorem dostatečně seznámíme, můžeme si skutečně přečíst vysvětlení tohoto vzorce. a dáme tomu smysl, učíme se to lépe. Si nous avons du mal à identifier ces modèles par nous-mêmes et à comprendre le texte et qu'il y a toujours des modèles qui n'ont pas de sens pour nous, je pense que lorsque nous serons finalement suffisamment familiarisés avec ce modèle, nous pourrons en fait lire une explication de ce modèle et donner un sens on l'apprend mieux. これらのパターンを自分で特定するのに苦労し、テキストを理解するのに苦労し、私たちにとって意味のないパターンが常にある場合、最終的にそのパターンに精通し、実際にそのパターンの説明を読むことができるようになると思いますそしてそれを理解するために、私たちはそれをよりよく学びます。 Se lutamos para identificar esses padrões por conta própria e para entender o texto e sempre há padrões que não fazem sentido para nós, acho que, então, quando eventualmente estivermos familiarizados o suficiente com esse padrão, poderemos realmente ler uma explicação desse padrão e entendemos isso, aprendemos melhor. Again, there was an article in Time Magazine about how if we bumble along and struggle on our own we learn better than if we are given a ready-made formula explanation from the teacher. V časopise Time byl opět článek o tom, že když se potácíme a bojujeme sami, učíme se lépe, než když dostáváme od učitele hotové vysvětlení vzorce. Wieder gab es im Time Magazine einen Artikel darüber, wie wir besser lernen, wenn wir alleine herumhumpeln und kämpfen, als wenn wir vom Lehrer eine vorgefertigte Formelerklärung erhalten. De nuevo, había un artículo en la revista Time sobre cómo si vamos dando tumbos y luchando por nuestra cuenta aprendemos mejor que si el profesor nos da una explicación con una fórmula ya hecha. 繰り返しになりますが、Time Magazineには、先生から既製の粉ミルクの説明を受けた場合よりも、自分でぶつかって苦労した場合の方が、どのようによく学ぶかについての記事がありました。 W Magazynie Czasu pojawił się artykuł o tym, że jeśli siądziemy i walczymy na własną rękę, uczymy się lepiej, niż gdy otrzymamy gotowe wyjaśnienie formuły od nauczyciela. Mais uma vez, havia um artigo na revista Time sobre o facto de que, se nos debatermos e nos esforçarmos sozinhos, aprendemos melhor do que se recebermos do professor uma explicação pronta. 同样,《时代周刊》曾刊登过一篇文章,谈到如果我们自己摸索和奋斗,会比老师给我们现成的公式解释学得更好。

It’s much better to have experienced something on your own then maybe get a little help afterwards to point you in the right direction, at least then you have some experience what is the nature of the problem. Je mnohem lepší něco zažít na vlastní kůži, pak si možná nechat trochu pomoci, aby vás nasměrovala správným směrem, alespoň pak budete mít nějakou zkušenost, jaká je povaha problému. Es mucho mejor haber experimentado algo por tu cuenta y luego quizás recibir un poco de ayuda después para que te indique la dirección correcta, al menos así tienes algo de experiencia sobre cuál es la naturaleza del problema. 自分で何かを経験したほうがはるかに良いです。その後、少し助けを借りて正しい方向に向けてください。少なくとも、問題の性質についてある程度の経験があります。 Znacznie lepiej jest doświadczać czegoś na własną rękę, może później uzyskać pomoc, aby wskazać ci właściwy kierunek, przynajmniej wtedy masz trochę doświadczenia, jaka jest natura problemu. 最好是自己经历过一些事情,然后再找人帮你指出正确的方向,至少这样你就会有一些经验,知道问题的本质是什么。 So I very much believe and I’ve said this before but it comes up time and time again, nailing the fundamentals. Takže velmi věřím a řekl jsem to již dříve, ale znovu a znovu se to objevuje, když se snažím popsat základy. Así que creo firmemente, y ya lo he dicho antes pero se repite una y otra vez, que hay que dar en el clavo con los fundamentos. Jadi saya sangat percaya dan saya telah mengatakan hal ini sebelumnya, namun hal ini selalu muncul berkali-kali, memaku fundamental. ですから、私は非常に信じており、これを前に言いましたが、それは何度も何度も出てきて、基本を釘付けにします。 Eu acredito muito e já disse isso antes, mas surge uma e outra vez, acertando os fundamentos. 因此,我非常相信,而且我以前也说过,但还是一次又一次地提到,要抓住基本要素。 I was recently on a thread at this How to Learn Any Language forum and this was again one of the comments, you have to begin by learning the fundamentals. Nedávno jsem byl ve vláknu na tomto fóru Jak se naučit jakýkoli jazyk a toto byl opět jeden z komentářů, musíte začít tím, že se naučíte základy. Baru-baru ini saya membaca sebuah thread di forum Cara Belajar Bahasa Apa Saja dan ini adalah salah satu komentar yang muncul, Anda harus mulai dengan mempelajari dasar-dasarnya. 私は最近、このHow to Learn Any Languageフォーラムのスレッドに参加しましたが、これもコメントの1つでした。まず、基礎を学ぶ必要があります。 Byłem ostatnio w wątku na tym forum How to Learn Any Language i to był kolejny jeden z komentarzy, musisz zacząć od poznania podstaw. 我最近在“如何学习任何语言”论坛上发表了一个主题,这又是其中一条评论,你必须从学习基础知识开始。

I just find this completely alien to how I have learned languages. Ich finde das einfach völlig fremd, wie ich Sprachen gelernt habe. Saya merasa hal ini benar-benar asing dengan cara saya belajar bahasa. 私はこれが私が言語を学んだ方法とは完全に異質であることに気づきました。 Po prostu uważam to za całkowicie obce, jak nauczyłem się języków. Eu simplesmente acho isso completamente estranho ao modo como aprendi línguas. 我只是觉得这与我学习语言的方式完全格格不入。 All the more power to the people who do it that way, but I think there are a lot of people who cannot deal with these rules up front. Más poder para los que lo hacen así, pero creo que hay mucha gente que no puede enfrentarse a estas normas de entrada. Lebih baik lagi bagi orang-orang yang melakukannya dengan cara itu, tetapi saya pikir ada banyak orang yang tidak bisa menghadapi aturan ini di depan. そうする人にはなおさらの力がありますが、これらのルールに前もって対処できない人はたくさんいると思います。 Tym bardziej, że ludzie to robią w ten sposób, ale myślę, że jest wielu ludzi, którzy nie mogą sobie z nimi poradzić. Mais poder para as pessoas que agem dessa forma, mas acho que há muitas pessoas que não conseguem lidar com essas regras de cara. To those people I would suggest just discover the language. A esas personas les sugeriría que simplemente descubrieran el idioma. それらの人々に私はただ言語を発見することを提案するでしょう。 Learn a few words and don’t worry if it’s a bit fuzzy. いくつかの単語を学び、それが少し曖昧であっても心配しないでください。 Naucz się kilku słów i nie martw się, jeśli jest trochę niewyraźny. Aprenda algumas palavras e não se preocupe se estiver um pouco confuso. Struggling with that fuzziness is actually helping you. Luchar contra esa confusión en realidad te está ayudando. そのあいまいさに苦しんでいることは実際にあなたを助けています。 Lutar contra essa imprecisão está, na verdade, ajudando você. You do have to go back and occasionally look at the explanations, but every time you look at the explanations if you find that you don’t fully understand them or you can’t remember the rules or the ending don’t worry about it. 戻って時々説明を見る必要がありますが、説明をよく理解していない、ルールが思い出せない、エンディングが気にならない場合は、説明を見るたびに気にしないでください。 Você tem que voltar e ocasionalmente olhar para as explicações, mas toda vez que você olhar para as explicações, se achar que não as entendeu totalmente ou que não consegue se lembrar das regras ou do final, não se preocupe. It’s all part of that bumbling process, that struggling process that’s going to help you learn. それはすべてその厄介なプロセスの一部であり、あなたが学ぶのを助けることになるその苦労しているプロセスです。 É tudo parte desse processo desajeitado, desse processo de luta que vai te ajudar a aprender. 这都是磕磕绊绊过程的一部分,是帮助你学习的挣扎过程。 Another thing, again in that video by the professor from __________ University in Sweden, was the idea that every time we see a word or learn a word we should repeat it; we should try to use it. スウェーデンの__________大学の教授によるそのビデオのもう一つのことは、私たちが単語を見たり、単語を学んだりするたびに、それを繰り返すべきだという考えでした。私たちはそれを使おうとすべきです。

Again, I think this is just not practical because we want to have as large as possible a passive vocabulary so that we can read, so that we can understand native speakers who always have a much larger vocabulary than we have. De nuevo, creo que esto no es práctico porque queremos tener un vocabulario pasivo lo más amplio posible para poder leer, para poder entender a los hablantes nativos que siempre tienen un vocabulario mucho más amplio que el nuestro. 繰り返しになりますが、これは実用的ではないと思います。受動態の語彙をできるだけ多くして、読むことができるようにし、常に私たちよりもはるかに多くの語彙を持っているネイティブスピーカーを理解できるようにするためです。 同样,我认为这也是不切实际的,因为我们希望被动词汇量越大越好,这样我们才能阅读,才能听懂母语人士的语言,因为他们的词汇量总是比我们大得多。 The words we need to use are actually quite a small subset of the words we need to understand, so the idea that you would limit yourself only to vocabulary that you are able to use to me is impractical. 私たちが使用する必要のある単語は、実際には私たちが理解する必要のある単語の非常に小さなサブセットであるため、私が使用できる語彙だけに制限するという考えは実用的ではありません。 De woorden die we moeten gebruiken, zijn eigenlijk een vrij kleine subset van de woorden die we moeten begrijpen, dus het idee dat je je alleen zou beperken tot woordenschat die je voor mij kunt gebruiken, is onpraktisch. 我们需要使用的单词实际上只是我们需要理解的单词的一个很小的子集,因此,你只把自己限制在你能够对我使用的词汇范围内的想法是不切实际的。 I am motivated to read novels. 私は小説を読むことに意欲的です。 Estou motivado para ler romances.

Not everybody wants to read novels, read about history, but I am motivated to have intelligent conversations with people and those people in the foreign language will all have a much larger vocabulary than I have. 誰もが小説を読んだり、歴史について読んだりすることを望んでいるわけではありませんが、私は人々とインテリジェントな会話をすることに意欲的であり、外国語の人々はすべて私よりもはるかに多くの語彙を持っています。 Nem todo mundo quer ler romances, ler sobre história, mas estou motivado para ter conversas inteligentes com as pessoas e essas pessoas na língua estrangeira terão um vocabulário muito maior do que o meu. I need to understand them first and foremost and I need to have a subset that I can use. 何よりもまずそれらを理解する必要があり、使用できるサブセットが必要です。 Preciso entendê-los antes de mais nada e preciso ter um subconjunto que possa usar. 我需要首先了解它们,并且需要有一个可以使用的子集。 Now, there are ways. 今、方法があります。 We do, eventually, have to work on the active vocabulary and I do that by reviewing vocabulary, as I’ve said before, reading in grammar books the answers rather than the questions or reading the examples that we create at LingQ. Pada akhirnya, kita harus melatih kosakata aktif dan saya melakukannya dengan meninjau kosakata, seperti yang telah saya katakan sebelumnya, membaca buku-buku tata bahasa yang berisi jawaban dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang ada, atau membaca contoh-contoh yang kami buat di LingQ. 最終的には、アクティブな語彙に取り組む必要があります。前に述べたように、質問やLingQで作成した例ではなく、文法書で答えを読んで、語彙を確認します。 W końcu musimy pracować nad aktywnym słownictwem i robię to, przeglądając słownictwo, jak już wcześniej wspomniałem, czytając w podręcznikach gramatycznych odpowiedzi zamiast pytań lub czytając przykłady, które tworzymy w LingQ. Eventualmente, temos que trabalhar no vocabulário ativo e eu faço isso revisando o vocabulário, como eu disse antes, lendo em livros de gramática as respostas ao invés das perguntas ou lendo os exemplos que criamos no LingQ. In every link we’ve got five-10 examples, sometimes fewer, reading them, reading them out loud now and spending some time doing that on those words that I think are important to me and those structures that are important to me. Di setiap tautan, kami memiliki lima-10 contoh, terkadang lebih sedikit, membacanya, membacanya dengan keras sekarang dan meluangkan waktu untuk melakukan hal itu pada kata-kata yang menurut saya penting bagi saya dan struktur-struktur yang penting bagi saya. すべてのリンクには、5〜10の例があり、場合によってはそれより少なく、それらを読み、今すぐ大声で読み、私にとって重要だと思う単語や私にとって重要な構造に時間を費やしています。

I can only spend a limited amount of time on that because I’m still motivated to expand my vocabulary so that I can understand more, so that I can pick up a book and enjoy it. まだまだ語彙を増やして理解を深め、本を手に取って楽しむことができるようになりたいと思っているので、限られた時間しか費やせません。 Só posso gastar um tempo limitado nisso porque ainda estou motivado para expandir meu vocabulário para poder entender mais, para poder pegar um livro e apreciá-lo. All I’m saying is that it’s a long process and the idea that you can somehow nail down the fundamentals at the beginning, I don’t believe it. 私が言っているのは、それは長いプロセスであり、最初に何とかして基本を突き止めることができるという考えです、私はそれを信じていません。 Tudo o que estou dizendo é que é um processo longo e a ideia de que você pode, de alguma forma, definir os fundamentos no início, não acredito.

I think you can have a general overview and I always recommend that people get themselves a little starter book in a language and that’s really all you need. 私はあなたが一般的な概要を持つことができると思います、そして私は人々が彼ら自身に言語で小さなスターターブックを手に入れることを常に勧めます、そしてそれはあなたが本当に必要とするすべてです。 我认为你可以有一个大致的了解,我总是建议人们给自己买一本小的语言入门书,这就是你所需要的一切。 It could be Teach Yourself , it could be Assimil. それはあなた自身を教えるかもしれません、それはアシミルかもしれません。 它可以是 Teach Yourself,也可以是 Assimil。 To me, it doesn’t matter whether it’s colloquial or whatever it is, if you read through that you’ll get some sense of some of the issues in the language. 私にとって、それが口語的であるかどうかは関係ありません。それを読むと、言語の問題のいくつかを理解することができます。 Para mim, não importa se é coloquial ou o que quer que seja, se você ler isso, terá uma ideia de alguns dos problemas da língua. 在我看来,不管是口语还是其他什么,只要你读过,就会对语言中的一些问题有所了解。 A lot of this stuff just flies by you. Banyak hal yang berlalu begitu saja. このようなものの多くはあなたのそばを飛んでいます。 Wiele z tych rzeczy leci po tobie. 很多东西都是一闪而过。 You read it yes, but you don’t really quite know what they mean. Você leu sim, mas não sabe bem o que significam. 你读到了,但你并不真正了解他们的意思。 I mean this thing is well worn because I have to go back time and time again and as I have had more experience with the language these things start to make more and more sense to me. Maksud saya, benda ini sudah usang karena saya harus kembali lagi dan lagi, dan karena saya memiliki lebih banyak pengalaman dengan bahasa ini, hal-hal ini mulai semakin masuk akal bagi saya. 私は何度も何度も戻る必要があり、言語の経験が増えるにつれて、これらのことは私にとってますます理にかなっているので、これはよく着用されていることを意味します。 我的意思是,这件衣服很破旧,因为我不得不一次又一次地回去,并且由于我对语言有更多的经验,所以这些事情对我来说越来越有意义。 我的意思是,这东西已经很破旧了,因为我不得不一次又一次地回头看,随着我对语言的经验越来越丰富,这些东西对我来说也越来越有意义了。 So the fundamentals, don’t worry about the fundamentals, learn about enjoying the language.

The big decision we have to make is where to spend the time. If you have eight hours a day then you have one range of decisions to make and you have to have a variety of activities in order to keep you on task, otherwise the brain goes numb after a while. Jika Anda memiliki waktu delapan jam sehari, maka Anda memiliki satu rentang keputusan yang harus diambil dan Anda harus memiliki beragam aktivitas untuk membuat Anda tetap fokus, jika tidak, otak Anda akan mati rasa setelah beberapa saat. 1日8時間の場合、1つの範囲の決定を下す必要があり、仕事を続けるためにさまざまな活動を行う必要があります。そうしないと、しばらくすると脳が麻痺します。 Als je acht uur per dag hebt, moet je een reeks beslissingen nemen en moet je een verscheidenheid aan activiteiten hebben om je aan je taak te houden, anders raken de hersenen na een tijdje verdoofd. 如果你每天有 8 个小时,那么你就有一系列的决定要做,你必须有各种各样的活动才能让你继续完成任务,否则大脑在一段时间后就会麻木。 If you only have a limited amount of time then you have to fit it in. Jika Anda hanya memiliki waktu yang terbatas, maka Anda harus menyesuaikannya. 限られた時間しかない場合は、それに合わせる必要があります。 Listening obviously fits in very nicely, reading, if you have the time to watch a movie, fine, but there’s always that decision. 映画を見る時間があれば、聞くことは明らかに非常にうまく適合します。読むことは問題ありませんが、常にその決定があります。 Should I work on expanding my passive vocabulary or should I work on trying to activate more of that vocabulary. ¿Debo trabajar para ampliar mi vocabulario pasivo o debo trabajar para intentar activar más ese vocabulario? This also depends on your needs.

Now that I’m going to Prague, as I get closer and closer to that date, I will be working harder to try to prepare some of that vocabulary and make sure that I’m close to being able to activate it. Ahora que voy a Praga, a medida que me acerque más y más a esa fecha, trabajaré más para intentar preparar parte de ese vocabulario y asegurarme de que estoy cerca de poder activarlo. プラハに行く予定ですが、その日付に近づくにつれて、その語彙のいくつかを準備し、それをアクティブ化できるようになるように努力します。 现在我要去布拉格了,随着日期的临近,我会更加努力地尝试准备一些词汇,并确保我接近能够激活这些词汇。 When the need arises when I’m in Prague, I’m confident that a lot of those words are just going to start coming out. Cuando surja la necesidad, cuando esté en Praga, estoy seguro de que muchas de esas palabras empezarán a salir. 私がプラハにいるときに必要が生じたとき、私はそれらの言葉の多くがちょうど出始めていると確信しています。 当我在布拉格有需要时,我相信很多话都会脱口而出。 I know that I should write more, writing is very good, but again I don’t have the time and perhaps the motivation to do so. 私はもっと書くべきだと知っています、書くことはとても良いです、しかし再び私にはそうする時間とおそらく動機がありません。 These are always choices we have to make. これらは常に私たちがしなければならない選択です。 I think this is where I disagree with a number of these other people who are focusing on activating the vocabulary up front, learning the fundamentals up front. これは、語彙を前もって活性化し、基礎を前もって学ぶことに焦点を合わせているこれらの他の多くの人々に私が同意しないところだと思います。 Myślę, że właśnie tam nie zgadzam się z wieloma innymi osobami, które koncentrują się na aktywowaniu słownictwa z góry, uczeniu się podstaw z góry. 我认为,这就是我与其他一些人的不同之处,他们注重先激活词汇,先学习基础知识。

I find it very difficult to do and I think there’s nothing wrong for those of us who don’t enjoy doing that. とても難しいと思いますし、それを楽しんでいない私たちにとっては何も悪いことではないと思います。 For those that do go for it. それのために行く人のために。 Dla tych, którzy do tego dążą. Those who are like me who don’t, enjoy the language, enjoy it passively, enjoy listening, enjoy reading, enjoy discovering more and more of it and when you have the need and the opportunity to use it you’ll find that a lot of it will come out, it will start to be activated. Los que son como yo que no, disfruten del idioma, disfrútenlo pasivamente, disfruten escuchando, disfruten leyendo, disfruten descubriendo más y más de él y cuando tengan la necesidad y la oportunidad de usarlo verán que mucho de ello saldrá, empezará a activarse. 私のように、言語を楽しんでいない、受動的に楽しんでいる、聞くことを楽しんでいる、読書を楽しんでいる、それをますます発見することを楽しんでいる、そしてあなたがそれを使う必要性と機会があるとき、あなたはそれをたくさん見つけるでしょうそのうち出てきて、起動し始めます。 Yes, you’ll make some mistakes and as you confront your mistakes in your conversations and so forth and so on that will also help you notice, again, when you’re listening and reading. はい、あなたはいくつかの間違いを犯します、そしてあなたが会話などであなたの間違いに直面するとき、それはあなたが聞いたり読んだりしているときにあなたが再び気付くのを助けるでしょう。 So learning the fundamentals up front, I don’t think it’s possible to do. A więc uczenie się podstaw z góry nie wydaje mi się możliwe.

That’s my take on it and I look forward to your views. それが私の見解であり、あなたの意見を楽しみにしています。 To jest moje zdanie i cieszę się z twoich poglądów. People often say that I think everybody learns the same way and I shouldn’t be pontificating. よく言われることですが、私は誰もが同じように学んでいると思います。 Mensen zeggen vaak dat ik denk dat iedereen op dezelfde manier leert en dat ik niet moet poneren. As pessoas dizem muitas vezes que eu acho que toda a gente aprende da mesma maneira e que eu não devia estar a pontificar. 人们常说,我认为每个人的学习方法都是一样的,我不应该说教。 Well, other people can say how they like to learn languages and I’m going to say how I like to learn languages. ええと、他の人は彼らがどのように言語を学ぶのが好きかを言うことができます、そして私は私がどのように言語を学ぶのが好きかを言うつもりです。 Bem, outras pessoas podem dizer como gostam de aprender línguas e eu vou dizer como gosto de aprender línguas. I know from talking to many people that a lot of learners do not like to be forced to speak right up front. Sé por lo que he hablado con mucha gente que a muchos alumnos no les gusta que les obliguen a hablar de entrada. 多くの人と話すことで、多くの学習者が真っ先に話すことを強いられることを好まないことを私は知っています。 Sei, por falar com muitas pessoas, que muitos alunos não gostam de ser forçados a falar bem na frente. 我从与许多人的交谈中了解到,许多学习者不喜欢被迫在前面发言。 A lot of learners have a lot of trouble dealing with grammar up front because it’s very difficult to get a hold of without a lot of experience. 多くの学習者は、多くの経験がなければ文法を理解するのが非常に難しいため、前もって文法を扱うのに多くの問題を抱えています。 Muitos aprendentes têm muita dificuldade em lidar com a gramática logo à partida, porque é muito difícil dominá-la sem muita experiência. So to however many of the learners out there I offer my advice, they can take it or leave it. ですから、私がアドバイスを提供している多くの学習者に、彼らはそれを取ることも残すこともできます。 Tak więc, niezależnie od tego, jak wielu z tamtejszych uczniów udziela mojej rady, mogą ją przyjąć lub odrzucić.

There is no shortage of people on the Internet offering advice on language learning and people can choose and experiment and see what works best for them. En Internet no faltan personas que ofrecen consejos sobre el aprendizaje de idiomas, y cada cual puede elegir y experimentar para ver qué le funciona mejor. インターネット上で言語学習に関するアドバイスを提供する人は少なくありません。人々は自分に最適なものを選択して実験し、確認することができます。 互联网上不乏提供语言学习建议的人,人们可以选择并尝试最适合自己的学习方法。 Thanks for listening.