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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, Is It Hard to Learn Japanese?

Is It Hard to Learn Japanese?

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here and today, I want to talk about Japanese, learning Japanese. How hard is Japanese? Uh, remember if you enjoy these videos, please, uh, you know, subscribe, you can click on the bell here to get notifications. So you may be aware that the American Foreign Service Institute,

and I'm going to put a link to it here in the description box, has put out their evaluation of how difficult a different languages are based on, you know, how many hours of classroom instruction are required to achieve a certain level or fluency or whatever. Uh, I think these, uh, these studies, these comparisons are definitely interesting.

They have a lot of experience watching people in the classroom. I always feel that what's more important than the classroom is the motivation of the learner. So, and very often this means what the learner does outside the classroom is more important than what the learner does in the classroom. So how difficult are these languages?

Obviously the number one factor is how motivated you are. Uh, also another objective fact is, the more language is different from your own the more difficult it's going to be. You have to get used to new structures. You have to acquire a lot of new vocabulary where there's relatively little connection to vocabulary that you have for your own, from your own language.

But I would say that so Japanese is simply in terms of the vocabulary, the structure being very different from say English, if you're an English speaker, is going to be more difficult. However, there are a number of things that make Japanese easier, in my opinion. Um, and you know, when I learned Japanese, I'll tell you I have here.

I just went through my ..Japanese collection and I found, I mean, I have so many different dictionaries that I used because I was looking for dictionaries that were more convenient that were maybe based on a Romanized, uh, you know, look up system rather than basing it on Japanese, uh, alphabet or whatever. And I mean, I did a lot of looking stuff up because I... Here's another one too.

I had to do so much reading. And in those days, you know, back in the early seventies, there wasn't quite as much listening material available. It was hard work. Today with the internet accessing content on the internet, uh, using LingQ, for example, Where you can either use our mini stories, uh, where you can immediately look words up with an online dictionary.

It is easier. Now I will confess that with Asian languages or, I shouldn't say Asian languages, but specifically with Japanese and Chinese, we do have an issue because it's not obvious what constitutes a word. Because if a number of symbols come together to form a word, so where do you split? Where is this...

the boundaries between words? So we rely on different algorithms and they're not perfect. Nevertheless, even though not perfect because as we often say, perfection is the, is the enemy of the good, right? The perfect is the enemy of the good, it's still very effective. So it's easier to do than when I did, but

the, the immediate obstacles with Japanese are number one, there are three writing systems. It's the only language I know of where there's more than one writing system in common use. So they have, first of all, the Chinese characters, which was the first writing system they had, and then they have the hiragana, which is basically, it began as a system of using Chinese characters to represent Japanese sounds.

And apparently there were a variety of versions. Different characters were used in different parts of the country to try and represent the sounds. Because of course the Chinese character is a pictogram it represents meaning, but there is also sound attached to that character. So that was initially used.

And this evolved into hiragana, which is the most widely used phonetic script in Japanese. So You have the Kanji to Chinese characters, which are used, you have the hiragana, which is the most commonly used. But then you also have Katakana, which parallels the hiragana and it's used for, uh, you know, sort of words that are just sort of sounds: crash, bang or for foreign words.

And personally, I found the Katakana very hard because you don't see much of it. So remember in learning any new writing system, It's not whether that writing system is intrinsically hard or difficult, it's how long is it going to take for your brain to get used to that writing system? So if you know, in Japanese 90% of the words or more are written in hiragana , then you're doing most of your reading

in hiragana and in Kanji, in Chinese characters, and you're not doing very much reading in Katakana. So I always found the katakana a bit of a, you know, an obstacle. But so, so the writing system is a problem. Uh, problem meaning you have to put the time in, you have to do... see everything boils down to rating and listening.

The more you read and listen, and particularly read, the more you read, the more your brain gets used to that writing system, the easier it becomes. So I began by doing a lot of reading in hiragana. Because I had Kanji from Chinese, I needed to get used to the hiragana. So I did a lot of reading in just hiragana.

There was a series that are called the Naganuma books, and I just read them all the time. Stories about, you know, folktales from Japan. Wasn't very interesting, but just to get my brain used to it. All right. Several things make Japanese, first of all, more difficult, it's more difficult because it's structured differently.

But it is easier in the sense that it's more forgiving. And what I mean by that is like, I have no idea or very little idea of the sort of grammatical explanations of Japanese, because it's kind of... Japanese to me is like, you know, an old suit that you get used to wearing and after a while you feel comfortable in the suit because you wear it all the time. It's not...

it, the rules are not like... it's harder. It's been like Chinese in that sense. It's harder to really, there are a fewer things to trip you up. So when I think of a truly difficult language or languages, I think of languages where you have, you know, declensions and conjugations or you have gender. So if you use the wrong gender in French or Spanish, it's kind of a bit of a clanger, you hear that.

Uh, if you use the wrong case endings, uh, I don't know. I'm not a native speaker, but certainly I'm quite sensitive, uh, in, in French to hearing someone use the wrong, uh, you know, gender. Although I do it myself, it's unavoidable. It's just impossible to go from a language where you don't have gender and then,

you know, not make mistakes with nouns in languages where they have gender. But in Japanese, there's no gender for the nouns. There's not even singular and plural. So, you know, book is book. Book on the table. Uh, so to my mind that is much more forgiving. Uh, even in terms of their verbs, there's sort of a simple and a more

formal form of every verb. So you have "iku" and "ikimasu", but you can interchange them. So it doesn't really matter. You can sometimes... probably if you're going to interchange you, you err on the side of the slightly more formal, but you can say "iku", "ikimasu".

I never worry about it. I never spend a second thinking about whether "iku" or "ikimasu" is formal. You get caught up in the mood of the discussion. The, the, the sense of what's appropriate. It starts... you start to feel after a while, which word you should be using. You're hearing the people you're talking to use certain forms of the words so you're going to pick up on that.

The very formal, the very polite is more difficult. But you're not expected to use that until you reach a stage where using that becomes natural. That was my experience. I stuck with my "iku", "ikimasu" and at some point "mairimasu", "irashaimasu", whatever started to creep into my usage. These very formal, you know, when you're speaking to someone more senior to you or, and I wouldn't use the word, the forms for someone who is junior to me, I just wouldn't do that as a non-native speaker.

So to my mind, those are things that you evolve into. Uh, some people, um, you know, find it strange that the verb comes at the end, but again, through enough exposure, you get used to that. Uh, so there are less obvious to my mind, and I could be corrected or maybe people will come back at me, but, uh, there are few obvious grammatical mistakes that you can make.

A lot of the language is I wouldn't say vague, but you know, for example, verb tenses, you know, it's, it's you, if you say yesterday, today or tomorrow that determines the tense. So, uh, "ashita iku?" Are you going tomorrow? "Ashita iku?" "Ashita" is tomorrow. "Ashita iku?" "Ashita ikimasuka? " "Ikimasu" "Ikimasuka?" The "ka" is a sort of an interrogative at the end.

All of these things are flexible and you kind of get used to being around people who use the language of certain way and you sort of pick up on it. That's been my experience. Some people find the particles difficult. So by particle, I mean, in Japanese, you go, "watakushi" or "watashi" like when I lived in Japan, I used to always say "watakushi". Now apparently no one says that they say "watashi".

"I" "watashi". "watashi wa..." "watashi ga..."l... "watashi ga..." I have to admit, I don't really know the difference. And you know, I pray presumably in a conversation I'll tend to use one or the other for some reason. And I don't know a what, but it doesn't, you know, prevent proper communication in the language.

Uh, the particles, for example, that indicate, you know, you're going to the, you know, the direct object, so "kore wo..." like, this is the direct job, "anata ni..." so the, you have these sort of direction particles that determine the, the part of speech here. So, uh, you know, the "wo" makes it a direct object "ni" makes it an indirect, like to someone. "kara" is from someone.

And these show up after nouns, uh, and it helps to indicate who is doing what to whom. And you can read an explanation of it, but ultimately you have to get used to doing it. It's not tremendously complicated. There aren't an unlimited number of these particles. Similarly there are words, or at least,

uh, portions, uh, of verbs that attach to the end of verbs, uh, which imply meaning or purpose or reason or whatever, uh, you know, a conditional " iku nara" uh, " iku naraba". And there's often more than one way of saying things. And here again, it's... I find it's a very flexible forgiving language, which like with most languages, it's just a matter of putting in enough time.

So I can, well believe that Japanese takes more time to learn than say Spanish because the structure is very different. Uh Vocabulary, there's very little common vocabulary. There are lone words from English. Sometimes you don't even recognize them. Um, but it's just a matter of putting in the time. And, uh, so I do have,

uh, you know, I have lots of books that I bought in Japanese, including um Japanese sake, The Insider's Guide to Sake, same book in Japanese, but, uh, I bought a small Japanese grammar book, but I find reading through it I just get confused. uUh, I did by just a curiosity the Living Language, Japanese language course, but here again, it's all in Romaji in, in, uh, you know, the Latin alphabet.

And, um, lots of exercises. I didn't find that useful. I just think you have to start in, uh, using things like the mini stories at LingQ. Uh, simple stories. I used to read Naganuma and listened to it I believe. I can't remember. It's almost 50 years ago. Um, and just allow the language to come in you, come into you and occasionally look things up.

Certainly look words up. Uh, and that's how you, uh, you gradually get used to it. So it's not more difficult, but it can take longer. So basically that's what I wanted to say on, uh, uh, Japanese. And, uh, if you poke around here, uh, you can find a number of videos that I have made, uh, talking about Japanese, or speaking in Japanese,

if that is of interest to you. Just go and search here on my YouTube channel. Okay. That's what I wanted to say. Thank you for listening. Bye for now.


Is It Hard to Learn Japanese? 日本語を学ぶのは難しいですか?

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here and today, I want to talk about Japanese, learning Japanese. こんにちは、スティーブ・カウフマンです。今日は日本語について話し、日本語を学びたいと思います。 How hard is Japanese? Uh, remember if you enjoy these videos, please, uh, you know, subscribe, you can click on the bell here to get notifications. So you may be aware that the American Foreign Service Institute, ご存じかもしれませんが、アメリカ外務省は、

and I'm going to put a link to it here in the description box, has put out their evaluation of how difficult a different languages are based on, you know, how many hours of classroom instruction are required to achieve a certain level or fluency or whatever. ここの説明ボックスにリンクを入れて、特定のレベルまたは流暢さを達成するために必要な教室での指導に基づいて、さまざまな言語がどれほど難しいかについての評価を出しました。または何でも。 Uh, I think these, uh, these studies, these comparisons are definitely interesting. ええと、私はこれら、ええと、これらの研究、これらの比較は間違いなく興味深いと思います。

They have a lot of experience watching people in the classroom. 彼らは教室で人々を見ている多くの経験を持っています。 I always feel that what's more important than the classroom is the motivation of the learner. 教室よりも大切なのは、学習者のやる気だといつも感じています。 So, and very often this means what the learner does outside the classroom is more important than what the learner does in the classroom. したがって、これは、学習者が教室で行うことよりも、学習者が教室の外で行うことの方が重要であることを意味します。 So how difficult are these languages? では、これらの言語はどれほど難しいのでしょうか?

Obviously the number one factor is how motivated you are. 明らかに、一番の要因はあなたのモチベーションです。 Uh, also another objective fact is, the more language is different from your own the more difficult it's going to be. ええと、また別の客観的な事実は、言語があなたの言語と異なるほど、それは難しくなるということです。 You have to get used to new structures. 新しい構造に慣れる必要があります。 You have to acquire a lot of new vocabulary where there's relatively little connection to vocabulary that you have for your own, from your own language. 自分の言語から、自分の語彙とのつながりが比較的少ない新しい語彙をたくさん取得する必要があります。

But I would say that so Japanese is simply in terms of the vocabulary, the structure being very different from say English, if you're an English speaker, is going to be more difficult. でも、日本語は語彙が単純なので、英語を話す人にとっては、英語とは構造が大きく違うので、もっと難しいと思います。 However, there are a number of things that make Japanese easier, in my opinion. しかし、私の意見では、日本語を簡単にするものはたくさんあります。 Um, and you know, when I learned Japanese, I'll tell you I have here. ええと、私が日本語を学んだとき、私はここにいると言います。

I just went through my ..Japanese collection and I found, I mean, I have so many different dictionaries that I used because I was looking for dictionaries that were more convenient that were maybe based on a Romanized, uh, you know, look up system rather than basing it on Japanese, uh, alphabet or whatever. ..日本のコレクションを調べたところ、ローマ字に基づいた、もっと便利な辞書を探していたので、使用した辞書がたくさんあることがわかりました。日本語、ええと、アルファベットなどに基づくのではなく、システム。 And I mean, I did a lot of looking stuff up because I... Here's another one too. つまり、私はたくさんのことを調べました。なぜなら私は...これもまた別のものです。

I had to do so much reading. 私はたくさんの読書をしなければなりませんでした。 And in those days, you know, back in the early seventies, there wasn't quite as much listening material available. そして当時、ご存知のように、70年代の初めには、利用できるリスニング資料はそれほど多くありませんでした。 It was hard work. 大変でした。 Today with the internet accessing content on the internet, uh, using LingQ, for example, Where you can either use our mini stories, uh, where you can immediately look words up with an online dictionary. 今日、インターネットがインターネット上のコンテンツにアクセスしているので、たとえば、LingQを使用して、ミニストーリーを使用できます。オンライン辞書で単語をすぐに検索できます。

It is easier. それは容易です。 Now I will confess that with Asian languages or, I shouldn't say Asian languages, but specifically with Japanese and Chinese, we do have an issue because it's not obvious what constitutes a word. ここで、アジアの言語、またはアジアの言語を言うべきではないが、特に日本語と中国語では、単語を構成するものが明確でないため、問題があることを告白します。 Because if a number of symbols come together to form a word, so where do you split? なぜなら、いくつかの記号が集まって単語を形成する場合、どこで分割するのでしょうか。 Where is this... これはどこ...

the boundaries between words? 言葉の境界? So we rely on different algorithms and they're not perfect. そのため、さまざまなアルゴリズムに依存していますが、それらは完全ではありません。 Nevertheless, even though not perfect because as we often say, perfection is the, is the enemy of the good, right? それでも、私たちがよく言うように、完璧ではないのですが、完璧は善の敵ですよね? The perfect is the enemy of the good, it's still very effective. 完璧は善の敵であり、それでも非常に効果的です。 So it's easier to do than when I did, but だから前よりはやりやすいけど、

the, the immediate obstacles with Japanese are number one, there are three writing systems. 、日本語の差し迫った障害は一番です、3つの書記体系があります。 It's the only language I know of where there's more than one writing system in common use. これは、私が知っている唯一の言語であり、一般的に使用されている書記体系が複数あります。 So they have, first of all, the Chinese characters, which was the first writing system they had, and then they have the hiragana, which is basically, it began as a system of using Chinese characters to represent Japanese sounds. つまり、最初に漢字を使った最初の書記体系であり、次にひらがなを持っています。これは基本的に、漢字を使用して日本語の音を表現するシステムとして始まりました。

And apparently there were a variety of versions. そして、どうやらさまざまなバージョンがありました。 Different characters were used in different parts of the country to try and represent the sounds. 音を表現するために、国のさまざまな地域でさまざまなキャラクターが使用されました。 Because of course the Chinese character is a pictogram it represents meaning, but there is also sound attached to that character. もちろん漢字はピクトグラムなので意味を表しますが、その文字には音も付いています。 So that was initially used. そのため、最初はそれが使用されました。

And this evolved into hiragana, which is the most widely used phonetic script in Japanese. そして、これは、日本語で最も広く使用されている音声スクリプトであるひらがなに進化しました。 So You have the Kanji to Chinese characters, which are used, you have the hiragana, which is the most commonly used. つまり、漢字から漢字までが使用され、最も一般的に使用されるひらがながあります。 But then you also have Katakana, which parallels the hiragana and it's used for, uh, you know, sort of words that are just sort of sounds: crash, bang or for foreign words. しかし、ひらがなに似たカタカナもあります。これは、クラッシュ、バン、外国語など、単なる音のような単語に使用されます。

And personally, I found the Katakana very hard because you don't see much of it. 個人的には、カタカナはあまり見ないのでとても大変でした。 So remember in learning any new writing system, It's not whether that writing system is intrinsically hard or difficult, it's how long is it going to take for your brain to get used to that writing system? したがって、新しい書記体系を学ぶ際には、その書記体系が本質的に難しいか難しいかではなく、脳がその書記体系に慣れるのにどれくらいの時間がかかるかを覚えておいてください。 So if you know, in Japanese 90% of the words or more are written in hiragana , then you're doing most of your reading ですから、日本語では、単語の90%以上がひらがなで書かれているので、ほとんどの読書をしていることになります。

in hiragana and in Kanji, in Chinese characters, and you're not doing very much reading in Katakana. ひらがなと漢字、漢字で、カタカナで読むことはあまりありません。 So I always found the katakana a bit of a, you know, an obstacle. だから私はいつもカタカナがちょっとした障害だと思っていました。 But so, so the writing system is a problem. しかし、そうなると、書記体系が問題になります。 Uh, problem meaning you have to put the time in, you have to do... see everything boils down to rating and listening. ええと、問題はあなたが時間をかけなければならないことを意味します、あなたはしなければなりません...すべてが評価と聞くことに要約されるのを見てください。

The more you read and listen, and particularly read, the more you read, the more your brain gets used to that writing system, the easier it becomes. 読んだり聞いたり、特に読んだりすればするほど、脳がその文字体系に慣れ、より簡単になります。 So I began by doing a lot of reading in hiragana. それで、ひらがなでたくさん読むことから始めました。 Because I had Kanji from Chinese, I needed to get used to the hiragana. So I did a lot of reading in just hiragana. ひらがなだけでたくさん読んでみました。

There was a series that are called the Naganuma books, and I just read them all the time. 長沼本と呼ばれるシリーズがあり、ずっと読んでいました。 Stories about, you know, folktales from Japan. 日本の民話についての話。 Wasn't very interesting, but just to get my brain used to it. あまり面白くありませんでしたが、脳を慣れさせるためだけに。 All right. Several things make Japanese, first of all, more difficult, it's more difficult because it's structured differently. いくつかの理由で、まず第一に、日本語はより難しくなります。それは構造が異なるため、より難しくなります。

But it is easier in the sense that it's more forgiving. しかし、それはより寛容であるという意味でより簡単です。 And what I mean by that is like, I have no idea or very little idea of the sort of grammatical explanations of Japanese, because it's kind of... Japanese to me is like, you know, an old suit that you get used to wearing and after a while you feel comfortable in the suit because you wear it all the time. つまり、日本語の文法的な説明がわからない、またはほとんどわからないということです。なぜなら、それは一種の…私にとっての日本語は、あなたが慣れ親しんでいる古いスーツのようなものです。ずっと着ているので、着てしばらくすると着心地が良くなります。 It's not...

it, the rules are not like... it's harder. それ、ルールはそうではありません...それはより難しいです。 It's been like Chinese in that sense. そういう意味では中国人みたいです。 It's harder to really, there are a fewer things to trip you up. 本当に難しいです、あなたをつまずかせることが少ないです。 So when I think of a truly difficult language or languages, I think of languages where you have, you know, declensions and conjugations or you have gender. ですから、私が本当に難しい言語について考えるとき、私はあなたが持っている、あなたが知っている、曲用と活用、またはあなたが性別を持っている言語を思い浮かべます。 So if you use the wrong gender in French or Spanish, it's kind of a bit of a clanger, you hear that. ですから、フランス語やスペイン語で間違った性別を使用すると、それはちょっとした不器用なものだと聞きます。

Uh, if you use the wrong case endings, uh, I don't know. I'm not a native speaker, but certainly I'm quite sensitive, uh, in, in French to hearing someone use the wrong, uh, you know, gender. Although I do it myself, it's unavoidable. It's just impossible to go from a language where you don't have gender and then, 性別のない言語から行くのは不可能です。

you know, not make mistakes with nouns in languages where they have gender. 性別のある言語の名詞を間違えないでください。 But in Japanese, there's no gender for the nouns. There's not even singular and plural. So, you know, book is book. Book on the table. テーブルで予約します。 Uh, so to my mind that is much more forgiving. Uh, even in terms of their verbs, there's sort of a simple and a more

formal form of every verb. すべての動詞の正式な形式。 So you have "iku" and "ikimasu", but you can interchange them. So it doesn't really matter. You can sometimes... probably if you're going to interchange you, you err on the side of the slightly more formal, but you can say "iku", "ikimasu". あなたは時々...おそらくあなたがあなたを交換しようとしているなら、あなたはもう少しフォーマルな側で間違いを犯します、しかしあなたは「イク」、「イキマス」と言うことができます。

I never worry about it. 私はそれについて心配することはありません。 I never spend a second thinking about whether "iku" or "ikimasu" is  formal. 「いく」と「いきます」のどちらがフォーマルなのか、二度と考えません。 You get caught up in the mood of the discussion. あなたは議論のムードに巻き込まれます。 The, the, the sense of what's appropriate. 、、、何が適切かという感覚。 It starts... you start to feel after a while, which word you should be using. それが始まります...あなたはしばらくすると、どの単語を使うべきかを感じ始めます。 You're hearing the people you're talking to use certain forms of the words so you're going to pick up on that.

The very formal, the very polite is more difficult. But you're not expected to use that until you reach a stage where using that becomes natural. しかし、それを使用することが自然になる段階に達するまで、それを使用することは期待されていません。 That was my experience. I stuck with my "iku", "ikimasu" and at some point "mairimasu", "irashaimasu", whatever started to creep into my usage. 私は自分の「イク」、「イキマス」、そしてある時点で「マイリマス」、「イラシャイマス」に固執しました。 These very formal, you know, when you're speaking to someone more senior to you or, and I wouldn't use the word, the forms for someone who is junior to me, I just wouldn't do that as a non-native speaker. これらの非常にフォーマルなことは、あなたがあなたより年上の誰かと話しているとき、または私が後輩の誰かのためのフォームという言葉を使用しないとき、私はそれを非-としてはしません母語話者。

So to my mind, those are things that you evolve into. だから私の考えでは、それらはあなたが進化するものです。 Uh, some people, um, you know, find it strange that the verb comes at the end, but again, through enough exposure, you get used to that. ええと、何人かの人々、ええと、あなたが知っている、動詞が最後に来るのは奇妙だと思います、しかし再び、十分な露出を通して、あなたはそれに慣れます。 Uh, so there are less obvious to my mind, and I could be corrected or maybe people will come back at me, but, uh, there are few obvious grammatical mistakes that you can make. ええと、それで私の心にはあまり明白ではありません、そして私は訂正されるかもしれません、あるいは人々が私に戻ってくるかもしれません、しかし、ええと、あなたがすることができる明白な文法上の間違いはほとんどありません。

A lot of the language is I wouldn't say vague, but you know, for example, verb tenses, you know, it's, it's you, if you say yesterday, today or tomorrow that determines the tense. 多くの言語は曖昧とは言えませんが、たとえば、動詞の時制は、昨日、今日、または明日と言えば、時制を決定するのはあなたです。 So, uh, "ashita iku?" Are you going tomorrow? "Ashita iku?" "Ashita" is tomorrow. "Ashita iku?" "Ashita ikimasuka? "  "Ikimasu" "Ikimasuka?" The "ka" is a sort of an interrogative at the end. 「ka」は、最後に一種の質問です。

All of these things are flexible and you kind of get used to being around people who use the language of certain way and you sort of pick up on it. これらはすべて柔軟性があり、特定の方法で言語を使用する人々の周りにいることに慣れていて、それを理解しているようです。 That's been my experience. Some people find the particles difficult. 粒子が難しいと感じる人もいます。 So by particle, I mean, in Japanese, you go, "watakushi" or "watashi" like when I lived in Japan, I used to always say "watakushi". Now apparently no one says that they say "watashi". 今では「わたし」と言う人はいないようです。

"I" "watashi". "watashi wa..." "watashi ga..."l... "watashi ga..." I have to admit, I don't really know the difference. 「わたしは…」「わたしが…」l…「わたしが…」認めざるを得ないが、違いはよくわからない。 And you know, I pray presumably in a conversation I'll tend to use one or the other for some reason. Und weißt du, ich bete vermutlich in einem Gespräch, das ich aus irgendeinem Grund eher benutze. そして、あなたが知っている、私はおそらく会話の中で私が何らかの理由でどちらか一方を使用する傾向があることを祈っています。 And I don't know a what, but it doesn't, you know, prevent proper communication in the language. そして、私は何を知りませんが、それはあなたが知っている、言語での適切なコミュニケーションを妨げることはありません。

Uh, the particles, for example, that indicate, you know, you're going to the, you know, the direct object, so "kore wo..." like, this is the direct job, "anata ni..." so the, you have these sort of direction particles that determine the, the part of speech here. ええと、たとえば、助詞は、あなたが知っている、あなたが直接の目的語に行くことを示しているので、「これを...」のように、これは直接の仕事、「anata ni ... 「つまり、ここでの品詞を決定するこの種の方向粒子があります。 So, uh, you know, the "wo" makes it a direct object "ni" makes it an indirect, like to someone. だから、ええと、あなたが知っている、「wo」はそれを直接目的語にします「ni」はそれを誰かのように間接的にします。 "kara" is from someone.

And these show up after nouns, uh, and it helps to indicate who is doing what to whom. そして、これらは名詞の後に表示されます、ええと、それは誰が誰に何をしているのかを示すのに役立ちます。 And you can read an explanation of it, but ultimately you have to get used to doing it. It's not tremendously complicated. それほど複雑ではありません。 There aren't an unlimited number of these particles. これらの粒子の数に制限はありません。 Similarly there are words, or at least,

uh, portions, uh, of verbs that attach to the end of verbs, uh, which imply meaning or purpose or reason or whatever, uh, you know, a conditional " iku nara" uh, " iku naraba". And there's often more than one way of saying things. And here again, it's... I find it's a very flexible forgiving language, which like with most languages, it's just a matter of putting in enough time. そしてここでも、それは...非常に柔軟な寛容な言語であり、ほとんどの言語と同様に、十分な時間をかけるだけの問題だと思います。

So I can, well believe that Japanese takes more time to learn than say Spanish because the structure is very different. Uh Vocabulary, there's very little common vocabulary. ええと、語彙、一般的な語彙はほとんどありません。 There are lone words from English. 英語からの孤独な言葉があります。 Sometimes you don't even recognize them. 時々あなたはそれらを認識さえしません。 Um, but it's just a matter of putting in the time. ええと、でもそれは時間の問題です。 And, uh, so I do have,

uh, you know, I have lots of books that I bought in Japanese, including um Japanese sake, The Insider's Guide to Sake, same book in Japanese, but, uh, I bought a small Japanese grammar book, but I find reading through it I just get confused. ええと、私は日本語で買った本をたくさん持っています。たとえば、日本酒、酒のインサイダーガイド、同じ日本語の本ですが、ええと、私は小さな日本語の文法書を購入しましたが、それを読んでいます混乱します。 uUh, I did by just a curiosity the Living Language, Japanese language course, but here again, it's all in Romaji in, in, uh, you know, the Latin alphabet. ええと、私はただ好奇心で生きている言語、日本語のコースをやりました、しかしここでも、それはすべてローマ字で、ええと、あなたが知っている、ラテンアルファベットです。

And, um, lots of exercises. I didn't find that useful. I just think you have to start in, uh, using things like the mini stories at LingQ. Uh, simple stories. I used to read Naganuma and listened to it I believe. 私は長沼を読んで聞いていたと思います。 I can't remember. It's almost 50 years ago. Um, and just allow the language to come in you, come into you and occasionally look things up. ええと、そしてただ言語があなたの中に入るのを許して、あなたの中に来て、時々物事を調べてください。

Certainly look words up. 確かに言葉を調べなさい。 Uh, and that's how you, uh, you gradually get used to it. So it's not more difficult, but it can take longer. したがって、それほど難しくはありませんが、時間がかかる場合があります。 So basically that's what I wanted to say on, uh, uh, Japanese. だから基本的にそれは私が言いたかったことです、ええと、ええと、日本人。 And, uh, if you poke around here, uh, you can find a number of videos that I have made, uh, talking about Japanese, or speaking in Japanese,

if that is of interest to you. それがあなたに興味があるなら。 Just go and search here on my YouTube channel. Okay. That's what I wanted to say. Thank you for listening. Bye for now.