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Steve's Youtube Videos - General Language Learning, How to Study Effectively

How to Study Effectively

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here and, uh, today I want to talk about how to study effectively, not just how to learn languages, but how to study effectively. Remember if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe, click on the bell to get notifications. Uh, I, I'd like to do actually a series of four videos.

Uh, I'd like to talk about how to study effectively based on my experience in learning languages, what I've read about learning languages, what I've read about how the brain works, what I remember from when I was at school, uh, some of the things that I think language instruction does that is not successful in schools and why the same unsuccessful method is used to teach other subjects, causing a lot of frustration for people.

So, first of all, today, I'm simply going to talk about how to study effectively in general. And then in the second in the series, I hope to do a series of four actually, in the second series I'll talk about why I think language instruction in schools is not effective. Then in the third in the series, I want to talk about, you know, learning in a month or, you know, uh, how to learn quickly and all of the different hints and tips and hacks that are offered on the internet for how to learn languages quickly.

My views on these, and again, tying it all back to studying effectively in general. And then in the final one, I'm going to talk about learning a language from scratch. So again, applying the sort of principles of effective study to, uh, you know, learning a language from scratch. So, um, I'm not going to talk about specifically language learning or about LingQ.

People complain that I mention LingQ, although I love LingQ and that's where I learn languages. And what we do at LingQ in a sense as a reflection of my view of how we learn. Uh, but I'm going to talk about learning. And study... effective study in general. All right. First of all, the first thing I think we need to do to study effectively is to improve our reading skills.

If we aren't good readers, we need to become good readers to read faster, to get better at acquiring information through reading, because reading is very effective, very efficient. It enables us to access so much information, whether in, you know, a paper type of book, a traditional book or an ebook where we can, you know, look things up if we're on an iPad or on a computer.

Being careful to be, you know, to avoid the distractions granted. So reading is super powerful. Uh, also get used to listening. Uh, again, listening is something that we can do wherever we are. We can enjoy the voice of the person explaining. I find reading and listening more effective than video because with video, we are captive.

Video can be part of a study plan. It can be fun to watch video. It's sometimes possible to explain things via video in a way that we can't in a book. So I think you need a combination of all three. So when we talk about combining reading, listening, and video, We're talking about combining. And I think combining it's a big part of learning.

Um, I found that in learning languages, but not only in learning languages, in learning other subjects, I have to sort of get at the, whatever I was trying to learn using different approaches, different books, different resources. Don't just try to memorize the textbook. You, you have to try and force yourself to go out and find other resources that cover the same material.

Uh, and that's why we combine video with listening with audio, with, uh, with reading, because the brain, the way the brain works is the brain is not very good at sort of aceing something now, learning some specific bits of knowledge or facts, or even, uh, you know, some, a mathematical equation. These are things that we kind of learn them and there's, it's difficult for the brain.

You know, again, I'm not a neuroscientist, but. They go into the hippocampus and they don't stay there very long, but the strength of the brain is its ability to sort of start to identify patterns. And that's why we have to be patient and keep feeding the brain, you know, the same kind, you know, I've referred to it as grazing and interleaving, some of the same material interspersed with going off and doing something else and then coming back and reading about this or in some other format so that this combination learning, grazing learning is according to research, much more effective than trying to nail something down. And, uh, that's why it's, it's so counterproductive in the school system where they teach you something,

and now, because they've taught it to you, therefore they think you should be able to reproduce it or be tested on it. And of course you can't. So you only get six out of 10, which is frustrating. As a learner, we have to remember that however difficult something may seem, uh, whether it be a language or a concept in mathematics or in science or anything else,

in time, the brain will develop a pattern that enables us to grasp the concept better and better slowly. The emphasis is on slowly it and the Manfred Spitzer, whom I always quote, he says, you know, the brain can't do otherwise than learn. The brain will gradually learn, create patterns to deal with. All the stimulus and, and information that's coming at it. It'll drop some of the details, but it'll start forming a pattern. And when you have this pattern in your brain, it becomes easier then to remember some of the details, because you have a context, the brain has created this, this, uh, network of, of, uh, patterns that makes it then easier to learn. So it's very important not to be frustrated if we read this explanation five times and it still doesn't make sense, or we keep forgetting things.

And of course we get six out of 10 or three out of 10 on the test and we shouldn't allow ourselves to be discouraged. Of course the education system is set up that way. It's set up that way because for whatever reason, the people in charge of education feel that they have to test you at every step of the way to make sure you're learning something.

In reality, what was taught yesterday may not click in for another six months. So it's kind of meaningless to test us immediately on, on what's in our short term memory, for example, rather we should, you know, as teachers encourage learners to cover the same ground using different materials and we as learners should resist

this sort of sense of frustration that we can't understand, that we can't remember it, we can't do it, it doesn't make sense. We have to continue. And that's again, always, I go back to this idea of combining things, watch a video by all means, but then also if you can find... and in the case of science and math you have Khan Academy, which is tremendous, but you should have still at the same time, work on your reading, work on reading explanations of the same thing.

Again, without that sense of, you know, frustration or fear as you're not, still not able to remember or grasp at all, just keep going. It's slowly going to sock into place. Just the way languages slowly sock into place. And, you know, work on all the different aspects of your brain, including the emotional side of your brain.

So if you can listen to something that's pleasant, where you enjoy the voice, if you don't like listening to your professor, but if you can find some other audio, which is more interesting or where you enjoy the voice, listen to that, but you still have to go back and read or listen to what the professor had to say.

Cause you gotta, you gotta, you know, write the exam. And most professors like to have things come back to them the way they, they, uh, you know, taught it. But, so, so as, as, as a general principle in, in learning, I think all of the things that I say about language learning, when I think back, you know, when I did well in a subject it's because I got interested in the subject, I read up on it using different resources.

Um, and, and so, and the other thing too is as with language learning, of course, it's good to talk and exchange views about a subject that you're learning and to talk to the other people in the class and to talk to the teacher and so forth. But you have to have something in you before you can talk about the subject just as with language, you can't begin by speaking.

You have to begin by allowing your brain to get used to it. And that's where the reading and the listening primarily, and to some extent video is kind of the prerequisite. And once you've got some of those patterns in your brain, then yeah, the more you can talk about it and do experiments and do things and activate some of these things that you have brought into your brain, the better you're going to do it.

So that's sort of a general discussion on how to study effectively. Uh, the big message is to my mind is don't allow yourself to get frustrated, get hung up at your mistakes or perhaps your, your results on a test or things that you forget. Try to find a way to get interested in, in the subject. Uh, and that may mean that your textbook is boring.

Find some other materials. And graze around and cover the same ground in different ways. And I think that's an effective way to study.


How to Study Effectively How to Study Effectively

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here and, uh, today I want to talk about how to study effectively, not just how to learn languages, but how to study effectively. Olá, Steve Kaufmann aqui e, uh, hoje eu quero falar sobre como estudar efetivamente, não apenas como aprender línguas, mas como estudar efetivamente. Xin chào, Steve Kaufmann đây và, hôm nay tôi muốn nói về cách học hiệu quả, không chỉ là cách học ngôn ngữ mà còn là cách học hiệu quả. Remember if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe, click on the bell to get notifications. Pamatujte, že pokud se vám tato videa líbí, přihlaste se k odběru a kliknutím na zvonek dostanete upozornění. Lembre-se que se você gosta desses vídeos, por favor se inscreva, clique no sino para receber as notificações. Uh, I, I'd like to do actually a series of four videos. Eu gostaria de fazer uma série de quatro vídeos.

Uh, I'd like to talk about how to study effectively based on my experience in learning languages, what I've read about learning languages, what I've read about how the brain works, what I remember from when I was at school, uh, some of the things that I think language instruction does that is not successful in schools and why the same unsuccessful method is used to teach other subjects, causing a lot of frustration for people. Äh, ich würde gerne darüber sprechen, wie man effektiv lernt, basierend auf meiner Erfahrung beim Sprachenlernen, was ich über das Sprachenlernen gelesen habe, was ich darüber gelesen habe, wie das Gehirn funktioniert, woran ich mich aus meiner Schulzeit erinnere , äh, einige der Dinge, die meiner Meinung nach im Sprachunterricht in Schulen nicht erfolgreich sind, und warum die gleiche erfolglose Methode verwendet wird, um andere Fächer zu unterrichten, was bei den Menschen viel Frustration verursacht. Uh, eu gostaria de falar sobre como estudar efetivamente com base na minha experiência em aprendizagem de línguas, o que li sobre aprendizagem de línguas, o que li sobre como o cérebro funciona, o que me lembro de quando estava na escola , uh, algumas das coisas que eu acho que o ensino de idiomas faz que não tem sucesso nas escolas e porque o mesmo método malsucedido é usado para ensinar outras disciplinas, causando muita frustração para as pessoas.

So, first of all, today, I'm simply going to talk about how to study effectively in general. Takže za prvé, dnes budu jednoduše mluvit o tom, jak efektivně studovat obecně. Deshalb werde ich heute zunächst einfach darüber sprechen, wie man im Allgemeinen effektiv lernt. Então, antes de mais nada, hoje irei simplesmente falar sobre como estudar efetivamente em geral. And then in the second in the series, I hope to do a series of four actually, in the second series I'll talk about why I think language instruction in schools is not effective. E então, na segunda série, espero fazer uma série de quatro, na verdade, na segunda série vou falar sobre por que acho que o ensino de idiomas nas escolas não é eficaz. Then in the third in the series, I want to talk about, you know, learning in a month or, you know, uh, how to learn quickly and all of the different hints and tips and hacks that are offered on the internet for how to learn languages quickly. Então, no terceiro da série, eu quero falar sobre, você sabe, aprender em um mês ou, você sabe, uh, como aprender rapidamente e todas as diferentes dicas e truques que são oferecidos na internet para como para aprender idiomas rapidamente. Затем, в третьей части серии, я хочу поговорить о том, как научиться за месяц или, ну, о том, как научиться быстро, и обо всех различных советах, подсказках и лайфхаках, которые предлагаются в Интернете для того, как быстро выучить языки.

My views on these, and again, tying it all back to studying effectively in general. Můj názor na tyto věci a znovu to vše spojuji s efektivním studiem obecně. Meine Ansichten dazu, und noch einmal, binden alles zurück an effektives Lernen im Allgemeinen. Мои взгляды на это, и опять же, связывая все это с эффективной учебой в целом. And then in the final one, I'm going to talk about learning a language from scratch. A pak v té poslední budu mluvit o učení jazyka od nuly. Und dann werde ich im letzten über das Erlernen einer Sprache von Grund auf sprechen. So again, applying the sort of principles of effective study to, uh, you know, learning a language from scratch. Takže znovu, aplikování principů efektivního studia na, uh, víte, učení se jazyka od nuly. Also noch einmal, die Art von Prinzipien des effektiven Lernens anwenden, um eine Sprache von Grund auf zu lernen. Итак, еще раз, применяя своего рода принципы эффективного обучения к, ну, вы знаете, изучению языка с нуля. So, um, I'm not going to talk about specifically language learning or about LingQ. Takže, um, nebudu mluvit o výuce jazyků nebo o LingQ. だから、ええと、私は特に言語学習やLingQについて話すつもりはありません。

People complain that I mention LingQ, although  I love LingQ and that's  where I learn languages. Die Leute beschweren sich, dass ich LingQ erwähne, obwohl ich LingQ liebe und dort Sprachen lerne. 私はLingQが大好きで、そこで言語を学ぶのですが、人々は私がLingQについて言及していると不満を漏らしています。 Люди жалуются, что я упоминаю LingQ, хотя я люблю LingQ и именно на нем я изучаю языки. And what we do at LingQ in a sense as a reflection of my view of how we learn. A to, co děláme v LingQ, v jistém smyslu odráží můj pohled na to, jak se učíme. Und was wir bei LingQ tun, spiegelt in gewisser Weise meine Sichtweise darauf wider, wie wir lernen. そして、私たちがどのように学ぶかについての私の見解を反映したものとして、ある意味でLingQで私たちがしていること。 Uh, but I'm going to talk about learning. ええと、でも私は学習について話すつもりです。 And study... effective study in general. そして研究...一般的に効果的な研究。 All right. First of all, the first thing I think we need to do to study effectively is to improve our reading skills. Zunächst einmal denke ich, dass wir als Erstes unsere Lesefähigkeiten verbessern müssen, um effektiv zu lernen. まず第一に、効果的に勉強するために私たちがしなければならないと思う最初のことは、私たちの読解力を向上させることです。

If we aren't good readers, we need to become good readers to read faster, to get better at acquiring information through reading, because reading is very effective, very efficient. Wenn wir keine guten Leser sind, müssen wir gute Leser werden, um schneller zu lesen, um besser darin zu werden, Informationen durch Lesen zu erwerben, denn Lesen ist sehr effektiv, sehr effizient. 私たちが優れた読者でない場合、読書は非常に効果的で非常に効率的であるため、より速く読むために、読書を通じて情報をよりよく取得するために、優れた読者になる必要があります。 It enables us to access so much information, whether in, you know, a paper type of book, a traditional book or an ebook where we can, you know, look things up if we're on an iPad or on a computer. これにより、紙の本、伝統的な本、電子書籍など、niPadやコンピューターを使っているかどうかを調べることができる、非常に多くの情報にアクセスできます。

Being careful to be, you know, to avoid the distractions granted. Dávejte si pozor, abyste se vyhnuli rušivým vlivům. Seien Sie vorsichtig, wissen Sie, um die gewährten Ablenkungen zu vermeiden. 気を散らすものを避けるように注意してください。 Будьте осторожны, чтобы не отвлекаться. So reading is super powerful. したがって、読書は非常に強力です。 Uh, also get used to listening. Uh, také si zvykej poslouchat. ええと、聞くことにも慣れてください。 Uh, again, listening is something that we can do wherever we are. 繰り返しになりますが、聞くことは私たちがどこにいてもできることです。 We can enjoy the voice of the person explaining. Wir können die Stimme der erklärenden Person genießen. 説明する人の声が楽しめます。 I find reading and listening more effective than video because with video, we are captive. Čtení a poslouchání považuji za efektivnější než video, protože s videem jsme v zajetí. Ich finde Lesen und Zuhören effektiver als Video, weil wir mit Video gefangen sind.

Video can be part of a study plan. Video může být součástí studijního plánu. Video kann Teil eines Studienplans sein. It can be fun to watch video. It's sometimes possible to explain things via video in a way that we can't in a book. Někdy je možné vysvětlit věci prostřednictvím videa způsobem, který v knize nedokážeme. Es ist manchmal möglich, Dinge per Video auf eine Weise zu erklären, die wir in einem Buch nicht können. So I think you need a combination of all three. Ich denke also, Sie brauchen eine Kombination aus allen dreien. So when we talk about combining reading, listening, and video, We're talking about combining. Wenn wir also über das Kombinieren von Lesen, Hören und Video sprechen, sprechen wir über das Kombinieren. And I think combining it's a big part of learning.

Um, I found that in learning languages, but not only in learning languages, in learning other subjects, I have to sort of get at the, whatever I was trying to learn using different approaches, different books, different resources. Ähm, ich habe festgestellt, dass ich beim Sprachenlernen, aber nicht nur beim Sprachenlernen, sondern auch beim Lernen anderer Fächer irgendwie an das herankommen muss, was ich zu lernen versucht habe, indem ich verschiedene Ansätze, verschiedene Bücher, verschiedene Ressourcen verwende. Don't just try to memorize the textbook. Nesnažte se jen naučit učebnici nazpaměť. Versuchen Sie nicht nur, das Lehrbuch auswendig zu lernen. You, you have to try and force yourself to go out and find other resources that cover the same material. Vy, musíte se pokusit a přinutit se jít ven a najít jiné zdroje, které pokrývají stejný materiál.

Uh, and that's why we combine video with listening with audio, with, uh, with reading, because the brain, the way the brain works is the brain is not very good at sort of aceing something now, learning some specific bits of knowledge or facts, or even, uh, you know, some, a mathematical equation. Uh, und deshalb kombinieren wir Video mit Hören mit Audio, mit, äh, mit Lesen, denn das Gehirn, so wie das Gehirn funktioniert, ist das Gehirn ist nicht sehr gut darin, jetzt etwas zu meistern, bestimmte Wissenshäppchen zu lernen oder Fakten oder sogar, äh, Sie wissen schon, einige, eine mathematische Gleichung. Uh, en daarom combineren we video met luisteren met audio, met, uh, met lezen, want de hersenen, de manier waarop de hersenen werken, is dat de hersenen nu niet zo goed zijn in het leren van bepaalde stukjes kennis of feiten, of zelfs, je weet wel, wat, een wiskundige vergelijking. Э-э, и именно поэтому мы комбинируем видео с прослушиванием с аудио, с, э-э, с чтением, потому что мозг, то, как работает мозг, не очень хорош в том, чтобы сейчас что-то делать, изучая какие-то определенные знания или факты, или даже, эээ, знаете, какое-нибудь математическое уравнение. These are things that we kind of learn them and there's, it's difficult for the brain. To jsou věci, které se tak nějak učíme, a je to pro mozek těžké.

You know, again, I'm not a neuroscientist, but. Víte, opět nejsem neurovědec, ale. Weißt du noch einmal, ich bin kein Neurowissenschaftler, aber. They go into the hippocampus and they don't stay there very long, but the strength of the brain is its ability to sort of start to identify patterns. Sie gehen in den Hippocampus und bleiben dort nicht sehr lange, aber die Stärke des Gehirns ist seine Fähigkeit, Muster zu erkennen. Они попадают в гиппокамп и не задерживаются там надолго, но сила мозга заключается в его способности как бы начать выявлять закономерности. And that's why we have to be patient and keep feeding the brain, you know, the same kind, you know, I've referred to it as grazing and interleaving, some of the same material interspersed with going off and doing something else and then coming back and reading about this or in some other format so that this combination learning, grazing learning is according to research, much more effective than trying to nail something down. Und deshalb müssen wir geduldig sein und das Gehirn weiter füttern, weißt du, die gleiche Art, weißt du, ich habe es als Grasen und Verschachteln bezeichnet, einiges aus dem gleichen Material, unterbrochen davon, loszugehen und etwas anderes zu tun und dann Kommen Sie zurück und lesen Sie darüber oder in einem anderen Format, so dass diese Kombination aus Lernen und streifendem Lernen laut Forschung viel effektiver ist, als zu versuchen, etwas festzunageln. И именно поэтому мы должны быть терпеливы и продолжать кормить мозг, знаете, одним и тем же, знаете, я называл это пастбищем и чередованием, часть одного и того же материала перемежается с тем, чтобы уйти и сделать что-то еще, а затем возвращаться и читать об этом или в каком-то другом формате, так что, согласно исследованиям, это сочетание обучения и обучения на пастбище намного эффективнее, чем попытки что-то зафиксировать. And, uh, that's why it's, it's so counterproductive in the school system where they teach you something, Und, äh, deshalb ist es so kontraproduktiv im Schulsystem, wo sie dir etwas beibringen,

and now, because they've taught it to you, therefore they think you should be able to reproduce it or be tested on it. und jetzt, weil sie es dir beigebracht haben, denken sie, dass du in der Lage sein solltest, es zu reproduzieren oder darauf getestet zu werden. And of course you can't. Und natürlich kannst du das nicht. So you only get six out of 10, which is frustrating. Таким образом, вы получаете только шесть из 10, что расстраивает. As a learner, we have to remember that however difficult something may seem, uh, whether it be a language or a concept in mathematics or in science or anything else,

in time, the brain will develop a pattern that enables us to grasp the concept better and better slowly. The emphasis is on slowly it and the Manfred Spitzer, whom I always quote, he says, you know, the brain can't do otherwise than learn. Die Betonung liegt auf langsam und der Manfred Spitzer, den ich immer zitiere, sagt, wissen Sie, das Gehirn kann nicht anders als lernen. The brain will gradually learn, create patterns to deal with. Das Gehirn wird nach und nach lernen, Muster schaffen, mit denen es umgehen kann. All the stimulus and, and information that's coming at it. It'll drop some of the details, but it'll start forming a pattern. Es wird einige der Details verlieren, aber es wird anfangen, ein Muster zu bilden. Он потеряет некоторые детали, но начнет формировать узор. And when you have this pattern in your brain, it becomes easier then to remember some of the details, because you have a context, the brain has created this, this, uh, network of, of, uh, patterns that makes it then easier to learn. И когда у вас есть этот паттерн в вашем мозгу, становится легче запомнить некоторые детали, потому что у вас есть контекст, мозг создал эту, эту, э-э, сеть, э-э, паттернов, которые облегчают вам задачу. учиться. So it's very important not to be frustrated if we read this explanation five times and it still doesn't make sense, or we keep forgetting things.

And of course we get six out of 10 or three out of 10 on the test and we shouldn't allow ourselves to be discouraged. Of course the education system is set up that way. Natürlich ist das Bildungssystem so aufgebaut. It's set up that way because for whatever reason, the people in charge of education feel that they have to test you at every step of the way to make sure you're learning something.

In reality, what was taught yesterday may not click in for another six months. In Wirklichkeit funktioniert das, was gestern gelehrt wurde, möglicherweise erst in sechs Monaten. So it's kind of meaningless to test us immediately on, on what's in our short term memory, for example, rather we should, you know, as teachers encourage learners to cover the same ground using different materials and we as learners should resist Es ist also irgendwie bedeutungslos, uns sofort zu testen, zum Beispiel was in unserem Kurzzeitgedächtnis ist, vielmehr sollten wir, wissen Sie, als Lehrer die Lernenden ermutigen, denselben Boden mit unterschiedlichen Materialien abzudecken, und wir als Lernende sollten uns dagegen wehren

this sort of sense of frustration that we can't understand, that we can't remember it, we can't do it, it doesn't make sense. diese Art von Frustration, die wir nicht verstehen können, dass wir uns nicht daran erinnern können, dass wir es nicht tun können, dass es keinen Sinn ergibt. We have to continue. Wir müssen weitermachen. And that's again, always, I go back to this idea of combining things, watch a video by all means, but then also if you can find... and in the case of science and math you have Khan Academy, which is tremendous, but you should have still at the same time, work on your reading, work on reading explanations of the same thing.

Again, without that sense of, you know, frustration or fear as you're not, still not able to remember or grasp at all, just keep going. Опять же, без этого чувства, знаете ли, разочарования или страха, которого вы еще не в состоянии вспомнить или вообще понять, просто продолжайте идти. It's slowly going to sock into place. Es wird langsam einrasten. Het gaat langzaam op zijn plaats vallen. Потихоньку встанет на место. Just the way languages slowly sock into place. Точно так же языки медленно встают на свои места. And, you know, work on all the different aspects of your brain, including the emotional side of your brain.

So if you can listen to something that's pleasant, where you enjoy the voice, if you don't like listening to your professor, but if you can find some other audio, which is more interesting or where you enjoy the voice, listen to that, but you still have to go back and read or listen to what the professor had to say.

Cause you gotta, you gotta, you know, write the exam. And most professors like to have things come back to them the way they, they, uh, you know, taught it. Und die meisten Professoren möchten, dass die Dinge so zu ihnen zurückkommen, wie sie, äh, wissen Sie, sie es gelehrt haben. But, so, so as, as, as a general principle in, in learning, I think all of the things that I say about language learning, when I think back, you know, when I did well in a subject it's because I got interested in the subject, I read up on it using different resources.

Um, and, and so, and the other thing too is as with language learning, of course, it's good to talk and exchange views about a subject that you're learning and to talk to the other people in the class and to talk to the teacher and so forth. Хм, и, и так, и другое тоже, как и в случае с изучением языка, конечно, хорошо говорить и обмениваться мнениями о предмете, который вы изучаете, и разговаривать с другими людьми в классе, и разговаривать с учитель и так далее. But you have to have something in you before you can talk about the subject just as with language, you can't begin by speaking. Aber man muss etwas in sich haben, bevor man über das Thema sprechen kann, genauso wie bei der Sprache, man kann nicht mit dem Sprechen beginnen. Но вы должны иметь что-то внутри себя, прежде чем вы сможете говорить о предмете, как и в случае с языком, вы не можете начать с разговора.

You have to begin by allowing your brain to get used to it. And that's where the reading and the listening primarily, and to some extent video is kind of the prerequisite. Und da ist in erster Linie das Lesen und Zuhören, und in gewissem Maße ist Video die Voraussetzung. And once you've got some of those patterns in your brain, then yeah, the more you can talk about it and do experiments and do things and activate some of these things that you have brought into your brain, the better you're going to do it.

So that's sort of a general discussion on how to study effectively. Das ist also eine Art allgemeine Diskussion darüber, wie man effektiv lernt. Uh, the big message is to my mind is don't allow yourself to get frustrated, get hung up at your mistakes or perhaps your, your results on a test or things that you forget. Try to find a way to get interested in, in the subject. Uh, and that may mean that your textbook is boring. Uh, und das kann bedeuten, dass Ihr Lehrbuch langweilig ist.

Find some other materials. And graze around and cover the same ground in different ways. Und grasen herum und bedecken denselben Boden auf unterschiedliche Weise. And I think that's an effective way to study.