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Steve's Language Learning Tips, How to Study Effectively

How to Study Effectively

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here and, uh, today I want to talk about how to study effectively, not just how to learn languages, but how to study effectively. Remember if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe, click on the bell to get notifications. Uh, I, I'd like to do actually a series of four videos.

Uh, I'd like to talk about how to study effectively based on my experience in learning languages, what I've read about learning languages, what I've read about how the brain works, what I remember from when I was at school, uh, some of the things that I think language instruction does that is not successful in schools and why the same unsuccessful method is used to teach other subjects, causing a lot of frustration for people.

So, first of all, today, I'm simply going to talk about how to study effectively in general. And then in the second in the series, I hope to do a series of four actually, in the second series I'll talk about why I think language instruction in schools is not effective. Then in the third in the series, I want to talk about, you know, learning in a month or, you know, uh, how to learn quickly and all of the different hints and tips and hacks that are offered on the internet for how to learn languages quickly.

My views on these, and again, tying it all back to studying effectively in general. And then in the final one, I'm going to talk about learning a language from scratch. So again, applying the sort of principles of effective study to, uh, you know, learning a language from scratch. So, um, I'm not going to talk about specifically language learning or about LingQ.

People complain that I mention LingQ, although I love LingQ and that's where I learn languages. And what we do at LingQ in a sense as a reflection of my view of how we learn. Uh, but I'm going to talk about learning. And study... effective study in general. All right. First of all, the first thing I think we need to do to study effectively is to improve our reading skills.

If we aren't good readers, we need to become good readers to read faster, to get better at acquiring information through reading, because reading is very effective, very efficient. It enables us to access so much information, whether in, you know, a paper type of book, a traditional book or an ebook where we can, you know, look things up if we're on an iPad or on a computer.

Being careful to be, you know, to avoid the distractions granted. So reading is super powerful. Uh, also get used to listening. Uh, again, listening is something that we can do wherever we are. We can enjoy the voice of the person explaining. I find reading and listening more effective than video because with video, we are captive.

Video can be part of a study plan. It can be fun to watch video. It's sometimes possible to explain things via video in a way that we can't in a book. So I think you need a combination of all three. So when we talk about combining reading, listening, and video, We're talking about combining. And I think combining it's a big part of learning.

Um, I found that in learning languages, but not only in learning languages, in learning other subjects, I have to sort of get at the, whatever I was trying to learn using different approaches, different books, different resources. Don't just try to memorize the textbook. You, you have to try and force yourself to go out and find other resources that cover the same material.

Uh, and that's why we combine video with listening with audio, with, uh, with reading, because the brain, the way the brain works is the brain is not very good at sort of aceing something now, learning some specific bits of knowledge or facts, or even, uh, you know, some, a mathematical equation. These are things that we kind of learn them and there's, it's difficult for the brain.

You know, again, I'm not a neuroscientist, but. They go into the hippocampus and they don't stay there very long, but the strength of the brain is its ability to sort of start to identify patterns. And that's why we have to be patient and keep feeding the brain, you know, the same kind, you know, I've referred to it as grazing and interleaving, some of the same material interspersed with going off and doing something else and then coming back and reading about this or in some other format so that this combination learning, grazing learning is according to research, much more effective than trying to nail something down. And, uh, that's why it's, it's so counterproductive in the school system where they teach you something,

and now, because they've taught it to you, therefore they think you should be able to reproduce it or be tested on it. And of course you can't. So you only get six out of 10, which is frustrating. As a learner, we have to remember that however difficult something may seem, uh, whether it be a language or a concept in mathematics or in science or anything else,

in time, the brain will develop a pattern that enables us to grasp the concept better and better slowly. The emphasis is on slowly it and the Manfred Spitzer, whom I always quote, he says, you know, the brain can't do otherwise than learn. The brain will gradually learn, create patterns to deal with. All the stimulus and, and information that's coming at it. It'll drop some of the details, but it'll start forming a pattern. And when you have this pattern in your brain, it becomes easier then to remember some of the details, because you have a context, the brain has created this, this, uh, network of, of, uh, patterns that makes it then easier to learn. So it's very important not to be frustrated if we read this explanation five times and it still doesn't make sense, or we keep forgetting things.

And of course we get six out of 10 or three out of 10 on the test and we shouldn't allow ourselves to be discouraged. Of course the education system is set up that way. It's set up that way because for whatever reason, the people in charge of education feel that they have to test you at every step of the way to make sure you're learning something.

In reality, what was taught yesterday may not click in for another six months. So it's kind of meaningless to test us immediately on, on what's in our short term memory, for example, rather we should, you know, as teachers encourage learners to cover the same ground using different materials and we as learners should resist

this sort of sense of frustration that we can't understand, that we can't remember it, we can't do it, it doesn't make sense. We have to continue. And that's again, always, I go back to this idea of combining things, watch a video by all means, but then also if you can find... and in the case of science and math you have Khan Academy, which is tremendous, but you should have still at the same time, work on your reading, work on reading explanations of the same thing.

Again, without that sense of, you know, frustration or fear as you're not, still not able to remember or grasp at all, just keep going. It's slowly going to sock into place. Just the way languages slowly sock into place. And, you know, work on all the different aspects of your brain, including the emotional side of your brain.

So if you can listen to something that's pleasant, where you enjoy the voice, if you don't like listening to your professor, but if you can find some other audio, which is more interesting or where you enjoy the voice, listen to that, but you still have to go back and read or listen to what the professor had to say.

Cause you gotta, you gotta, you know, write the exam. And most professors like to have things come back to them the way they, they, uh, you know, taught it. But, so, so as, as, as a general principle in, in learning, I think all of the things that I say about language learning, when I think back, you know, when I did well in a subject it's because I got interested in the subject, I read up on it using different resources.

Um, and, and so, and the other thing too is as with language learning, of course, it's good to talk and exchange views about a subject that you're learning and to talk to the other people in the class and to talk to the teacher and so forth. But you have to have something in you before you can talk about the subject just as with language, you can't begin by speaking.

You have to begin by allowing your brain to get used to it. And that's where the reading and the listening primarily, and to some extent video is kind of the prerequisite. And once you've got some of those patterns in your brain, then yeah, the more you can talk about it and do experiments and do things and activate some of these things that you have brought into your brain, the better you're going to do it.

So that's sort of a general discussion on how to study effectively. Uh, the big message is to my mind is don't allow yourself to get frustrated, get hung up at your mistakes or perhaps your, your results on a test or things that you forget. Try to find a way to get interested in, in the subject. Uh, and that may mean that your textbook is boring.

Find some other materials. And graze around and cover the same ground in different ways. And I think that's an effective way to study.

How to Study Effectively Wie man effektiv studiert How to Study Effectively Cómo estudiar eficazmente Comment étudier efficacement Come studiare in modo efficace 効果的な勉強の仕方 효과적으로 공부하는 방법 Jak uczyć się efektywnie Como estudar eficazmente Как эффективно учиться Hur man studerar effektivt Nasıl Etkili Çalışılır Як ефективно навчатися 如何有效学习 如何有效地學習

Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here and, uh, today I want to talk about how to study effectively, not just how to learn languages, but how to study effectively. Olá, Steve Kaufmann aqui e, uh, hoje eu quero falar sobre como estudar efetivamente, não apenas como aprender línguas, mas como estudar efetivamente. Xin chào, Steve Kaufmann đây và, hôm nay tôi muốn nói về cách học hiệu quả, không chỉ là cách học ngôn ngữ mà còn là cách học hiệu quả. Remember if you enjoy these videos, please subscribe, click on the bell to get notifications. Pamatujte, že pokud se vám tato videa líbí, přihlaste se k odběru a kliknutím na zvonek dostanete upozornění. Lembre-se que se você gosta desses vídeos, por favor se inscreva, clique no sino para receber as notificações. Hãy nhớ nếu bạn thích những video này, vui lòng đăng ký, nhấp vào chuông để nhận thông báo. Uh, I, I'd like to do actually a series of four videos. Eu gostaria de fazer uma série de quatro vídeos. Uh, tôi, tôi thực sự muốn làm một loạt bốn video.

Uh, I'd like to talk about how to study effectively based on my experience in learning languages, what I've read about learning languages, what I've read about how the brain works, what I remember from when I was at school, uh, some of the things that I think language instruction does that is not successful in schools and why the same unsuccessful method is used to teach other subjects, causing a lot of frustration for people. Äh, ich würde gerne darüber sprechen, wie man effektiv lernt, basierend auf meiner Erfahrung beim Sprachenlernen, was ich über das Sprachenlernen gelesen habe, was ich darüber gelesen habe, wie das Gehirn funktioniert, woran ich mich aus meiner Schulzeit erinnere , äh, einige der Dinge, die meiner Meinung nach im Sprachunterricht in Schulen nicht erfolgreich sind, und warum die gleiche erfolglose Methode verwendet wird, um andere Fächer zu unterrichten, was bei den Menschen viel Frustration verursacht. 私の語学学習の経験、語学学習について読んだ本、脳の働きについて読んだ本、学生時代の記憶、語学教育が学校でうまくいっていないと思うこと、そしてなぜ同じようなうまくいかない方法が他の教科の教育に使われ、人々に多くのフラストレーションを与えているのかについて、効果的な勉強法についてお話したいと思います。 Uh, eu gostaria de falar sobre como estudar efetivamente com base na minha experiência em aprendizagem de línguas, o que li sobre aprendizagem de línguas, o que li sobre como o cérebro funciona, o que me lembro de quando estava na escola , uh, algumas das coisas que eu acho que o ensino de idiomas faz que não tem sucesso nas escolas e porque o mesmo método malsucedido é usado para ensinar outras disciplinas, causando muita frustração para as pessoas.

So, first of all, today, I'm simply going to talk about how to study effectively in general. Takže za prvé, dnes budu jednoduše mluvit o tom, jak efektivně studovat obecně. Deshalb werde ich heute zunächst einfach darüber sprechen, wie man im Allgemeinen effektiv lernt. というわけで、今日はまず、一般的な効果的な勉強法について簡単にお話しします。 Então, antes de mais nada, hoje irei simplesmente falar sobre como estudar efetivamente em geral. And then in the second in the series, I hope to do a series of four actually, in the second series I'll talk about why I think language instruction in schools is not effective. E então, na segunda série, espero fazer uma série de quatro, na verdade, na segunda série vou falar sobre por que acho que o ensino de idiomas nas escolas não é eficaz. Và sau đó trong loạt bài thứ hai, tôi hy vọng sẽ thực hiện một loạt bốn bài, trong loạt bài thứ hai, tôi sẽ nói về lý do tại sao tôi nghĩ rằng việc giảng dạy ngôn ngữ trong trường học là không hiệu quả. Then in the third in the series, I want to talk about, you know, learning in a month or, you know, uh, how to learn quickly and all of the different hints and tips and hacks that are offered on the internet for how to learn languages quickly. Im dritten Teil der Serie möchte ich dann darüber sprechen, wie man in einem Monat lernt oder wie man schnell lernt, und über all die verschiedenen Hinweise, Tipps und Tricks, die im Internet angeboten werden, um Sprachen schnell zu lernen. そしてシリーズ3回目は、1ヶ月で習得する方法や、早く習得する方法、そしてインターネット上で提供されている、言語を早く習得するための様々なヒントやコツ、ハックについてお話したいと思います。 Então, no terceiro da série, eu quero falar sobre, você sabe, aprender em um mês ou, você sabe, uh, como aprender rapidamente e todas as diferentes dicas e truques que são oferecidos na internet para como para aprender idiomas rapidamente. Затем, в третьей части серии, я хочу поговорить о том, как научиться за месяц или, ну, о том, как научиться быстро, и обо всех различных советах, подсказках и лайфхаках, которые предлагаются в Интернете для того, как быстро выучить языки.

My views on these, and again, tying it all back to studying effectively in general. Můj názor na tyto věci a znovu to vše spojuji s efektivním studiem obecně. Meine Ansichten dazu, und noch einmal, binden alles zurück an effektives Lernen im Allgemeinen. Mi opinión al respecto y, de nuevo, en relación con la eficacia de los estudios en general. これらについての私の見解、そしてまた、一般的な効果的な勉強に結びつけたい。 Os meus pontos de vista sobre estas questões e, mais uma vez, ligando tudo isto ao estudo eficaz em geral. Мои взгляды на это, и опять же, связывая все это с эффективной учебой в целом. And then in the final one, I'm going to talk about learning a language from scratch. A pak v té poslední budu mluvit o učení jazyka od nuly. Und dann werde ich im letzten über das Erlernen einer Sprache von Grund auf sprechen. Y en la última, hablaré sobre cómo aprender un idioma desde cero. E poi, nell'ultima, parlerò dell'apprendimento di una lingua da zero. E, no último, vou falar sobre a aprendizagem de uma língua a partir do zero. Và trong phần cuối cùng, tôi sẽ nói về việc học một ngôn ngữ từ đầu. So again, applying the sort of principles of effective study to, uh, you know, learning a language from scratch. Takže znovu, aplikování principů efektivního studia na, uh, víte, učení se jazyka od nuly. Also noch einmal, die Art von Prinzipien des effektiven Lernens anwenden, um eine Sprache von Grund auf zu lernen. Así que, de nuevo, aplicando el tipo de principios del estudio eficaz a, ya sabes, aprender un idioma desde cero. つまり、効果的な学習の原則のようなものを、ゼロから言語を学ぶことに応用するのだ。 Итак, еще раз, применяя своего рода принципы эффективного обучения к, ну, вы знаете, изучению языка с нуля. Vì vậy, một lần nữa, việc áp dụng các nguyên tắc học tập hiệu quả để, uh, bạn biết đấy, học một ngôn ngữ từ đầu. So, um, I'm not going to talk about specifically language learning or about LingQ. Takže, um, nebudu mluvit o výuce jazyků nebo o LingQ. だから、ええと、私は特に言語学習やLingQについて話すつもりはありません。 Por isso, não vou falar especificamente da aprendizagem de línguas ou do LingQ.

People complain that I mention LingQ, although  I love LingQ and that's  where I learn languages. Die Leute beschweren sich, dass ich LingQ erwähne, obwohl ich LingQ liebe und dort Sprachen lerne. 私はLingQが大好きで、そこで言語を学ぶのですが、人々は私がLingQについて言及していると不満を漏らしています。 Люди жалуются, что я упоминаю LingQ, хотя я люблю LingQ и именно на нем я изучаю языки. Люди скаржаться, що я згадую LingQ, хоча я люблю LingQ і саме там я вивчаю мови. Mọi người phàn nàn rằng tôi đề cập đến LingQ, mặc dù tôi yêu LingQ và đó là nơi tôi học ngôn ngữ. And what we do at LingQ in a sense as a reflection of my view of how we learn. A to, co děláme v LingQ, v jistém smyslu odráží můj pohled na to, jak se učíme. Und was wir bei LingQ tun, spiegelt in gewisser Weise meine Sichtweise darauf wider, wie wir lernen. そして、私たちがどのように学ぶかについての私の見解を反映したものとして、ある意味でLingQで私たちがしていること。 E o que fazemos no LingQ é, de certa forma, um reflexo da minha visão de como aprendemos. І те, що ми робимо в LingQ, в певному сенсі є відображенням мого погляду на те, як ми вчимося. Và những gì chúng tôi làm tại LingQ theo một nghĩa nào đó phản ánh quan điểm của tôi về cách chúng tôi học. Uh, but I'm going to talk about learning. Aber ich werde über das Lernen sprechen. ええと、でも私は学習について話すつもりです。 And study... effective study in general. Und Lernen... effektives Lernen im Allgemeinen. そして研究...一般的に効果的な研究。 All right. Được rồi. First of all, the first thing I think we need to do to study effectively is to improve our reading skills. Zunächst einmal denke ich, dass wir als Erstes unsere Lesefähigkeiten verbessern müssen, um effektiv zu lernen. まず第一に、効果的に勉強するために私たちがしなければならないと思う最初のことは、私たちの読解力を向上させることです。 Em primeiro lugar, a primeira coisa que penso que precisamos de fazer para estudar eficazmente é melhorar as nossas capacidades de leitura.

If we aren't good readers, we need to become good readers to read faster, to get better at acquiring information through reading, because reading is very effective, very efficient. Wenn wir keine guten Leser sind, müssen wir gute Leser werden, um schneller zu lesen, um besser darin zu werden, Informationen durch Lesen zu erwerben, denn Lesen ist sehr effektiv, sehr effizient. 私たちが優れた読者でない場合、読書は非常に効果的で非常に効率的であるため、より速く読むために、読書を通じて情報をよりよく取得するために、優れた読者になる必要があります。 Se não somos bons leitores, temos de nos tornar bons leitores para lermos mais depressa, para adquirirmos melhor a informação através da leitura, porque a leitura é muito eficaz, muito eficiente. Nếu chúng ta không phải là những người đọc giỏi, chúng ta cần trở thành những người đọc giỏi để đọc nhanh hơn, để tiếp thu thông tin tốt hơn thông qua việc đọc, bởi vì việc đọc rất hiệu quả, rất hiệu quả. It enables us to access so much information, whether in, you know, a paper type of book, a traditional book or an ebook where we can, you know, look things up if we're on an iPad or on a computer. Nos permite acceder a mucha información, ya sea en un libro de papel, en un libro tradicional o en un libro electrónico en el que podemos buscar información en un iPad o en un ordenador. これにより、紙の本、伝統的な本、電子書籍など、niPadやコンピューターを使っているかどうかを調べることができる、非常に多くの情報にアクセスできます。 Permite-nos aceder a tanta informação, seja num livro em papel, num livro tradicional ou num livro eletrónico, onde podemos consultar as informações se estivermos num iPad ou num computador. Nó cho phép chúng tôi truy cập rất nhiều thông tin, cho dù ở dạng sách giấy, sách truyền thống hay sách điện tử, nơi chúng tôi có thể, bạn biết đấy, tra cứu mọi thứ nếu chúng tôi đang sử dụng iPad hoặc trên máy tính.

Being careful to be, you know, to avoid the distractions granted. Dávejte si pozor, abyste se vyhnuli rušivým vlivům. Seien Sie vorsichtig, wissen Sie, um die gewährten Ablenkungen zu vermeiden. Teniendo cuidado de ser, ya sabes, para evitar las distracciones concedidas. Facendo attenzione ad essere, si sa, ad evitare le distrazioni concesse. 気を散らすものを避けるように注意してください。 Ter o cuidado de evitar as distracções concedidas. Будьте осторожны, чтобы не отвлекаться. So reading is super powerful. したがって、読書は非常に強力です。 Por isso, a leitura é super poderosa. Uh, also get used to listening. Uh, také si zvykej poslouchat. ええと、聞くことにも慣れてください。 Habituem-se também a ouvir. Uh, again, listening is something that we can do wherever we are. 繰り返しになりますが、聞くことは私たちがどこにいてもできることです。 Mais uma vez, ouvir é algo que podemos fazer onde quer que estejamos. We can enjoy the voice of the person explaining. Wir können die Stimme der erklärenden Person genießen. 説明する人の声が楽しめます。 Podemos apreciar a voz da pessoa que está a explicar. I find reading and listening more effective than video because with video, we are captive. Čtení a poslouchání považuji za efektivnější než video, protože s videem jsme v zajetí. Ich finde Lesen und Zuhören effektiver als Video, weil wir mit Video gefangen sind. Me parece que leer y escuchar es más eficaz que el vídeo porque con el vídeo estamos cautivos. Considero a leitura e a audição mais eficazes do que o vídeo porque, com o vídeo, estamos cativos.

Video can be part of a study plan. Video může být součástí studijního plánu. Video kann Teil eines Studienplans sein. ビデオは学習計画の一部になり得る。 O vídeo pode fazer parte de um plano de estudo. It can be fun to watch video. ビデオを見るのは楽しいものだ。 Pode ser divertido ver vídeos. It's sometimes possible to explain things via video in a way that we can't in a book. Někdy je možné vysvětlit věci prostřednictvím videa způsobem, který v knize nedokážeme. Es ist manchmal möglich, Dinge per Video auf eine Weise zu erklären, die wir in einem Buch nicht können. 本では説明できないようなことをビデオで説明できることもある。 Por vezes, é possível explicar as coisas através de vídeo de uma forma que não é possível num livro. So I think you need a combination of all three. Ich denke also, Sie brauchen eine Kombination aus allen dreien. Por isso, penso que é necessária uma combinação dos três. So when we talk about combining reading, listening, and video, We're talking about combining. Wenn wir also über das Kombinieren von Lesen, Hören und Video sprechen, sprechen wir über das Kombinieren. だから、リーディング、リスニング、ビデオを組み合わせるというのは、"組み合わせる "ということなんだ。 Por isso, quando falamos em combinar leitura, audição e vídeo, estamos a falar em combinar. And I think combining it's a big part of learning. そして、それを組み合わせることが学習の大きな部分だと思う。

Um, I found that in learning languages, but not only in learning languages, in learning other subjects, I have to sort of get at the, whatever I was trying to learn using different approaches, different books, different resources. Ähm, ich habe festgestellt, dass ich beim Sprachenlernen, aber nicht nur beim Sprachenlernen, sondern auch beim Lernen anderer Fächer irgendwie an das herankommen muss, was ich zu lernen versucht habe, indem ich verschiedene Ansätze, verschiedene Bücher, verschiedene Ressourcen verwende. 語学の学習だけでなく、他の教科の学習においても、異なるアプローチ、異なる本、異なるリソースを使って、学ぼうとしていることに気づきました。 Descobri que na aprendizagem de línguas, mas não só na aprendizagem de línguas, na aprendizagem de outras matérias, tenho de chegar ao que estou a tentar aprender utilizando diferentes abordagens, diferentes livros, diferentes recursos. Don't just try to memorize the textbook. Nesnažte se jen naučit učebnici nazpaměť. Versuchen Sie nicht nur, das Lehrbuch auswendig zu lernen. 教科書を丸暗記しようとするだけではいけない。 You, you have to try and force yourself to go out and find other resources that cover the same material. Vy, musíte se pokusit a přinutit se jít ven a najít jiné zdroje, které pokrývají stejný materiál. Tienes que tratar de forzarte a salir y encontrar otros recursos que cubran el mismo material. 同じ内容を扱っている他のリソースを無理矢理にでも見つけようとするんだ。 Temos de tentar forçar-nos a procurar outros recursos que cubram a mesma matéria.

Uh, and that's why we combine video with listening with audio, with, uh, with reading, because the brain, the way the brain works is the brain is not very good at sort of aceing something now, learning some specific bits of knowledge or facts, or even, uh, you know, some, a mathematical equation. Uh, und deshalb kombinieren wir Video mit Hören mit Audio, mit, äh, mit Lesen, denn das Gehirn, so wie das Gehirn funktioniert, ist das Gehirn ist nicht sehr gut darin, jetzt etwas zu meistern, bestimmte Wissenshäppchen zu lernen oder Fakten oder sogar, äh, Sie wissen schon, einige, eine mathematische Gleichung. Por eso combinamos el vídeo con la audición, con el audio, con la lectura, porque el cerebro, tal y como funciona, no es muy bueno para aprender algo, para aprender conocimientos específicos o hechos, o incluso una ecuación matemática. Ecco perché combiniamo il video con l'ascolto e l'audio, con la lettura, perché il cervello, il modo in cui funziona il cervello, non è molto bravo a imparare qualcosa, ad apprendere alcune conoscenze o fatti specifici, o anche, sai, alcune equazioni matematiche. 脳は、脳の働きとして、特定の知識や事実を学んだり、数学の方程式を学んだりすることは苦手なんだ。 Uh, en daarom combineren we video met luisteren met audio, met, uh, met lezen, want de hersenen, de manier waarop de hersenen werken, is dat de hersenen nu niet zo goed zijn in het leren van bepaalde stukjes kennis of feiten, of zelfs, je weet wel, wat, een wiskundige vergelijking. E é por isso que combinamos o vídeo com a audição, com o áudio, com a leitura, porque o cérebro, a forma como o cérebro funciona é que o cérebro não é muito bom a dominar algo, a aprender alguns conhecimentos ou factos específicos, ou mesmo uma equação matemática. Э-э, и именно поэтому мы комбинируем видео с прослушиванием с аудио, с, э-э, с чтением, потому что мозг, то, как работает мозг, не очень хорош в том, чтобы сейчас что-то делать, изучая какие-то определенные знания или факты, или даже, эээ, знаете, какое-нибудь математическое уравнение. These are things that we kind of learn them and there's, it's difficult for the brain. To jsou věci, které se tak nějak učíme, a je to pro mozek těžké. Queste sono cose che in un certo senso le impariamo e c'è, è difficile per il cervello. 脳にとっては難しいことなんだ。

You know, again, I'm not a neuroscientist, but. Víte, opět nejsem neurovědec, ale. Weißt du noch einmal, ich bin kein Neurowissenschaftler, aber. Mais uma vez, não sou neurocientista, mas... They go into the hippocampus and they don't stay there very long, but the strength of the brain is its ability to sort of start to identify patterns. Sie gehen in den Hippocampus und bleiben dort nicht sehr lange, aber die Stärke des Gehirns ist seine Fähigkeit, Muster zu erkennen. しかし、脳の強みはパターンを識別する能力だ。 Vão para o hipocampo e não ficam lá muito tempo, mas a força do cérebro é a sua capacidade de começar a identificar padrões. Они попадают в гиппокамп и не задерживаются там надолго, но сила мозга заключается в его способности как бы начать выявлять закономерности. And that's why we have to be patient and keep feeding the brain, you know, the same kind, you know, I've referred to it as grazing and interleaving, some of the same material interspersed with going off and doing something else and then coming back and reading about this or in some other format so that this combination learning, grazing learning is according to research, much more effective than trying to nail something down. Und deshalb müssen wir geduldig sein und das Gehirn weiter füttern, weißt du, die gleiche Art, weißt du, ich habe es als Grasen und Verschachteln bezeichnet, einiges aus dem gleichen Material, unterbrochen davon, loszugehen und etwas anderes zu tun und dann Kommen Sie zurück und lesen Sie darüber oder in einem anderen Format, so dass diese Kombination aus Lernen und streifendem Lernen laut Forschung viel effektiver ist, als zu versuchen, etwas festzunageln. Por eso tenemos que ser pacientes y seguir alimentando el cerebro con el mismo tipo de aprendizaje, al que me he referido como "pastoreo" e "intercalado", un poco del mismo material intercalado con salir y hacer otra cosa y luego volver y leer sobre esto o en algún otro formato, de modo que este aprendizaje combinado, el aprendizaje por pastoreo, es, según las investigaciones, mucho más eficaz que intentar clavar algo. Ed è per questo che dobbiamo essere pazienti e continuare a nutrire il cervello, sai, lo stesso tipo, sai, l'ho chiamato pascolo e interlacciamento, parte dello stesso materiale inframmezzato da andare via e fare qualcos'altro e poi tornare indietro e leggere su questo o in qualche altro formato in modo che questa combinazione di apprendimento, apprendimento al pascolo sia secondo la ricerca, molto più efficace che cercare di inchiodare qualcosa. だから私たちは忍耐強く、脳に同じようなものを与え続けなければならないのだ。私はそれを「放牧」や「インターリーブ」と呼んでいる。 E é por isso que temos de ser pacientes e continuar a alimentar o cérebro com o mesmo tipo de material, a que já me referi como "pastoreio" e "intercalação", com algum do mesmo material intercalado com a possibilidade de ir fazer outra coisa e depois voltar e ler sobre isto ou noutro formato, de modo a que esta combinação de aprendizagem, a aprendizagem "pastoreio", seja, de acordo com a investigação, muito mais eficaz do que tentar fixar algo. И именно поэтому мы должны быть терпеливы и продолжать кормить мозг, знаете, одним и тем же, знаете, я называл это пастбищем и чередованием, часть одного и того же материала перемежается с тем, чтобы уйти и сделать что-то еще, а затем возвращаться и читать об этом или в каком-то другом формате, так что, согласно исследованиям, это сочетание обучения и обучения на пастбище намного эффективнее, чем попытки что-то зафиксировать. And, uh, that's why it's, it's so counterproductive in the school system where they teach you something, Und, äh, deshalb ist es so kontraproduktiv im Schulsystem, wo sie dir etwas beibringen,

and now, because they've taught it to you, therefore they think you should be able to reproduce it or be tested on it. und jetzt, weil sie es dir beigebracht haben, denken sie, dass du in der Lage sein solltest, es zu reproduzieren oder darauf getestet zu werden. y ahora, como te lo han enseñado, creen que debes ser capaz de reproducirlo o de someterte a pruebas. そして今、彼らはあなたにそれを教えたのだから、あなたはそれを再現したり、テストされたりするべきだと考えている。 And of course you can't. Und natürlich kannst du das nicht. もちろん、そんなことはできない。 E é claro que não pode. So you only get six out of 10, which is frustrating. Assim, só se consegue seis em 10, o que é frustrante. Таким образом, вы получаете только шесть из 10, что расстраивает. As a learner, we have to remember that however difficult something may seem, uh, whether it be a language or a concept in mathematics or in science or anything else, 学習者である私たちは、それが言語であろうと、数学の概念であろうと、科学の概念であろうと、他の何であろうと、何かがどんなに難しく見えても、そのことを忘れてはならない、 Enquanto aprendente, temos de nos lembrar que, por muito difícil que algo possa parecer, quer se trate de uma língua ou de um conceito em matemática ou em ciências ou em qualquer outra coisa,

in time, the brain will develop a pattern that enables us to grasp the concept better and better slowly. やがて脳は、私たちがその概念をよりよく、よりゆっくり把握できるようなパターンを発達させる。 Com o tempo, o cérebro desenvolverá um padrão que nos permite apreender o conceito cada vez melhor e mais lentamente. The emphasis is on slowly it and the Manfred Spitzer, whom I always quote, he says, you know, the brain can't do otherwise than learn. Die Betonung liegt auf langsam und der Manfred Spitzer, den ich immer zitiere, sagt, wissen Sie, das Gehirn kann nicht anders als lernen. El énfasis está en hacerlo lentamente y Manfred Spitzer, a quien siempre cito, dice que el cerebro no puede hacer otra cosa que aprender. 私がいつも引用しているマンフレッド・シュピッツァーは、脳は学ぶこと以外にできない、と言っている。 A tónica é colocada no lento e o Manfred Spitzer, que cito sempre, diz que o cérebro não pode fazer outra coisa senão aprender. The brain will gradually learn, create patterns to deal with. Das Gehirn wird nach und nach lernen, Muster schaffen, mit denen es umgehen kann. El cerebro aprenderá gradualmente, creará patrones con los que lidiar. All the stimulus and, and information that's coming at it. すべての刺激と、そして情報がそこに押し寄せてくる。 It'll drop some of the details, but it'll start forming a pattern. Es wird einige der Details verlieren, aber es wird anfangen, ein Muster zu bilden. Dejará de lado algunos detalles, pero empezará a formar un patrón. 細部は落ちるだろうが、パターンを形成し始めるだろう。 Он потеряет некоторые детали, но начнет формировать узор. And when you have this pattern in your brain, it becomes easier then to remember some of the details, because you have a context, the brain has created this, this, uh, network of, of, uh, patterns that makes it then easier to learn. 脳の中にこのパターンがあると、細かいことを覚えるのが簡単になるんだ。コンテキストがあるから、脳がこの、パターンのネットワークを作って、学習しやすくなる。 E quando temos este padrão no nosso cérebro, torna-se mais fácil recordar alguns dos pormenores, porque temos um contexto, o cérebro criou esta, esta, uh, rede de, uh, padrões que torna mais fácil a aprendizagem. И когда у вас есть этот паттерн в вашем мозгу, становится легче запомнить некоторые детали, потому что у вас есть контекст, мозг создал эту, эту, э-э, сеть, э-э, паттернов, которые облегчают вам задачу. учиться. So it's very important not to be frustrated if we read this explanation five times and it still doesn't make sense, or we keep forgetting things. だから、この説明を5回読んでも理解できなかったり、忘れてしまったりしても、イライラしないことがとても大切だ。 Por isso, é muito importante não ficarmos frustrados se lermos esta explicação cinco vezes e continuar a não fazer sentido, ou se nos estivermos sempre a esquecer de coisas.

And of course we get six out of 10 or three out of 10 on the test and we shouldn't allow ourselves to be discouraged. Y claro que sacamos 6 sobre 10 o 3 sobre 10 en el examen y no debemos dejarnos desanimar. もちろん、テストでは10点満点中6点とか3点とかで、落胆することは許されない。 E é claro que tiramos seis em 10 ou três em 10 no teste e não nos devemos deixar desencorajar. Of course the education system is set up that way. Natürlich ist das Bildungssystem so aufgebaut. Claro que el sistema educativo está montado así. もちろん、教育システムはそのように設定されている。 It's set up that way because for whatever reason, the people in charge of education feel that they have to test you at every step of the way to make sure you're learning something. Está organizado así porque, por la razón que sea, los responsables de la educación creen que tienen que ponerte a prueba a cada paso para asegurarse de que aprendes algo. そのように設定されているのは、どんな理由であれ、教育を担当する人々が、あなたが何かを学んでいることを確認するために、あらゆる段階であなたをテストしなければならないと感じているからだ。 É assim porque, por qualquer razão, as pessoas responsáveis pela educação sentem que têm de nos testar a cada passo do caminho para se certificarem de que estamos a aprender alguma coisa.

In reality, what was taught yesterday may not click in for another six months. In Wirklichkeit funktioniert das, was gestern gelehrt wurde, möglicherweise erst in sechs Monaten. 現実には、昨日教えられたことが、あと半年もするとピンとこないかもしれない。 So it's kind of meaningless to test us immediately on, on what's in our short term memory, for example, rather we should, you know, as teachers encourage learners to cover the same ground using different materials and we as learners should resist Es ist also irgendwie bedeutungslos, uns sofort zu testen, zum Beispiel was in unserem Kurzzeitgedächtnis ist, vielmehr sollten wir, wissen Sie, als Lehrer die Lernenden ermutigen, denselben Boden mit unterschiedlichen Materialien abzudecken, und wir als Lernende sollten uns dagegen wehren Así que no tiene sentido ponernos a prueba inmediatamente, por ejemplo, sobre lo que tenemos en la memoria a corto plazo, sino que, como profesores, deberíamos animar a los alumnos a cubrir el mismo terreno utilizando materiales diferentes, y nosotros, como alumnos, deberíamos resistirnos a ello. だから、たとえば短期記憶にあることをすぐにテストするのは無意味なことだ。 Por isso, não faz sentido testar-nos imediatamente sobre, por exemplo, o que está na nossa memória de curto prazo. Em vez disso, como professores, devemos encorajar os alunos a percorrer o mesmo terreno utilizando materiais diferentes e nós, como alunos, devemos resistir 因此,立即测试我们的短期记忆是没有意义的,作为教师,我们应该鼓励学习者使用不同的材料来学习相同的内容,而作为学习者,我们应该抵制这种做法。

this sort of sense of frustration that we can't understand, that we can't remember it, we can't do it, it doesn't make sense. diese Art von Frustration, die wir nicht verstehen können, dass wir uns nicht daran erinnern können, dass wir es nicht tun können, dass es keinen Sinn ergibt. esta especie de sentimiento de frustración por no poder entenderlo, por no poder recordarlo, por no poder hacerlo, por no tener sentido. 理解できない、覚えられない、できない、意味がない、という苛立ちのようなものだ。 esta espécie de sentimento de frustração por não conseguirmos compreender, por não nos lembrarmos, por não conseguirmos fazer, por não fazer sentido. We have to continue. Wir müssen weitermachen. 続けなければならない。 And that's again, always, I go back to this idea of combining things, watch a video by all means, but then also if you can find... and in the case of science and math you have Khan Academy, which is tremendous, but you should have still at the same time, work on your reading, work on reading explanations of the same thing. 科学と数学の場合、カーン・アカデミーがありますが、これは素晴らしいものです。 E, mais uma vez, volto sempre a esta ideia de combinar as coisas, ver um vídeo, sem dúvida, mas depois, se conseguirem encontrar... e, no caso da ciência e da matemática, têm a Khan Academy, que é tremenda, mas devem, ao mesmo tempo, trabalhar na leitura, trabalhar na leitura de explicações sobre a mesma coisa.

Again, without that sense of, you know, frustration or fear as you're not, still not able to remember or grasp at all, just keep going. De nuevo, sin esa sensación de, ya sabes, frustración o miedo ya que no eres, todavía no eres capaz de recordar o captar en absoluto, simplemente sigue adelante. 繰り返しになるが、まだ全然覚えていない、把握できていないという焦燥感や恐怖感を感じることなく、ただ前進し続けるのだ。 Mais uma vez, sem aquele sentimento de frustração ou de medo por não ser capaz de se lembrar ou de compreender, continue. Опять же, без этого чувства, знаете ли, разочарования или страха, которого вы еще не в состоянии вспомнить или вообще понять, просто продолжайте идти. It's slowly going to sock into place. Es wird langsam einrasten. Lentamente va a encajar en su lugar. 徐々にソックリになっていく。 Het gaat langzaam op zijn plaats vallen. Está lentamente a encaixar-se no lugar. Потихоньку встанет на место. Just the way languages slowly sock into place. Il modo in cui le lingue si inseriscono lentamente. ただ、言語がゆっくりとソックスに収まっていく。 Só a forma como as línguas se encaixam lentamente no sítio. Точно так же языки медленно встают на свои места. And, you know, work on all the different aspects of your brain, including the emotional side of your brain. そして、脳の感情面を含め、脳のさまざまな側面に働きかけるんだ。 E, sabe, trabalhar todos os diferentes aspectos do seu cérebro, incluindo o lado emocional do seu cérebro.

So if you can listen to something that's pleasant, where you enjoy the voice, if you don't like listening to your professor, but if you can find some other audio, which is more interesting or where you enjoy the voice, listen to that, but you still have to go back and read or listen to what the professor had to say. Así que si puedes escuchar algo que sea agradable, donde disfrutes de la voz, si no te gusta escuchar a tu profesor, pero si puedes encontrar algún otro audio, que sea más interesante o donde disfrutes de la voz, escucha eso, pero todavía tienes que volver atrás y leer o escuchar lo que el profesor tenía que decir. だから、もし教授の話を聞くのが好きでなくても、もっと面白い、あるいは声が楽しい他の音声を見つけることができれば、それを聞くことができる。 Por isso, se puderem ouvir algo que seja agradável, em que gostem da voz, se não gostarem de ouvir o vosso professor, mas se conseguirem encontrar outro áudio, que seja mais interessante ou em que gostem da voz, ouçam-no, mas ainda têm de voltar atrás e ler ou ouvir o que o professor tinha para dizer.

Cause you gotta, you gotta, you know, write the exam. だって、試験を書かなきゃいけないんだから。 Porque tens de, tens de, sabes, fazer o exame. And most professors like to have things come back to them the way they, they, uh, you know, taught it. Und die meisten Professoren möchten, dass die Dinge so zu ihnen zurückkommen, wie sie, äh, wissen Sie, sie es gelehrt haben. それに、たいていの教授は、自分が教えたとおりに物事が戻ってくるのが好きなんだ。 E a maioria dos professores gosta que as coisas lhes sejam devolvidas da forma como as ensinaram. But, so, so as, as, as a general principle in, in learning, I think all of the things that I say about language learning, when I think back, you know, when I did well in a subject it's because I got interested in the subject, I read up on it using different resources. Pero, así que, como principio general en el aprendizaje, creo que todas las cosas que digo sobre el aprendizaje de idiomas, cuando recuerdo, ya sabes, cuando me fue bien en una asignatura es porque me interesé por el tema, leí sobre él utilizando diferentes recursos. でも、学習における一般的な原則としては、言語学習について私が言うことはすべて、思い返せば、私がある科目でうまくいったのは、その科目に興味を持ち、いろいろな資料を使って読みあさったからだと思う。 Mas, por isso, como princípio geral na aprendizagem, penso que tudo o que digo sobre a aprendizagem de línguas, quando penso no passado, quando me saí bem numa disciplina, foi porque me interessei pelo assunto, li sobre ele utilizando diferentes recursos.

Um, and, and so, and the other thing too is as with language learning, of course, it's good to talk and exchange views about a subject that you're learning and to talk to the other people in the class and to talk to the teacher and so forth. もうひとつは、言語学習と同じように、学んでいるテーマについて話したり、意見を交換したりすることはもちろんいいことだし、クラスの他の人たちや先生と話したりすることもいいことだ。 E a outra coisa também é que, tal como acontece com a aprendizagem de línguas, é bom falar e trocar opiniões sobre um assunto que se está a aprender e falar com as outras pessoas da turma e falar com o professor e assim por diante. Хм, и, и так, и другое тоже, как и в случае с изучением языка, конечно, хорошо говорить и обмениваться мнениями о предмете, который вы изучаете, и разговаривать с другими людьми в классе, и разговаривать с учитель и так далее. But you have to have something in you before you can talk about the subject just as with language, you can't begin by speaking. Aber man muss etwas in sich haben, bevor man über das Thema sprechen kann, genauso wie bei der Sprache, man kann nicht mit dem Sprechen beginnen. しかし、言語と同じで、話すことから始めることはできない。 Mas é preciso ter algo dentro de nós antes de podermos falar sobre o assunto, tal como acontece com a língua, não se pode começar por falar. Но вы должны иметь что-то внутри себя, прежде чем вы сможете говорить о предмете, как и в случае с языком, вы не можете начать с разговора.

You have to begin by allowing your brain to get used to it. É preciso começar por permitir que o cérebro se habitue a isso. And that's where the reading and the listening primarily, and to some extent video is kind of the prerequisite. Und da ist in erster Linie das Lesen und Zuhören, und in gewissem Maße ist Video die Voraussetzung. そこで、主にリーディングとリスニング、そしてある程度はビデオが前提条件となる。 E é aí que a leitura e a audição, principalmente, e, em certa medida, o vídeo são uma espécie de pré-requisito. And once you've got some of those patterns in your brain, then yeah, the more you can talk about it and do experiments and do things and activate some of these things that you have brought into your brain, the better you're going to do it. Y una vez que tienes algunos de esos patrones en tu cerebro, entonces sí, cuanto más puedas hablar de ello y hacer experimentos y hacer cosas y activar algunas de estas cosas que has traído a tu cerebro, mejor lo vas a hacer. そうすれば、そのことについて話したり、実験したり、いろいろなことをして、脳に取り入れたものを活性化させればさせるほど、うまくいくようになる。 E assim que tivermos alguns desses padrões no nosso cérebro, então sim, quanto mais falarmos sobre isso e fizermos experiências e coisas e activarmos algumas dessas coisas que trouxemos para o nosso cérebro, melhor o faremos.

So that's sort of a general discussion on how to study effectively. Das ist also eine Art allgemeine Diskussion darüber, wie man effektiv lernt. これが、効果的な勉強法についての一般的な議論だ。 Esta é uma espécie de discussão geral sobre como estudar eficazmente. Uh, the big message is to my mind is don't allow yourself to get frustrated, get hung up at your mistakes or perhaps your, your results on a test or things that you forget. En mi opinión, el gran mensaje es que no te frustres, que no te obsesiones con tus errores o quizá con tus resultados en un examen o con cosas que se te olvidan. Para mim, a grande mensagem é não se deixar frustrar, não se prender aos seus erros ou talvez aos seus resultados num teste ou a coisas de que se esquece. Try to find a way to get interested in, in the subject. Tenta encontrar uma forma de te interessares pelo assunto. Uh, and that may mean that your textbook is boring. Uh, und das kann bedeuten, dass Ihr Lehrbuch langweilig ist. ええと、それは教科書がつまらないということかもしれない。

Find some other materials. 他の材料を探す。 And graze around and cover the same ground in different ways. Und grasen herum und bedecken denselben Boden auf unterschiedliche Weise. Y pastan y cubren el mismo terreno de diferentes maneras. そして、草を食み、同じ土地をさまざまな方法でカバーする。 E pastam e cobrem o mesmo terreno de formas diferentes. 并以不同的方式在同一片土地上放牧。 And I think that's an effective way to study. そして、それが効果的な勉強方法だと思う。