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Steve's Language Learning Tips, Critical Thinking Skills: Can They Really Be Taught?

Critical Thinking Skills: Can They Really Be Taught?

In fact, the students should be encouraged to search for whatever they're interested in and the teacher should help that person find that information. Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. Can critical thinking be taught, and how does that relate to language learning? So remember, by the way you enjoy these videos, please subscribe, click on the bell for notifications.

Those of you who follow my videos know that I'm a great believer in listening and reading. I believe that the language has to come into us from outside. We have to listen and read and acquire words before we can start speaking. Uh, at some point we have to start speaking. At some point, we have to speak a lot.

Uh, when we do start speaking, obviously we want to work on improving, uh, our ability to speak,our accuracy and the use of words, our pronunciation, and so forth, but we first have to get the language into us. Well, I think much the same is true when it comes to our ability to reason, okay. And I have been on, what's known as list serves.

In other words, email communities with teachers, and very often teachers are very interested in the subject of teaching critical thinking or what they call higher order thinking. I have always been very suspicious of the ability of the average teacher to teach critical thinking skills or higher order.

If in fact, such a thing exists, thinking skills. The assumption there is that their students have a lower order thinking, these are teachers of English. Uh, and so rather than focusing in on how do I get my students to read more? How do I get my students to listen more? Uh, how do I provide them with content of interest, things that are relevant to them, things that they're familiar with, that they're going to want to engage with?

How do I stimulate them? How do I create that, that thirst for reading and listening rather there is this sort of what I call a myth that they can teach a set of skills that will enable their, in this case these were English teachers teaching, uh, you know, English as a second language that these foreigners might be, um, immigrant from Iran or from Poland or from Nicaragua that somehow because they didn't speak English well, somehow their, uh, critical thinking skills weren't, uh, as developed as, as, as the skills of the teacher, I have always felt that the most important sort of prerequisite for critical thinking is knowledge of the subject matter. You cannot judge because part of this whole critical thinking is that, uh, people need to be better equipped to, uh, you know, uh, judge, uh, what's true or not true in the media and, and so forth, which is all fine and dandy.

We should be, uh, a little, uh, skeptical about what we read and, and we should be trying to read through and see what we agree and what we don't agree with. However, in most cases, the positions that we hold are based on our emotions, we jump to a conclusion and then we try to justify that conclusion. I do that.

Everyone does that. If we didn't all do that, we'd all arrive at the same conclusion because we've been follow some irrational method of critical thinking and, you know, objectively evaluate all the information and we'd arrive at the only correct, uh, conclusion, but there is no only correct conclusion.

There's lots of different conclusions, but generally speaking, the more knowledgeable a person is about a particular subject the more I value their opinion. I don't think you can, uh, somehow skip the stage of just as in language learning, acquiring words and phrases. You can't speak before you have a lot of words and phrases in you until you have good comprehension.

You're not going to speak well. Well, until you have read a lot on a subject or experienced that situation, acquired a lot of information and knowledge and experience about that subject, your opinion is perhaps not that important. And there's no amount of theoretical, you know, critical thinking skills that are going to substitute for solid knowledge of the subject matter.

And the way to get knowledge of the subject matter is to read a lot, to read well. And so rather than, with these ESL teachers trying to teach critical thinking, if you encourage those learners to read a lot, to read widely initially, to read on subjects of interest to them, they will find different sources of information because the chances are the teacher who's teaching critical thinking wants to sort of direct the learner in a certain way direction so that the learner will come to the same conclusion as the teacher. And so that this whole teaching of critical thinking in effect becomes a way of controlling what the learner thinks. And I think there's already too much control by teachers. In other words, this is the book you're supposed to read.

This is the newspaper you should read. This is a subject matter you should read is sort of the teacher directing the student. In fact, the students should be encouraged to search for whatever they're interested in and the teacher should help that person find that information just as I'm doing with Sahra.

I tell her what I'm interested in. I'm interested in history. So she gives me this wonderful series on persian history. Um, this again stimulates me to not only read on in Persian, which I'm limited in my ability to do, but also to look up books in English on Iranian history. And so I'm constantly, through reading I'm acquiring more information, not with a goal that I'm going to think critically, but obviously if I read a book on iranian history and then I read a book on Turkish history and, and then the Arabic history and written by different people. Or when I was doing a Ukrainian and Polish and Russian, then I would listen to a, you know, a Russian version of Ukrainian history, a Polish version or Ukrainian version.

And out of all of these different bits of info, based some extent on my, you know, um, conclusions I arrived at because of say a, a degree of sympathy for the Ukrainians, underdogs. Uh, but someone else who is more sympathetic to the Poles or to the Russians might find that the Polish or Russian version is, is closer to the truth.

Uh, but I don't think it's any particular critical thinking skill that's going to take us to those conclusions. It's more a mindset that we have. We've arrived at for whatever emotional, uh, whatever emotion-based reason. Of course, we use reason to try and justify our position. And hopefully we're open-minded enough to listen to other people present, you know, the justification for their position using reason.

But ultimately I think, I mean, it's very difficult to persuade people, uh, to give up a point of view that they have. That's been my experience. Uh, it can be interesting. And if we're open-minded enough to accept the, the fact that people can have different points of view and that doesn't necessarily make them a bad person.

That doesn't mean that I have to agree with them because I asked for their opinion. Uh, they don't have to agree with me. We can just share our views and continue to disagree and that's fine and dandy. But, uh, I say this because so often I think that teachers are prone to pursue certain fads, like teaching critical thinking, higher order thinking or this learning styles myth, which has been largely debunked by which a whole bunch of teachers pursued that the, you know, are you a kinetic learner?

Are you a visual learner? And of course, Uh, cognitive scientists, uh, assure us and, uh, all kinds of tests have demonstrated. This is not the case that the learning styles is, is a bit of a, a bit of a red herring. So I just thought, I'd mentioned that my view on this whole subject of critical thinking, uh, it's possible that there are people who are expert at critical thinking.

Who are, you know, methodical and follow the scientific method and, uh, pursue a variety of different sources of information and then apply very, uh, you know, consistent, uh, uh, rational methods for arriving at their conclusions. I still suspect they're going to be, you know, it'll be flavored by their, uh, prejudice going, preconceived idea going in, but that people who can do that is a small minority.

The vast majority of people don't have those skills. And therefore the vast majority of teachers are not in a position to teach those skills. And I don't really think those skills exist outside of what we call domain knowledge, knowledge about the subject matter and to get that good knowledge of the subject matter, you have to read a lot.

So the focus should be on getting students to read more. Anyway, that's just a bit of a rant there off my normal subject yet related because as with language learning it's input that helps us grow whether in language or in discovering more about the world. Thank you for listening. Bye for now.

Critical Thinking Skills: Can They Really Be Taught? Fähigkeiten des kritischen Denkens: Kann man sie wirklich lehren? Habilidades de pensamiento crítico: ¿Se pueden enseñar realmente? مهارت های تفکر انتقادی: آیا واقعاً می توان آنها را آموزش داد؟ Compétences en matière de pensée critique : Peut-on vraiment les enseigner ? Abilità di pensiero critico: Si possono davvero insegnare? 批判的思考スキル:彼らは本当に教えられることができますか? 비판적 사고력: 정말 가르칠 수 있을까요? Umiejętności krytycznego myślenia: Czy naprawdę można ich nauczyć? Competências de pensamento crítico: Podem mesmo ser ensinadas? Навыки критического мышления: можно ли им научить? Eleştirel Düşünme Becerileri: Gerçekten Öğretilebilir mi? Навички критичного мислення: чи можна цьому навчитися? 批判性思维技能:真的可以教吗? 批判性思維技能:真的可以教嗎?

In fact, the students should be encouraged to search for whatever they're interested in and the teacher should help that person find that information. Patiesībā skolēni ir jāmudina meklēt to, kas viņus interesē, un skolotājam ir jāpalīdz viņiem atrast šo informāciju. 事实上,应该鼓励学生搜索他们感兴趣的任何内容,而老师应该帮助他们找到这些信息。 Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here. Sveiki, šeit Stīvs Kaufmans. Can critical thinking be taught, and how does that relate to language learning? 批判的思考を教えることはできますか?それは言語学習とどのように関連していますか? Vai kritisko domāšanu var iemācīt, un kā tā ir saistīta ar valodu apguvi? So remember, by the way you enjoy these videos, please subscribe, click on the bell for notifications. Así que recuerda, ya que disfrutas con estos vídeos, suscríbete, haz clic en la campana para recibir notificaciones. Tātad atcerieties, ka, kā jums patīk šie videoklipi, lūdzu, abonējiet, noklikšķiniet uz zvana, lai saņemtu paziņojumus.

Those of you who follow my videos know that I'm a great believer in listening and reading. 私のビデオをフォローしている人は、私が聞いたり読んだりすることを大いに信じていることを知っています。 Tie no jums, kas seko maniem videoklipiem, zina, ka es esmu liels klausīšanās un lasīšanas piekritējs. I believe that the language has to come into us from outside. 言語は外部から私たちにもたらされなければならないと私は信じています。 Es uzskatu, ka valodai ir jānāk mūsos no ārpuses. 我相信语言必须从外部进入我们体内。 We have to listen and read and acquire words before we can start speaking. Pirms sākam runāt, mums ir jāklausās un jālasa, jālasa un jāapgūst vārdi. 在开始说话之前,我们必须听、读并掌握单词。 Uh, at some point we have to start speaking. Kādā brīdī mums ir jāsāk runāt. At some point, we have to speak a lot. Kādā brīdī mums ir daudz jārunā.

Uh, when we do start speaking, obviously we want to work on improving, uh, our ability to speak,our accuracy and the use of words, our pronunciation, and so forth, but we first have to get the language into us. ええと、私たちが話し始めるとき、明らかに私たちは話す能力、正確さと単語の使用、発音などの改善に取り組みたいと思っていますが、最初に言語を私たちに取り入れなければなりません。 Kad mēs sākam runāt, mēs, protams, vēlamies strādāt pie tā, lai uzlabotu savu prasmi runāt, precizitāti, vārdu lietojumu, izrunu un tā tālāk, bet vispirms mums ir jāiemācās valoda. 呃,当我们开始说话时,显然我们想要努力提高,呃,我们的说话能力,我们的准确性和单词的使用,我们的发音等等,但我们首先必须让语言融入我们。 Well, I think much the same is true when it comes to our ability to reason, okay. ええと、私たちの推論能力に関しても同じことが言えると思います。 Manuprāt, tas pats attiecas arī uz mūsu spēju spriest. 嗯,我认为就我们的推理能力而言,情况也是如此,好吧。 And I have been on, what's known as list serves. そして、私はリストサーブとして知られているものを続けてきました。 Un es esmu piedalījies tā dēvētajos sarakstos.

In other words, email communities with teachers, and very often teachers are very interested in the subject of teaching critical thinking or what they call higher order thinking. 言い換えれば、教師との電子メールコミュニティ、そして非常に多くの場合、教師は批判的思考または彼らが高次思考と呼ぶものを教えるという主題に非常に興味を持っています。 Citiem vārdiem sakot, e-pasta kopienas ar skolotājiem, un ļoti bieži skolotāji ir ļoti ieinteresēti kritiskās domāšanas vai tā dēvētās augstākas domāšanas mācīšanā. I have always been very suspicious of the ability of the average teacher to teach critical thinking skills or higher order. 私は常に、平均的な教師が批判的思考スキル以上を教える能力に非常に疑いを持っていました。 Man vienmēr ir bijušas lielas aizdomas par vidusmēra skolotāja spēju mācīt kritiskās domāšanas prasmes vai augstākas kārtas.

If in fact, such a thing exists, thinking skills. Ja patiesībā tāda lieta pastāv, domāšanas prasmes. The assumption there is that their students have a lower order thinking, these are teachers of English. 彼らの生徒は低次の思考を持っているという仮定があります、これらは英語の教師です。 Pieņēmums ir tāds, ka viņu skolēniem ir zemāka līmeņa domāšana, tie ir angļu valodas skolotāji. Uh, and so rather than focusing in on how do I get my students to read more? ええと、それで、どうすれば生徒にもっと読んでもらうかということに集中するのではなく、どうすればよいでしょうか。 Tā vietā, lai pievērstos tam, kā panākt, lai skolēni vairāk lasa? How do I get my students to listen more? Uh, how do I provide them with content of interest, things that are relevant to them, things that they're familiar with, that they're going to want to engage with? Kā piedāvāt viņiem interesantu saturu, kas viņiem ir svarīgs, ko viņi zina un ar ko viņi vēlas nodarboties?

How do I stimulate them? Kā tos stimulēt? How do I create that, that thirst for reading and listening rather there is this sort of what I call a myth that they can teach a set of skills that will enable their, in this case these were English teachers teaching, uh, you know, English as a second language that these foreigners might be, um, immigrant from Iran or from Poland or from Nicaragua that somehow because they didn't speak English well, somehow their, uh, critical thinking skills weren't, uh, as developed as, as, as the skills of the teacher, I have always felt that the most important sort of prerequisite for critical thinking is knowledge of the subject matter. どうすればそれを作成できますか、読むことと聞くことへの渇望は、彼らが彼らを可能にする一連のスキルを教えることができるという私が神話と呼ぶこの種のものがあります、この場合、これらは英語の教師が教えていました、ええと、あなたは知っています、これらの外国人が、イラン、ポーランド、またはニカラグアからの移民である可能性のある第二言語としての英語は、どういうわけか彼らが英語を上手に話せなかったために、どういうわけか彼らの批判的思考スキルは、として、教師のスキルとして、私は常に批判的思考の最も重要な種類の前提条件は主題の知識であると感じてきました。 Kā es varu radīt šo, šīs slāpes pēc lasīšanas un klausīšanās, drīzāk ir šis, kā es to saucu, mīts, ka viņi var iemācīt prasmju kopumu, kas ļaus viņu, šajā gadījumā tie bija angļu valodas skolotāji, kas māca angļu valodu kā otro valodu, ka šie ārzemnieki varētu būt, um, imigranti no Irānas vai Polijas, vai Nikaragvas, ka kaut kā tāpēc, ka viņi nerunāja labi angliski, kaut kā viņu, uh, kritiskās domāšanas prasmes nebija, uh, tik attīstītas kā, kā, kā, kā skolotāja prasmes, es vienmēr esmu uzskatījis, ka vissvarīgākais kritiskās domāšanas priekšnoteikums ir priekšmeta zināšanas. You cannot judge because part of this whole critical thinking is that, uh, people need to be better equipped to, uh, you know, uh, judge, uh, what's true or not true in the media and, and so forth, which is all fine and dandy. この批判的思考全体の一部は、ええと、ええと、あなたが知っている、ええと、裁判官、ええと、メディアで何が真実かそうでないかなど、すべて元気でダンディ。 Jūs nevarat spriest, jo daļa no šīs kritiskās domāšanas ir tāda, ka cilvēkiem jābūt labāk sagatavotiem, lai spriestu par to, kas medijos ir vai nav taisnība, un tā tālāk, kas ir labi un lieliski.

We should be, uh, a little, uh, skeptical about what we read and, and we should be trying to read through and see what we agree and what we don't agree with. 私たちは、ええと、少し、ええと、私たちが読んだものと、私たちが同意するものと同意しないものを読み通して見るように努めるべきです。 Mums vajadzētu būt nedaudz skeptiskiem pret to, ko lasām, un mums vajadzētu mēģināt izlasīt un saprast, kam piekrītam un kam ne. However, in most cases, the positions that we hold are based on our emotions, we jump to a conclusion and then we try to justify that conclusion. しかし、ほとんどの場合、私たちが保持する立場は私たちの感情に基づいており、私たちは結論にジャンプし、次にその結論を正当化しようとします。 Tomēr vairumā gadījumu mūsu nostājas pamatā ir mūsu emocijas, mēs izdarām secinājumus un pēc tam cenšamies tos pamatot. I do that. Es to daru.

Everyone does that. To dara visi. If we didn't all do that, we'd all arrive at the same conclusion because we've been follow some irrational method of critical thinking and, you know, objectively evaluate all the information and we'd arrive at the only correct, uh, conclusion, but there is no only correct conclusion. Ja mēs visi tā nedarītu, mēs visi nonāktu pie vienādiem secinājumiem, jo mēs ievērotu kādu iracionālu kritiskās domāšanas metodi un, ziniet, objektīvi izvērtētu visu informāciju, un mēs nonāktu pie vienīgā pareizā secinājuma, bet vienīgo pareizo secinājumu nav. 如果我们不这样做,我们就会得出同样的结论,因为我们一直在遵循某种非理性的批判性思维方法,你知道,客观地评估所有信息,我们就会得出唯一正确的结论,但并不存在唯一正确的结论。

There's lots of different conclusions, but generally speaking, the more knowledgeable a person is about a particular subject the more I value their opinion. さまざまな結論がありますが、一般的に言って、特定の主題について知識が豊富であるほど、私は彼らの意見を高く評価します。 Ir daudz dažādu secinājumu, bet vispārīgi runājot, jo zinošāks cilvēks ir par kādu konkrētu tēmu, jo vairāk es vērtēju viņa viedokli. I don't think you can, uh, somehow skip the stage of just as in language learning, acquiring words and phrases. どういうわけか、語学学習のように単語やフレーズを習得する段階をスキップすることはできないと思います。 Es nedomāju, ka jūs varat kaut kā izlaist šo posmu, kad, tāpat kā valodu apguvē, apgūstat vārdus un frāzes. You can't speak before you have a lot of words and phrases in you until you have good comprehension. よく理解するまで、たくさんの単語やフレーズが入る前に話すことはできません。 Jūs nevarat runāt, kamēr jums nav daudz vārdu un frāžu, kamēr jums nav labas izpratnes.

You're not going to speak well. Jūs nerunāsiet labi. Well, until you have read a lot on a subject or experienced that situation, acquired a lot of information and knowledge and experience about that subject, your opinion is perhaps not that important. まあ、あなたが主題についてたくさん読んだり、その状況を経験したり、その主題について多くの情報や知識や経験を積んだりするまで、あなたの意見はおそらくそれほど重要ではありません。 Nu, kamēr jūs neesat daudz lasījis par kādu tēmu vai piedzīvojis šo situāciju, ieguvis daudz informācijas, zināšanu un pieredzes par šo tēmu, jūsu viedoklim, iespējams, nav tik liela nozīme. And there's no amount of theoretical, you know, critical thinking skills that are going to substitute for solid knowledge of the subject matter. そして、あなたが知っているように、主題の確かな知識の代わりになるであろう批判的思考スキルの量はありません。 Un nekādas teorētiskās, ziniet, kritiskās domāšanas prasmes neaizstās pamatīgas zināšanas par mācību priekšmetu.

And the way to get knowledge of the subject matter is to read a lot, to read well. そして、主題の知識を得る方法は、たくさん読むこと、よく読むことです。 Un veids, kā iegūt zināšanas par šo tēmu, ir daudz un labi lasīt. And so rather than, with these ESL teachers trying to teach critical thinking, if you encourage those learners to read a lot, to read widely initially, to read on subjects of interest to them, they will find different sources of information because the chances are the teacher who's teaching critical thinking wants to sort of direct the learner in a certain way direction so that the learner will come to the same conclusion as the teacher. したがって、これらのESL教師が批判的思考を教えようとしているのではなく、学習者にたくさん読むこと、最初に広く読むこと、興味のある主題について読むことを奨励すると、チャンスがあるため、さまざまな情報源を見つけることができます。批判的思考を教えている教師は、学習者が教師と同じ結論に達するように、学習者を特定の方向に向けたいと考えています。 Un tā vietā, lai skolotāji, kas māca kritisko domāšanu, mēģinātu mācīt kritisko domāšanu, ja jūs mudināsiet šos skolēnus daudz lasīt, sākotnēji lasīt plaši, lasīt par tēmām, kas viņus interesē, viņi atradīs dažādus informācijas avotus, jo pastāv iespēja, ka skolotājs, kas māca kritisko domāšanu, vēlas skolēnu virzīt noteiktā virzienā, lai skolēns nonāktu pie tāda paša secinājuma kā skolotājs. And so that this whole teaching of critical thinking in effect becomes a way of controlling what the learner thinks. そして、批判的思考のこの全体の教えが事実上、学習者の思考を制御する方法になるように。 Un tādējādi visa šī kritiskās domāšanas mācīšana faktiski kļūst par veidu, kā kontrolēt to, ko domā skolēns. And I think there's already too much control by teachers. そして、私はすでに教師によるコントロールが多すぎると思います。 Un es domāju, ka skolotāji jau tagad pārāk daudz kontrolē. In other words, this is the book you're supposed to read. 言い換えれば、これはあなたが読むことになっている本です。 Citiem vārdiem sakot, šī ir grāmata, kas jums būtu jālasa.

This is the newspaper you should read. これはあなたが読むべき新聞です。 Šis ir laikraksts, kas jums būtu jālasa. This is a subject matter you should read is sort of the teacher directing the student. これはあなたが読むべき主題であり、生徒を指導する教師のようなものです。 Šis ir temats, kas jums būtu jālasa, ir sava veida skolotājs, kas vada skolēnu. In fact, the students should be encouraged to search for whatever they're interested in and the teacher should help that person find that information just as I'm doing with Sahra. Patiesībā skolēnus vajadzētu mudināt meklēt visu, kas viņus interesē, un skolotājam vajadzētu palīdzēt viņiem atrast šo informāciju, tāpat kā es to daru ar Sahru.

I tell her what I'm interested in. Es viņai pastāstu, kas mani interesē. I'm interested in history. So she gives me this wonderful series on persian history. Tāpēc viņa man uzdāvina šo brīnišķīgo sēriju par persiešu vēsturi. Um, this again stimulates me to not only read on in Persian, which I'm limited in my ability to do, but also to look up books in English on Iranian history. Um, tas mani atkal mudina ne tikai lasīt tālāk persiešu valodā, ko es ierobežoti spēju, bet arī meklēt grāmatas angļu valodā par Irānas vēsturi. And so I'm constantly, through reading I'm acquiring more information, not with a goal that I'm going to think critically, but obviously if I read a book on iranian history and then I read a book on Turkish history and, and then the Arabic history and written by different people. Un tā es nepārtraukti, lasot, iegūstu vairāk informācijas, nevis ar mērķi domāt kritiski, bet, protams, ja es izlasu grāmatu par Irānas vēsturi un tad es izlasu grāmatu par Turcijas vēsturi un arābu vēsturi, ko uzrakstījuši dažādi cilvēki. Or when I was doing a Ukrainian and Polish and Russian, then I would listen to a, you know, a Russian version of Ukrainian history, a Polish version or Ukrainian version. Vai arī, kad es strādāju ar ukraiņu, poļu un krievu valodu, tad es klausījos, ziniet, Ukrainas vēstures krievu versiju, poļu versiju vai ukraiņu versiju.

And out of all of these different bits of info, based some extent on my, you know, um, conclusions I arrived at because of say a, a degree of sympathy for the Ukrainians, underdogs. そして、これらのさまざまな情報のすべてから、ある程度、ウクライナ人、弱者へのある程度の同情のために私が到達した結論に基づいています。 Un no visiem šiem dažādajiem informācijas fragmentiem, balstoties zināmā mērā uz maniem, ziniet, secinājumiem, es nonācu pie secinājumiem, jo, teiksim, man bija zināmas simpātijas pret ukraiņiem, mazsvarīgajiem. Uh, but someone else who is more sympathetic to the Poles or to the Russians might find that the Polish or Russian version is, is closer to the truth. Uh, bet kādam citam, kas vairāk simpatizē poļiem vai krieviem, varētu šķist, ka poļu vai krievu versija ir tuvāka patiesībai.

Uh, but I don't think it's any particular critical thinking skill that's going to take us to those conclusions. ええと、でも、私たちをそれらの結論に導くのは、特定の批判的思考スキルではないと思います。 Bet es nedomāju, ka tā ir kāda īpaša kritiskās domāšanas prasme, kas mūs novedīs pie šādiem secinājumiem. It's more a mindset that we have. それは私たちが持っている考え方です。 Tas drīzāk ir mūsu domāšanas veids. We've arrived at for whatever emotional, uh, whatever emotion-based reason. 私たちは、感情的な理由、感情に基づく理由が何であれ、そこにたどり着きました。 Mēs esam nonākuši pie kāda emocionāla, eh, kāda emocionāla iemesla dēļ. Of course, we use reason to try and justify our position. Protams, mēs izmantojam saprātu, lai mēģinātu pamatot savu nostāju. And hopefully we're open-minded enough to listen to other people present, you know, the justification for their position using reason. そしてうまくいけば、私たちは他の人々が存在することに耳を傾けるのに十分なオープンマインドであり、あなたが知っているように、理由を使って彼らの立場の正当化をします。 Un cerams, ka mēs esam pietiekami atvērti, lai uzklausītu citus cilvēkus, kuri, ziniet, savu nostāju pamato ar argumentiem.

But ultimately I think, I mean, it's very difficult to persuade people, uh, to give up a point of view that they have. しかし、最終的には、人々を説得して、彼らが持っている視点を放棄することは非常に難しいと思います。 Bet galu galā, manuprāt, ir ļoti grūti pārliecināt cilvēkus atteikties no sava viedokļa. That's been my experience. それが私の経験です。 Tāda ir mana pieredze. Uh, it can be interesting. ええと、それは面白いかもしれません。 Uh, tas var būt interesanti. And if we're open-minded enough to accept the, the fact that people can have different points of view and that doesn't necessarily make them a bad person. そして、私たちが受け入れるのに十分なオープンマインドであるならば、人々が異なる視点を持つことができ、それが必ずしも彼らを悪い人にするわけではないという事実。 Un, ja mēs esam pietiekami atvērti, lai pieņemtu faktu, ka cilvēkiem var būt atšķirīgi viedokļi, un tas ne vienmēr padara viņus par sliktiem cilvēkiem.

That doesn't mean that I have to agree with them because I asked for their opinion. それは私が彼らの意見を求めたので私が彼らに同意しなければならないという意味ではありません。 Tas nenozīmē, ka man viņiem jāpiekrīt, jo es jautāju viņu viedokli. Uh, they don't have to agree with me. Viņiem nav man jāpiekrīt. We can just share our views and continue to disagree and that's fine and dandy. Mēs varam vienkārši dalīties savos uzskatos un turpināt nepiekrist, un tas ir labi un jauki. 我们可以分享各自的观点,继续各持己见,这很好。 But, uh, I say this because so often I think that teachers are prone to pursue certain fads, like teaching critical thinking, higher order thinking or this learning styles myth, which has been largely debunked by which a whole bunch of teachers pursued that the, you know, are you a kinetic learner? しかし、ええと、私はこれを言います。なぜなら、教師は批判的思考、高次思考、またはこの学習スタイルの神話を教えるなど、特定の流行を追求する傾向があると思うことがよくあるからです。 、あなたが知っている、あなたは運動学習者ですか? Bet es to saku tāpēc, ka bieži vien man šķiet, ka skolotāji ir tendēti sekot noteiktām modes tendencēm, piemēram, mācīt kritisko domāšanu, augstākas domāšanas prasmes vai šo mītu par mācīšanās stiliem, kas lielā mērā ir apgāzts, un kuru visa virkne skolotāju ir aizstāvējusi, piemēram, vai tu esi kinētisks skolēns?

Are you a visual learner? Vai jūs mācāties vizuāli? And of course, Uh, cognitive scientists, uh, assure us and, uh, all kinds of tests have demonstrated. そしてもちろん、認知科学者、ええと、私たちを保証します、そして、ええと、あらゆる種類のテストが実証されています。 Un, protams, kognitīvie zinātnieki mūs par to pārliecina un visdažādākie testi ir pierādījuši. This is not the case that the learning styles is, is a bit of a, a bit of a red herring. これは、学習スタイルが少し赤いニシンであるというわけではありません。 Tas nav gadījums, kad mācīšanās stili ir mazliet, mazliet sarkana siļķe. So I just thought, I'd mentioned that my view on this whole subject of critical thinking, uh, it's possible that there are people who are expert at critical thinking. だから私はちょうど考えました、私は批判的思考のこの主題全体についての私の見解、ええと、批判的思考の専門家がいる可能性があると言いました。 Es tikai domāju, ka es jau minēju, ka mans viedoklis par kritisko domāšanu ir tāds, ka, iespējams, ir cilvēki, kuri ir kritiskās domāšanas eksperti.

Who are, you know, methodical and follow the scientific method and, uh, pursue a variety of different sources of information and then apply very, uh, you know, consistent, uh, uh, rational methods for arriving at their conclusions. 誰が、系統的で、科学的方法に従い、そして、ええと、さまざまな異なる情報源を追求し、そして、ええと、あなたが知っている、一貫した、ええと、ええと、彼らの結論に到達するための合理的な方法を適用します。 kuri ir metodiski un ievēro zinātnisko metodi, izmanto dažādus informācijas avotus un pēc tam izmanto ļoti konsekventas un racionālas metodes, lai nonāktu pie saviem secinājumiem. I still suspect they're going to be, you know, it'll be flavored by their, uh, prejudice going, preconceived idea going in, but that people who can do that is a small minority. 私はまだ彼らがそうなるだろうと思っています、あなたが知っている、それは彼らの、ええと、偏見が起こって、先入観が入ってくることによって味付けされるでしょう、しかしそれをすることができる人々は少数です。 Man joprojām ir aizdomas, ka viņi, ziniet, to ietekmēs viņu aizspriedumi, priekšstati, bet cilvēki, kas to spēj, ir neliels mazākums.

The vast majority of people don't have those skills. Lielākajai daļai cilvēku šādu prasmju nav. And therefore the vast majority of teachers are not in a position to teach those skills. Tāpēc lielākā daļa skolotāju nespēj iemācīt šīs prasmes. And I don't really think those skills exist outside of what we call domain knowledge, knowledge about the subject matter and to get that good knowledge of the subject matter, you have to read a lot. そして、私はそれらのスキルが私たちがドメイン知識、主題についての知識と呼ぶものの外に存在するとは本当に思いません、そして主題についてのその良い知識を得るために、あなたはたくさん読む必要があります。 Un es nedomāju, ka šīs prasmes pastāv ārpus tā, ko mēs saucam par zināšanām attiecīgajā jomā, zināšanām par attiecīgo priekšmetu, un, lai iegūtu labas zināšanas par šo priekšmetu, jums ir daudz jālasa.

So the focus should be on getting students to read more. したがって、焦点は学生にもっと読んでもらうことにあるべきです。 Tāpēc galvenā uzmanība būtu jāpievērš tam, lai skolēni vairāk lasītu. Anyway, that's just a bit of a rant there off my normal subject yet related because as with language learning it's input that helps us grow whether in language or in discovering more about the world. とにかく、それは私の通常の主題から少し離れたところにあるちょっとした怒りですが、言語学習と同様に、言語で、または世界についてもっと発見することで私たちが成長するのに役立つ入力です。 Anyway, tas ir tikai mazliet rant tur pie manas parastās tēmas, tomēr saistīts, jo tāpat kā ar valodas apguvi, tas ir ieguldījums, kas palīdz mums augt vai nu valodu vai atklāt vairāk par pasauli. Thank you for listening. Dziękuję za wysłuchanie. Bye for now.