×

We use cookies to help make LingQ better. By visiting the site, you agree to our cookie policy.


image

TED, Shawn Achor: The happy secret to better work

Shawn Achor: The happy secret to better work

0:11 When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old, we were playing on top of a bunk bed. I was two years older than my sister at the time -- I mean, I'm two years older than her now -- but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do, and I wanted to play war. So we were up on top of our bunk beds. And on one side of the bunk bed, I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry. And on the other side were all my sister's My Little Ponies ready for a cavalry charge.

0:38 There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon, but since my sister is not here with us today, let me tell you the true story -- (Laughter) -- which is my sister's a little bit on the clumsy side. Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all, suddenly Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed and landed with this crash on the floor. Now I nervously peered over the side of the bed to see what had befallen my fallen sister and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees on all fours on the ground.

1:05 I was nervous because my parents had charged me with making sure that my sister and I played as safely and as quietly as possible. And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy's arm just one week before ... (Laughter) ... heroically pushing her out of the way of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet, (Laughter) for which I have yet to be thanked, I was trying as hard as I could -- she didn't even see it coming -- I was trying as hard as I could to be on my best behavior.

1:36 And I saw my sister's face, this wail of pain and suffering and surprise threatening to erupt from her mouth and threatening to wake my parents from the long winter's nap for which they had settled. So I did the only thing my little frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy. And if you have children, you've seen this hundreds of times before. I said, "Amy, Amy, wait. Don't cry. Don't cry. Did you see how you landed? No human lands on all fours like that. Amy, I think this means you're a unicorn." 2:02 (Laughter)

2:05 Now that was cheating, because there was nothing in the world my sister would want more than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister, but Amy the special unicorn. Of course, this was an option that was open to her brain at no point in the past. And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict, as her little brain attempted to devote resources to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise she just experienced, or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn. And the latter won out. Instead of crying, instead of ceasing our play, instead of waking my parents, with all the negative consequences that would have ensued for me, instead a smile spread across her face and she scrambled right back up onto the bunk bed with all the grace of a baby unicorn ... (Laughter) ... with one broken leg.

2:43 What we stumbled across at this tender age of just five and seven -- we had no idea at the time -- was something that was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain. What we had stumbled across is something called positive psychology, which is the reason that I'm here today and the reason that I wake up every morning.

3:02 When I first started talking about this research outside of academia, out with companies and schools, the very first thing they said to never do is to start your talk with a graph. The very first thing I want to do is start my talk with a graph. This graph looks boring, but this graph is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning. And this graph doesn't even mean anything; it's fake data. What we found is --

3:20 (Laughter)

3:24 If I got this data back studying you here in the room, I would be thrilled, because there's very clearly a trend that's going on there, and that means that I can get published, which is all that really matters. The fact that there's one weird red dot that's up above the curve, there's one weirdo in the room -- I know who you are, I saw you earlier -- that's no problem. That's no problem, as most of you know, because I can just delete that dot. I can delete that dot because that's clearly a measurement error. And we know that's a measurement error because it's messing up my data.

3:53 So one of the very first things we teach people in economics and statistics and business and psychology courses is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos. How do we eliminate the outliers so we can find the line of best fit? Which is fantastic if I'm trying to find out how many Advil the average person should be taking -- two. But if I'm interested in potential, if I'm interested in your potential, or for happiness or productivity or energy or creativity, what we're doing is we're creating the cult of the average with science.

4:18 If I asked a question like, "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?" scientists change the answer to "How fast does the average child learn how to read in that classroom?" and then we tailor the class right towards the average. Now if you fall below the average on this curve, then psychologists get thrilled, because that means you're either depressed or you have a disorder, or hopefully both. We're hoping for both because our business model is, if you come into a therapy session with one problem, we want to make sure you leave knowing you have 10, so you keep coming back over and over again. We'll go back into your childhood if necessary, but eventually what we want to do is make you normal again. But normal is merely average.

4:51 And what I posit and what positive psychology posits is that if we study what is merely average, we will remain merely average. Then instead of deleting those positive outliers, what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one and say, why? Why is it that some of you are so high above the curve in terms of your intellectual ability, athletic ability, musical ability, creativity, energy levels, your resiliency in the face of challenge, your sense of humor? Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you. Because maybe we can glean information -- not just how to move people up to the average, but how we can move the entire average up in our companies and schools worldwide.

5:23 The reason this graph is important to me is, when I turn on the news, it seems like the majority of the information is not positive, in fact it's negative. Most of it's about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters. And very quickly, my brain starts to think that's the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world. What that's doing is creating something called the medical school syndrome -- which, if you know people who've been to medical school, during the first year of medical training, as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases that could happen, suddenly you realize you have all of them.

5:48 I have a brother in-law named Bobo -- which is a whole other story. Bobo married Amy the unicorn. Bobo called me on the phone from Yale Medical School, and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy." (Laughter) Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare. But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause.

6:11 (Laughter)

6:13 See what we're finding is it's not necessarily the reality that shapes us, but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality. And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness, we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time.

6:25 When I applied to Harvard, I applied on a dare. I didn't expect to get in, and my family had no money for college. When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they allowed me to go. Suddenly, something that wasn't even a possibility became a reality. When I went there, I assumed everyone else would see it as a privilege as well, that they'd be excited to be there. Even if you're in a classroom full of people smarter than you, you'd be happy just to be in that classroom, which is what I felt. But what I found there is, while some people experience that, when I graduated after my four years and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students -- Harvard asked me to; I wasn't that guy. (Laughter) I was an officer of Harvard to counsel students through the difficult four years. And what I found in my research and my teaching is that these students, no matter how happy they were with their original success of getting into the school, two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there, nor on their philosophy or their physics. Their brain was focused on the competition, the workload, the hassles, the stresses, the complaints.

7:18 When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall, which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up -- I know some of you have heard of it. When they'd come to visit me, they'd look around, they'd say, "This freshman dining hall looks like something out of Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter," which it does. This is Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter" and that's Harvard. And when they see this, they say, "Shawn, why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard? Seriously, what does a Harvard student possibly have to be unhappy about?" 7:41 Embedded within that question is the key to understanding the science of happiness. Because what that question assumes is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels, when in reality, if I know everything about your external world, I can only predict 10 percent of your long-term happiness. 90 percent of your long-term happiness is predicted not by the external world, but by the way your brain processes the world. And if we change it, if we change our formula for happiness and success, what we can do is change the way that we can then affect reality. What we found is that only 25 percent of job successes are predicted by I.Q. 75 percent of job successes are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.

8:21 I talked to a boarding school up in New England, probably the most prestigious boarding school, and they said, "We already know that. So every year, instead of just teaching our students, we also have a wellness week. And we're so excited. Monday night we have the world's leading expert coming in to speak about adolescent depression. Tuesday night it's school violence and bullying. Wednesday night is eating disorders. Thursday night is elicit drug use. And Friday night we're trying to decide between risky sex or happiness." (Laughter) I said, "That's most people's Friday nights." (Laughter) (Applause) Which I'm glad you liked, but they did not like that at all. Silence on the phone. And into the silence, I said, "I'd be happy to speak at your school, but just so you know, that's not a wellness week, that's a sickness week. What you've done is you've outlined all the negative things that can happen, but not talked about the positive." 9:07 The absence of disease is not health. Here's how we get to health: We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success. In the last three years, I've traveled to 45 different countries, working with schools and companies in the midst of an economic downturn. And what I found is that most companies and schools follow a formula for success, which is this: If I work harder, I'll be more successful. And if I'm more successful, then I'll be happier. That undergirds most of our parenting styles, our managing styles, the way that we motivate our behavior.

9:33 And the problem is it's scientifically broken and backwards for two reasons. First, every time your brain has a success, you just changed the goalpost of what success looked like. You got good grades, now you have to get better grades, you got into a good school and after you get into a better school, you got a good job, now you have to get a better job, you hit your sales target, we're going to change your sales target. And if happiness is on the opposite side of success, your brain never gets there. What we've done is we've pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon as a society. And that's because we think we have to be successful, then we'll be happier.

10:01 But the real problem is our brains work in the opposite order. If you can raise somebody's level of positivity in the present, then their brain experiences what we now call a happiness advantage, which is your brain at positive performs significantly better than it does at negative, neutral or stressed. Your intelligence rises, your creativity rises, your energy levels rise. In fact, what we've found is that every single business outcome improves. Your brain at positive is 31 percent more productive than your brain at negative, neutral or stressed. You're 37 percent better at sales. Doctors are 19 percent faster, more accurate at coming up with the correct diagnosis when positive instead of negative, neutral or stressed. Which means we can reverse the formula. If we can find a way of becoming positive in the present, then our brains work even more successfully as we're able to work harder, faster and more intelligently.

10:45 What we need to be able to do is to reverse this formula so we can start to see what our brains are actually capable of. Because dopamine, which floods into your system when you're positive, has two functions. Not only does it make you happier, it turns on all of the learning centers in your brain allowing you to adapt to the world in a different way.

11:01 We've found that there are ways that you can train your brain to be able to become more positive. In just a two-minute span of time done for 21 days in a row, we can actually rewire your brain, allowing your brain to actually work more optimistically and more successfully. We've done these things in research now in every single company that I've worked with, getting them to write down three new things that they're grateful for for 21 days in a row, three new things each day. And at the end of that, their brain starts to retain a pattern of scanning the world, not for the negative, but for the positive first.

11:29 Journaling about one positive experience you've had over the past 24 hours allows your brain to relive it. Exercise teaches your brain that your behavior matters. We find that meditation allows your brain to get over the cultural ADHD that we've been creating by trying to do multiple tasks at once and allows our brains to focus on the task at hand. And finally, random acts of kindness are conscious acts of kindness. We get people, when they open up their inbox, to write one positive email praising or thanking somebody in their social support network.

11:54 And by doing these activities and by training your brain just like we train our bodies, what we've found is we can reverse the formula for happiness and success, and in doing so, not only create ripples of positivity, but create a real revolution.

12:06 Thank you very much.

12:08 (Applause)

Shawn Achor: The happy secret to better work Shawn Achor: Das glückliche Geheimnis für bessere Arbeit Shawn Achor: Achor: Το ευτυχισμένο μυστικό για καλύτερη εργασία Shawn Achor: El secreto feliz para trabajar mejor Shawn Achor : Le secret heureux d'un meilleur travail Shawn Achor: Il segreto della felicità per lavorare meglio ショーン・アコーより良い仕事をするための幸せな秘訣 숀 아코르: 더 나은 업무 수행을 위한 행복한 비결 Shawn Achor: Szczęśliwy sekret lepszej pracy Shawn Achor: O segredo feliz para um trabalho melhor Шон Акор: счастливый секрет лучшей работы Shawn Achor: Daha iyi çalışmanın mutlu sırrı Шон Ачор: Щасливий секрет кращої роботи Shawn Achor:更好工作的快乐秘诀 Shawn Achor:更好工作的快樂秘訣

0:11 When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old, we were playing on top of a bunk bed. 0:11私が7歳で妹が5歳のとき、二段ベッドの上で遊んでいました。 0:11 제가 일곱 살, 동생이 다섯 살이었을 때 우리는 이층 침대 위에서 놀고 있었어요. I was two years older than my sister at the time -- I mean, I’m two years older than her now -- but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do, and I wanted to play war. 私は当時妹より2歳年上でした-つまり、私は今彼女より2歳年上です-当時、彼女は私がやりたいことすべてをしなければならず、戦争をしたかったのです。 。 당시 저는 누나보다 두 살 많았지만(지금은 누나보다 두 살 많지만), 당시에는 누나가 제가 하고 싶은 모든 것을 해야 했고, 저는 전쟁을 하고 싶었습니다. So we were up on top of our bunk beds. 私たちは二段ベッドの上にいました。 그래서 저희는 이층 침대 위에 올라가 있었습니다. And on one side of the bunk bed, I had put out all of my G.I. そして二段ベッドの片側に、私はすべてのGIを消していた 그리고 이층 침대 한쪽에는 제 G.I.를 모두 꺼내놓았습니다. И на одной стороне двухъярусной кровати я вытащил весь свой GI. 在双层床的一侧,我把我所有的退伍军人都拿出来了 Joe soldiers and weaponry. ジョーの兵士と兵器。 조 병사와 무기. And on the other side were all my sister’s My Little Ponies ready for a cavalry charge. Et de l'autre côté, tous mes petits poneys de ma sœur étaient prêts pour une charge de cavalerie. そして反対側には、私の妹のすべてのマイリトルポニーが騎兵隊の突撃の準備ができていました。 另一边,我姐姐的所有小马驹都做好了骑兵冲锋的准备。

0:38 There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon, but since my sister is not here with us today, let me tell you the true story -- (Laughter) -- which is my sister’s a little bit on the clumsy side. 0:38 Il y a des récits différents sur ce qui s'est passé cet après-midi-là, mais comme ma sœur n'est pas ici avec nous aujourd'hui, laissez-moi vous raconter la vraie histoire -- (Rires) -- qui est que ma sœur est un peu maladroite. 0:38その午後に実際に何が起こったかについてはさまざまな説明がありますが、私の妹は今日私たちと一緒ではないので、本当の話をお話ししましょう-(笑い)-これは私の妹が少し不器用な側です。 0:38 그날 오후에 실제로 무슨 일이 있었는지에 대해서는 여러 가지 이야기가 있지만, 오늘은 제 여동생이 함께 있지 않으니 제가 실화를 말씀드리겠습니다(웃음) - 제 여동생은 조금 서투른 편입니다. 0:38 Существуют разные версии того, что на самом деле произошло в тот день, но поскольку моей сестры сегодня с нами нет, позвольте мне рассказать вам правдивую историю — (Смех) — моя сестра немного неуклюжая. . Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all, suddenly Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed and landed with this crash on the floor. どういうわけか、まったく助けも兄も押し付けずに、エイミーは突然二段ベッドの上から姿を消し、この衝突で床に着陸しました。 어떻게 된 일인지 오빠의 도움이나 밀지도 않았는데 갑자기 에이미는 이층 침대 꼭대기에서 사라져 바닥에 추락하고 말았습니다. Каким-то образом, без какой-либо помощи или толчка со стороны старшего брата, Эми внезапно исчезла с верхней части двухъярусной кровати и с грохотом приземлилась на пол. 不知何故,在没有哥哥的任何帮助或推动的情况下,艾米突然从双层床的顶部消失了,然后重重地摔在了地板上。 Now I nervously peered over the side of the bed to see what had befallen my fallen sister and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees on all fours on the ground. Maintenant, je regardais nerveusement par-dessus le côté du lit pour voir ce qui était arrivé à ma sœur décédée et je vis qu'elle avait atterri douloureusement sur ses mains et ses genoux à quatre pattes sur le sol. 今、私は緊張してベッドの横をじっと見つめ、落ちた姉に何が起こったのかを見て、彼女が地面の四つんばいで手と膝に痛々しく着地したのを見ました。 저는 긴장한 마음으로 침대 옆을 들여다보며 쓰러진 누나에게 무슨 일이 일어났는지 확인했고, 누나가 네 발로 바닥에 고통스럽게 무릎을 꿇고 엎드린 것을 보았습니다.

1:05 I was nervous because my parents had charged me with making sure that my sister and I played as safely and as quietly as possible. And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy’s arm just one week before ... (Laughter) ... heroically pushing her out of the way of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet, (Laughter) for which I have yet to be thanked, I was trying as hard as I could -- she didn’t even see it coming -- I was trying as hard as I could to be on my best behavior. Et vu comment j'avais accidentellement cassé le bras d'Amy juste une semaine avant ... (Rires) ... la poussant héroïquement hors du chemin d'une balle de tireur d'élite imaginaire imminente, (Rires) pour laquelle je n'ai pas encore été remercié, je J'essayais aussi fort que je pouvais - elle ne le voyait même pas venir - j'essayais de mon mieux d'être sur mon meilleur comportement. そして、1週間前にエイミーの腕を誤って折った様子を見て...(笑い)...まだ感謝されていない、近づいてくる架空の狙撃弾の邪魔にならないように英雄的に彼女を押し出しました。私はできる限り一生懸命努力していました-彼女はそれが来るのを見さえしませんでした-私は最善の行動をとれるようにできる限り一生懸命努力していました。 И видя, как я случайно сломал Эми руку всего неделю назад ... (Смех) ... героически оттолкнул ее от приближающейся воображаемой снайперской пули (Смех), за что меня еще не поблагодарили, я старался изо всех сил - она даже не предвидела этого - я изо всех сил старался вести себя как можно лучше.

1:36 And I saw my sister’s face, this wail of pain and suffering and surprise threatening to erupt from her mouth and threatening to wake my parents from the long winter’s nap for which they had settled. 1:36 Et j'ai vu le visage de ma sœur, ce gémissement de douleur et de souffrance et de surprise menaçant de jaillir de sa bouche et menaçant de réveiller mes parents de la longue sieste d'hiver pour laquelle ils s'étaient installés. 1:36わたしは姉の顔を見た。痛みと苦しみのこの嘆きと驚きは、彼女の口から噴出すると脅迫し、両親が落ち着いた長い冬の昼寝から両親を目覚めさせると脅迫した。 1:36 И я увидел лицо моей сестры, этот вопль боли, страдания и удивления, который грозил вырваться из ее уст и грозил разбудить моих родителей от долгого зимнего сна, для которого они привыкли. So I did the only thing my little frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy. J'ai donc fait la seule chose que mon petit cerveau effréné de sept ans pouvait penser à faire pour éviter cette tragédie. And if you have children, you’ve seen this hundreds of times before. I said, "Amy, Amy, wait. Don’t cry. Don’t cry. Did you see how you landed? No human lands on all fours like that. Amy, I think this means you’re a unicorn." Amy, je pense que cela signifie que tu es une licorne." 2:02 (Laughter)

2:05 Now that was cheating, because there was nothing in the world my sister would want more than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister, but Amy the special unicorn. 2:05 C'était de la triche, parce qu'il n'y avait rien au monde que ma sœur aurait voulu plus que de ne pas être Amy la petite sœur blessée de cinq ans, mais Amy la licorne spéciale. 2:05 Это был обман, потому что в этом мире не было ничего, что моя сестра хотела бы больше, чем Эми, раненая пятилетняя младшая сестра, а Эми, особенный единорог. Of course, this was an option that was open to her brain at no point in the past. Bien sûr, c'est une option qui n'a jamais été ouverte à son cerveau dans le passé. Конечно, это был вариант, который никогда не был доступен ей в прошлом. And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict, as her little brain attempted to devote resources to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise she just experienced, or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn. Et l'on pouvait voir comment ma pauvre sœur manipulée était confrontée à un conflit, alors que son petit cerveau tentait de consacrer ses ressources à ressentir la douleur, la souffrance et la surprise qu'elle venait de vivre, ou à contempler sa nouvelle identité en tant que licorne. И вы могли видеть, как моя бедная, управляемая сестра столкнулась с конфликтом, поскольку ее маленький мозг пытался направить ресурсы на то, чтобы ощутить боль, страдание и удивление, которые она только что пережила, или созерцать свою новообретенную идентичность единорога. And the latter won out. Et c'est cette dernière qui l'a emporté. И последний победил. Instead of crying, instead of ceasing our play, instead of waking my parents, with all the negative consequences that would have ensued for me, instead a smile spread across her face and she scrambled right back up onto the bunk bed with all the grace of a baby unicorn ... (Laughter) ... with one broken leg. En lugar de llorar, en lugar de detener nuestro juego, en lugar de despertar a mis padres, con todas las consecuencias negativas que habría tenido para mí, en lugar de eso, una sonrisa se dibujó en su rostro y se apresuró a volver a la litera con toda la gracia de Un bebé unicornio ... (Risas) ... con una pierna rota. Au lieu de pleurer, au lieu de cesser notre jeu, au lieu de réveiller mes parents, avec toutes les conséquences négatives qui en auraient découlé pour moi, au lieu de cela, un sourire s'est répandu sur son visage et elle s'est précipitée sur le lit superposé avec toute la grâce de un bébé licorne ... (rire) ... avec une jambe cassée.

2:43 What we stumbled across at this tender age of just five and seven -- we had no idea at the time -- was something that was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain. 2:43 Lo que nos encontramos en esta tierna edad de solo cinco y siete años (no teníamos idea en ese momento) era algo que iba a estar a la vanguardia de una revolución científica que se produjo dos décadas más tarde en la forma en que nos vemos. en el cerebro humano. 2:43 Ce sur quoi nous sommes tombés par hasard à cet âge tendre de cinq et sept ans - nous n'avions aucune idée à l'époque - était quelque chose qui allait être à l'avant-garde d'une révolution scientifique qui se produirait deux décennies plus tard à notre manière au cerveau humain. 2:43 То, на что мы наткнулись в этом нежном возрасте всего пяти и семи лет - мы понятия не имели в то время - было чем-то, что должно было быть в авангарде научной революции, происходящей два десятилетия спустя в том, как мы выглядим. в человеческий мозг. What we had stumbled across is something called positive psychology, which is the reason that I’m here today and the reason that I wake up every morning. Lo que habíamos tropezado es algo llamado psicología positiva, que es la razón por la que estoy aquí hoy y la razón por la que me levanto cada mañana. Nous sommes tombés sur quelque chose qui s'appelle la psychologie positive, qui est la raison pour laquelle je suis ici aujourd'hui et la raison pour laquelle je me réveille chaque matin. Мы наткнулись на то, что называется позитивной психологией, поэтому я здесь сегодня и просыпаюсь каждое утро.

3:02 When I first started talking about this research outside of academia, out with companies and schools, the very first thing they said to never do is to start your talk with a graph. 3:02 Cuando empecé a hablar de esta investigación fuera del mundo académico, en empresas y escuelas, lo primero que me dijeron es que nunca empezara mi charla con un gráfico. 3:02 Quand j'ai commencé à parler de cette recherche en dehors du milieu universitaire, avec des entreprises et des écoles, la toute première chose qu'ils ont dit de ne jamais faire est de commencer votre exposé avec un graphique. 3:02 Когда я впервые заговорил об этом исследовании вне академических кругов, с компаниями и школами, первое, что они сказали никогда не делать, - это начинать разговор с графика. The very first thing I want to do is start my talk with a graph. Lo primero que quiero hacer es comenzar mi charla con un gráfico. This graph looks boring, but this graph is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning. Este gráfico parece aburrido, pero este es el motivo por el que me emociono y me levanto cada mañana. Этот график выглядит скучным, но он является причиной того, что я волнуюсь и просыпаюсь каждое утро. And this graph doesn’t even mean anything; it’s fake data. Y esta gráfica ni siquiera significa nada; Son datos falsos. Et ce graphique ne veut même rien dire, ce sont de fausses données. What we found is --

3:20 (Laughter)

3:24 If I got this data back studying you here in the room, I would be thrilled, because there’s very clearly a trend that’s going on there, and that means that I can get published, which is all that really matters. 3:24 Si volviera a estudiar estos datos aquí en la sala, me encantaría, porque claramente hay una tendencia que está ocurriendo allí, y eso significa que puedo publicarme, que es todo lo que realmente importa. 3:24 Si je recevais ces données en retour pour les étudier ici dans la salle, je serais ravi, parce qu'il y a très clairement une tendance qui se dessine, et cela signifie que je peux être publié, ce qui est tout ce qui compte vraiment. 3:24 Если бы я получил эти данные, изучая вас здесь, в комнате, я был бы в восторге, потому что там очень четко просматривается тенденция, и это означает, что я могу опубликоваться, а это все, что действительно имеет значение. The fact that there’s one weird red dot that’s up above the curve, there’s one weirdo in the room -- I know who you are, I saw you earlier -- that’s no problem. El hecho de que hay un extraño punto rojo que está arriba de la curva, hay un bicho raro en la habitación. Sé quién eres, te vi antes, eso no es un problema. Le fait qu'il y ait un point rouge bizarre au-dessus de la courbe, qu'il y ait une personne bizarre dans la salle - je sais qui vous êtes, je vous ai vu tout à l'heure - n'est pas un problème. Тот факт, что есть одна странная красная точка, которая находится над кривой, в комнате есть один чудак - я знаю, кто вы, я видел вас раньше - это не проблема. That’s no problem, as most of you know, because I can just delete that dot. Eso no es un problema, como la mayoría de ustedes saben, porque simplemente puedo eliminar ese punto. I can delete that dot because that’s clearly a measurement error. Puedo eliminar ese punto porque eso es claramente un error de medición. And we know that’s a measurement error because it’s messing up my data. Y sabemos que es un error de medición porque está arruinando mis datos. Et nous savons qu'il s'agit d'une erreur de mesure parce qu'elle perturbe mes données. И мы знаем, что это ошибка измерения, потому что она портит мои данные.

3:53 So one of the very first things we teach people in economics and statistics and business and psychology courses is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos. 3:53 Entonces, una de las primeras cosas que enseñamos a las personas en economía, estadística y cursos de negocios y psicología es cómo, de una manera estadísticamente válida, eliminamos a los raros. 3:53 Donc, l'une des toutes premières choses que nous enseignons aux gens dans les cours d'économie, de statistique et de commerce et de psychologie est de savoir comment, d'une manière statistiquement valable, éliminons-nous les bizarres. How do we eliminate the outliers so we can find the line of best fit? ¿Cómo eliminamos los valores atípicos para poder encontrar la línea de mejor ajuste? Comment éliminer les valeurs aberrantes afin de trouver la ligne de meilleur ajustement ? Как нам устранить выбросы, чтобы найти наиболее подходящую линию? Which is fantastic if I’m trying to find out how many Advil the average person should be taking -- two. Lo que es fantástico si estoy tratando de averiguar cuántos Advil debería tomar la persona promedio: dos. Ce qui est fantastique si j'essaie de savoir combien d'Advil une personne moyenne devrait prendre... deux. Dat is fantastisch als ik probeer uit te vinden hoeveel Advil de gemiddelde persoon zou moeten nemen - twee. But if I’m interested in potential, if I’m interested in your potential, or for happiness or productivity or energy or creativity, what we’re doing is we’re creating the cult of the average with science. Aber wenn ich an Potenzialen interessiert bin, wenn ich an Ihrem Potenzial interessiert bin oder an Glück oder Produktivität oder Energie oder Kreativität, dann schaffen wir mit der Wissenschaft den Kult des Durchschnitts. Pero si estoy interesado en el potencial, si estoy interesado en tu potencial, o en la felicidad, la productividad, la energía o la creatividad, lo que estamos haciendo es crear el culto del promedio con la ciencia. Но если меня интересует потенциал, если меня интересует ваш потенциал, счастье, продуктивность, энергия или творчество, мы делаем то, что мы делаем, так это создаем культ среднего с помощью науки.

4:18 If I asked a question like, "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?" 4:18 Si je posais une question telle que "À quelle vitesse un enfant peut-il apprendre à lire dans une salle de classe ?" scientists change the answer to "How fast does the average child learn how to read in that classroom?" Les scientifiques modifient la réponse à "A quelle vitesse l'enfant moyen apprend-il à lire dans cette classe ?". and then we tailor the class right towards the average. y luego adaptamos la clase a la media. Now if you fall below the average on this curve, then psychologists get thrilled, because that means you’re either depressed or you have a disorder, or hopefully both. Ahora, si cae por debajo del promedio en esta curva, entonces los psicólogos se emocionan, porque eso significa que usted está deprimido o tiene un trastorno, o con suerte ambos. Si vous vous situez en dessous de la moyenne sur cette courbe, les psychologues sont ravis, car cela signifie que vous êtes soit déprimé, soit atteint d'un trouble, soit, si possible, des deux. We’re hoping for both because our business model is, if you come into a therapy session with one problem, we want to make sure you leave knowing you have 10, so you keep coming back over and over again. Esperamos ambas cosas porque nuestro modelo de negocio es que, si entra en una sesión de terapia con un solo problema, queremos asegurarnos de que salga sabiendo que tiene 10, por lo que sigue regresando una y otra vez. Nous espérons les deux, car notre modèle d'entreprise est le suivant : si vous venez à une séance de thérapie avec un problème, nous voulons nous assurer que vous repartirez en sachant que vous en avez dix, de sorte que vous reviendrez encore et encore. Мы надеемся на и то, и другое, потому что наша бизнес-модель такова: если вы приходите на сеанс терапии с одной проблемой, мы хотим убедиться, что вы уходите, зная, что у вас их 10, чтобы вы возвращались снова и снова. We’ll go back into your childhood if necessary, but eventually what we want to do is make you normal again. Nous retournerons dans votre enfance si nécessaire, mais ce que nous voulons finalement, c'est vous rendre normal. При необходимости мы вернемся в ваше детство, но в конечном итоге мы хотим сделать вас снова нормальным. But normal is merely average. Pero lo normal es meramente promedio.

4:51 And what I posit and what positive psychology posits is that if we study what is merely average, we will remain merely average. 4:51 Und was ich postuliere und was die positive Psychologie postuliert, ist, dass wir nur durchschnittlich bleiben, wenn wir studieren, was nur durchschnittlich ist. 4:51 Lo que yo planteo y lo que plantea la psicología positiva es que si estudiamos lo que es meramente promedio, seguiremos siendo meramente promedio. 4:51 Et ce que je pose et ce que la psychologie positive postule, c'est que si nous étudions ce qui est simplement moyen, nous resterons simplement moyen. Then instead of deleting those positive outliers, what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one and say, why? Luego, en lugar de eliminar esos valores atípicos positivos, lo que intencionalmente hago es ingresar a una población como esta y decir, ¿por qué? Ensuite, au lieu de supprimer ces valeurs aberrantes positives, ce que je fais intentionnellement, c'est entrer dans une population comme celle-ci et dire pourquoi? Затем, вместо того, чтобы удалять эти положительные выбросы, я намеренно попадаю в такую популяцию и спрашиваю, почему? Why is it that some of you are so high above the curve in terms of your intellectual ability, athletic ability, musical ability, creativity, energy levels, your resiliency in the face of challenge, your sense of humor? ¿Por qué es que algunos de ustedes están muy por encima de la curva en términos de su capacidad intelectual, habilidad atlética, habilidad musical, creatividad, niveles de energía, su resistencia frente al desafío, su sentido del humor? Pourquoi certains d'entre vous sont-ils si haut au-dessus de la courbe en termes de capacité intellectuelle, de capacité athlétique, de capacité musicale, de créativité, d'énergie, de résilience face aux défis, de sens de l'humour? Почему так получается, что некоторые из вас так высоко превосходят свои интеллектуальные способности, спортивные способности, музыкальные способности, творческие способности, уровень энергии, стойкость перед лицом вызовов, чувство юмора? Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you. Sea lo que sea, en lugar de borrarte, lo que quiero hacer es estudiarte. Что бы это ни было, вместо того, чтобы удалить вас, я хочу изучить вас. Because maybe we can glean information -- not just how to move people up to the average, but how we can move the entire average up in our companies and schools worldwide. Porque tal vez podamos recopilar información, no solo cómo hacer que las personas alcancen el promedio, sino cómo podemos aumentar el promedio en nuestras empresas y escuelas de todo el mundo. Parce que nous pouvons peut-être glaner des informations - pas seulement comment amener les gens à la moyenne, mais comment nous pouvons faire monter la moyenne entière dans nos entreprises et nos écoles du monde entier. Потому что, возможно, мы сможем собрать информацию - не только о том, как поднять людей до среднего уровня, но и как мы можем поднять средний уровень в наших компаниях и школах по всему миру.

5:23 The reason this graph is important to me is, when I turn on the news, it seems like the majority of the information is not positive, in fact it’s negative. 5:23 La razón por la que este gráfico es importante para mí es que, cuando enciendo las noticias, parece que la mayoría de la información no es positiva, de hecho es negativa. Most of it’s about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters. La mayor parte se trata de asesinatos, corrupción, enfermedades, desastres naturales. And very quickly, my brain starts to think that’s the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world. Et très vite, mon cerveau se met à penser que c'est le rapport exact entre le négatif et le positif dans le monde. What that’s doing is creating something called the medical school syndrome -- which, if you know people who’ve been to medical school, during the first year of medical training, as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases that could happen, suddenly you realize you have all of them. Ce que cela fait, c'est créer quelque chose appelé le syndrome de la faculté de médecine - qui, si vous connaissez des gens qui ont été à l'école de médecine, au cours de la première année de formation médicale, en lisant une liste de tous les symptômes et maladies qui pourraient survenir. , tout à coup vous réalisez que vous les avez tous. Это приводит к возникновению так называемого синдрома медицинской школы, который, если вы знаете людей, которые учились в медицинской школе, в течение первого года обучения, когда вы читаете список всех симптомов и заболеваний, которые могут произойти. , внезапно вы понимаете, что у вас есть все.

5:48 I have a brother in-law named Bobo -- which is a whole other story. 5:48 J'ai un beau-frère qui s'appelle Bobo - ce qui est une toute autre histoire. Bobo married Amy the unicorn. Bobo a épousé Amy la licorne. Bobo called me on the phone from Yale Medical School, and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy." Bobo m'a appelé de l'école de médecine de Yale et m'a dit : "Shawn, j'ai la lèpre." Бобо позвонил мне по телефону из Йельской медицинской школы, и Бобо сказал: «Шон, у меня проказа». (Laughter) Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare. (Смех) Что, даже в Йельском университете, необычайно редко. But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause. Pero no tenía ni idea de cómo consolar al pobre Bobo porque acababa de superar una semana entera de menopausia. Mais je n'avais aucune idée de comment consoler le pauvre Bobo parce qu'il venait de se remettre d'une semaine entière de ménopause. Но я не знала, как утешить бедного Бобо, потому что он только что пережил целую неделю менопаузы.

6:11 (Laughter)

6:13 See what we’re finding is it’s not necessarily the reality that shapes us, but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality. 6:13 Mira, lo que estamos descubriendo es que no es necesariamente la realidad que nos forma, sino la lente a través de la cual tu cerebro ve el mundo que da forma a tu realidad. 6:13 Понимаете, мы обнаруживаем, что не обязательно реальность формирует нас, а линза, через которую ваш мозг смотрит на мир, формирует вашу реальность. And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness, we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time. Y si podemos cambiar la lente, no solo podemos cambiar su felicidad, sino que también podemos cambiar todos los resultados educativos y empresariales al mismo tiempo.

6:25 When I applied to Harvard, I applied on a dare. 6:25 Quand j'ai postulé à Harvard, j'ai posé ma candidature sur un défi. 6:25 Quando me inscrevi em Harvard, me inscrevi em um desafio. 6:25 Когда я подал заявление в Гарвард, я подал заявку. I didn’t expect to get in, and my family had no money for college. Je ne m'attendais pas à être acceptée et ma famille n'avait pas d'argent pour l'université. When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they allowed me to go. Cuando obtuve una beca militar dos semanas después, me permitieron ir. Когда две недели спустя я получил военную стипендию, меня отпустили. Suddenly, something that wasn’t even a possibility became a reality. De repente, algo que ni siquiera era una posibilidad se hizo realidad. When I went there, I assumed everyone else would see it as a privilege as well, that they’d be excited to be there. Lorsque j'y suis allé, j'ai supposé que tous les autres verraient cela comme un privilège, qu'ils seraient ravis d'être là. Когда я приехал туда, я предполагал, что все остальные тоже сочтут это за честь, что они будут рады быть там. Even if you’re in a classroom full of people smarter than you, you’d be happy just to be in that classroom, which is what I felt. Incluso si estás en un aula llena de gente más inteligente que tú, estarías feliz de estar en ese aula, que es lo que sentí. But what I found there is, while some people experience that, when I graduated after my four years and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students -- Harvard asked me to; I wasn’t that guy. Pero lo que encontré allí es, mientras que algunas personas experimentan eso, cuando me gradué después de mis cuatro años y luego pasé los siguientes ocho años viviendo en los dormitorios con los estudiantes: Harvard me lo pidió; Yo no era ese tipo. Mais ce que j'ai trouvé là-bas, c'est que certaines personnes en font l'expérience, lorsque j'ai obtenu mon diplôme après mes quatre ans et que j'ai passé les huit années suivantes à vivre dans les dortoirs avec les étudiants - Harvard m'a demandé de le faire; Je n'étais pas ce type. (Laughter) I was an officer of Harvard to counsel students through the difficult four years. (Risas) Fui un oficial de Harvard para aconsejar a los estudiantes durante los difíciles cuatro años. (Rires) J'étais un officier de Harvard pour conseiller les étudiants à travers les quatre années difficiles. And what I found in my research and my teaching is that these students, no matter how happy they were with their original success of getting into the school, two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there, nor on their philosophy or their physics. Y lo que encontré en mi investigación y en mi enseñanza es que estos estudiantes, sin importar cuán felices estuvieran con su éxito original de ingresar a la escuela, dos semanas después, sus cerebros estaban enfocados, no en el privilegio de estar allí, ni en su La filosofía o su física. Et ce que j'ai trouvé dans mes recherches et mon enseignement, c'est que ces élèves, peu importe à quel point ils étaient heureux de leur succès initial à entrer à l'école, deux semaines plus tard, leur cerveau était concentré, pas sur le privilège d'être là, ni sur leur philosophie ou leur physique. Their brain was focused on the competition, the workload, the hassles, the stresses, the complaints. Su cerebro estaba centrado en la competencia, la carga de trabajo, las molestias, las tensiones, las quejas. Leur cerveau était concentré sur la concurrence, la charge de travail, les tracas, le stress, les plaintes.

7:18 When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall, which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up -- I know some of you have heard of it. 7:18 Lorsque je suis entré pour la première fois, j'ai pénétré dans le réfectoire des étudiants de première année, où se trouvaient mes amis de Waco, au Texas, où j'ai grandi - je sais que certains d'entre vous en ont entendu parler. When they’d come to visit me, they’d look around, they’d say, "This freshman dining hall looks like something out of Hogwart’s from the movie "Harry Potter," which it does. Quand ils venaient me rendre visite, ils regardaient autour d'eux, ils disaient: "Cette salle à manger de première année ressemble à quelque chose de Poudlard du film" Harry Potter ", ce qu'il fait. This is Hogwart’s from the movie "Harry Potter" and that’s Harvard. And when they see this, they say, "Shawn, why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard? Et quand ils voient cela, ils disent : "Shawn, pourquoi perds-tu ton temps à étudier le bonheur à Harvard ? Seriously, what does a Harvard student possibly have to be unhappy about?" Sérieusement, qu'est-ce qu'un étudiant de Harvard peut bien avoir à se reprocher ?" 7:41 Embedded within that question is the key to understanding the science of happiness. 7:41 Integrado dentro de esa pregunta es la clave para entender la ciencia de la felicidad. 7:41 La clé pour comprendre la science du bonheur est intégrée à cette question. 7:41 В этом вопросе заключен ключ к пониманию науки о счастье. Because what that question assumes is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels, when in reality, if I know everything about your external world, I can only predict 10 percent of your long-term happiness. Porque lo que esa pregunta supone es que nuestro mundo exterior predice nuestros niveles de felicidad, cuando en realidad, si lo sé todo sobre tu mundo exterior, sólo puedo predecir el 10 por ciento de tu felicidad a largo plazo. Parce que ce que cette question suppose, c'est que notre monde extérieur est prédictif de nos niveaux de bonheur, alors qu'en réalité, si je sais tout sur votre monde extérieur, je ne peux prédire que 10% de votre bonheur à long terme. 90 percent of your long-term happiness is predicted not by the external world, but by the way your brain processes the world. And if we change it, if we change our formula for happiness and success, what we can do is change the way that we can then affect reality. What we found is that only 25 percent of job successes are predicted by I.Q. Nous avons constaté que le Q.I. ne permet de prédire que 25 % des réussites professionnelles. 75 percent of job successes are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.

8:21 I talked to a boarding school up in New England, probably the most prestigious boarding school, and they said, "We already know that. 8:21 J'ai parlé à un internat de la Nouvelle-Angleterre, probablement l'internat le plus prestigieux, et ils m'ont dit : "Nous le savons déjà. So every year, instead of just teaching our students, we also have a wellness week. Ainsi, chaque année, au lieu de nous contenter d'enseigner à nos étudiants, nous organisons également une semaine du bien-être. And we’re so excited. Monday night we have the world’s leading expert coming in to speak about adolescent depression. Tuesday night it’s school violence and bullying. Wednesday night is eating disorders. El miércoles por la noche son los trastornos alimentarios. Thursday night is elicit drug use. Jeudi soir, c'est la consommation de drogue Вечер четверга - это явное употребление наркотиков. And Friday night we’re trying to decide between risky sex or happiness." (Laughter) I said, "That’s most people’s Friday nights." (Rires) J'ai dit: "C'est le vendredi soir de la plupart des gens." (Laughter) (Applause) Which I’m glad you liked, but they did not like that at all. Silence on the phone. And into the silence, I said, "I’d be happy to speak at your school, but just so you know, that’s not a wellness week, that’s a sickness week. Y en el silencio, dije: "Me encantaría hablar en tu escuela, pero para que lo sepas, no es una semana de bienestar, es una semana de enfermedad. What you’ve done is you’ve outlined all the negative things that can happen, but not talked about the positive." Lo que has hecho es que has descrito todas las cosas negativas que pueden suceder, pero no has hablado de lo positivo ". 9:07 The absence of disease is not health. 9:07 La ausencia de enfermedad no es salud. Here’s how we get to health: We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success. In the last three years, I’ve traveled to 45 different countries, working with schools and companies in the midst of an economic downturn. Au cours des trois dernières années, j'ai voyagé dans 45 pays différents, travaillant avec des écoles et des entreprises en pleine crise économique. And what I found is that most companies and schools follow a formula for success, which is this: If I work harder, I’ll be more successful. And if I’m more successful, then I’ll be happier. That undergirds most of our parenting styles, our managing styles, the way that we motivate our behavior. Eso apoya la mayoría de nuestros estilos de crianza, nuestros estilos de gestión, la forma en que motivamos nuestro comportamiento. Cela sous-tend la plupart de nos styles parentaux, nos styles de gestion, la façon dont nous motivons notre comportement. Dat ondersteunt de meeste van onze opvoedingsstijlen, onze managementstijlen, de manier waarop we ons gedrag motiveren.

9:33 And the problem is it’s scientifically broken and backwards for two reasons. 9:33 Y el problema es que está científicamente roto y al revés por dos razones. 9:33 Et le problème est que c'est scientifiquement cassé et inversé pour deux raisons. 9:33 И проблема в том, что это научно неверно по двум причинам. First, every time your brain has a success, you just changed the goalpost of what success looked like. Premièrement, à chaque fois que votre cerveau réussit, vous venez de changer l'objectif de ce à quoi ressemblait le succès. You got good grades, now you have to get better grades, you got into a good school and after you get into a better school, you got a good job, now you have to get a better job, you hit your sales target, we’re going to change your sales target. Obtuviste buenas calificaciones, ahora tienes que obtener mejores calificaciones, ingresaste en una buena escuela y después de ingresar en una mejor escuela, obtuviste un buen trabajo, ahora tienes que conseguir un mejor trabajo, alcanzas tu objetivo de ventas. Vamos a cambiar tu objetivo de ventas. Vous avez obtenu de bonnes notes, vous devez maintenant obtenir de meilleures notes, vous avez été admis dans une bonne école et après avoir été admis dans une meilleure école, vous avez obtenu un bon emploi, vous devez maintenant obtenir un meilleur emploi, vous avez atteint votre objectif de vente, nous allons changer votre objectif de vente. У вас хорошие оценки, теперь вам нужно получить более высокие оценки, вы поступили в хорошую школу, а после того, как вы попали в лучшую школу, у вас есть хорошая работа, теперь вам нужно получить лучшую работу, вы достигли своей цели продаж, мы собираемся изменить вашу цель продаж. And if happiness is on the opposite side of success, your brain never gets there. Y si la felicidad está en el lado opuesto del éxito, tu cerebro nunca llega allí. Et si le bonheur est à l'opposé de la réussite, votre cerveau n'y arrivera jamais. What we’ve done is we’ve pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon as a society. Lo que hemos hecho es empujar la felicidad en el horizonte cognitivo como sociedad. And that’s because we think we have to be successful, then we’ll be happier.

10:01 But the real problem is our brains work in the opposite order. 10:01 Mais le vrai problème est que notre cerveau fonctionne dans l'ordre inverse. If you can raise somebody’s level of positivity in the present, then their brain experiences what we now call a happiness advantage, which is your brain at positive performs significantly better than it does at negative, neutral or stressed. Si se consigue elevar el nivel de positividad de alguien en el presente, su cerebro experimenta lo que ahora llamamos una ventaja de felicidad, que consiste en que tu cerebro en positivo rinde significativamente más que en negativo, neutro o estresado. Si l'on parvient à augmenter le niveau de positivité d'une personne dans le présent, son cerveau expérimente ce que l'on appelle aujourd'hui un avantage du bonheur, c'est-à-dire que le cerveau est nettement plus performant lorsqu'il est positif que lorsqu'il est négatif, neutre ou stressé. Your intelligence rises, your creativity rises, your energy levels rise. In fact, what we’ve found is that every single business outcome improves. En fait, ce que nous avons constaté, c'est que chaque résultat commercial s'améliore. Your brain at positive is 31 percent more productive than your brain at negative, neutral or stressed. You’re 37 percent better at sales. Doctors are 19 percent faster, more accurate at coming up with the correct diagnosis when positive instead of negative, neutral or stressed. Which means we can reverse the formula. If we can find a way of becoming positive in the present, then our brains work even more successfully as we’re able to work harder, faster and more intelligently.

10:45 What we need to be able to do is to reverse this formula so we can start to see what our brains are actually capable of. Because dopamine, which floods into your system when you’re positive, has two functions. Not only does it make you happier, it turns on all of the learning centers in your brain allowing you to adapt to the world in a different way.

11:01 We’ve found that there are ways that you can train your brain to be able to become more positive. In just a two-minute span of time done for 21 days in a row, we can actually rewire your brain, allowing your brain to actually work more optimistically and more successfully. En tan solo un lapso de tiempo de dos minutos durante 21 días seguidos, podemos reconfigurar su cerebro, lo que le permite a su cerebro funcionar de manera más optimista y exitosa. En seulement deux minutes, pendant 21 jours d'affilée, il est possible de recâbler le cerveau et de lui permettre de fonctionner de manière plus optimiste et plus fructueuse. We’ve done these things in research now in every single company that I’ve worked with, getting them to write down three new things that they’re grateful for for 21 days in a row, three new things each day. Hemos hecho estas cosas investigando ahora en cada una de las compañías con las que he trabajado, logrando que escriban tres cosas nuevas por las que están agradecidos durante 21 días seguidos, tres cosas nuevas cada día. Nous avons fait ces recherches dans toutes les entreprises avec lesquelles j'ai travaillé, en leur demandant d'écrire trois nouvelles choses dont ils sont reconnaissants pendant 21 jours d'affilée, trois nouvelles choses chaque jour. And at the end of that, their brain starts to retain a pattern of scanning the world, not for the negative, but for the positive first. И в конце концов их мозг начинает сохранять шаблон сканирования мира, не в поисках негатива, а в первую очередь в поисках позитива.

11:29 Journaling about one positive experience you’ve had over the past 24 hours allows your brain to relive it. 11:29 Registrar un diario sobre una experiencia positiva que ha tenido en las últimas 24 horas le permite a su cerebro revivirla. 11:29 Tenir un journal sur une expérience positive que vous avez vécue au cours des dernières 24 heures permet à votre cerveau de la revivre. Exercise teaches your brain that your behavior matters. We find that meditation allows your brain to get over the cultural ADHD that we’ve been creating by trying to do multiple tasks at once and allows our brains to focus on the task at hand. Descubrimos que la meditación le permite a su cerebro superar el TDAH cultural que hemos estado creando al intentar realizar múltiples tareas a la vez y permite que nuestro cerebro se enfoque en la tarea en cuestión. Nous constatons que la méditation permet à votre cerveau de surmonter le TDAH culturel que nous avons créé en essayant de faire plusieurs tâches à la fois et permet à notre cerveau de se concentrer sur la tâche à accomplir. And finally, random acts of kindness are conscious acts of kindness. Y finalmente, los actos aleatorios de bondad son actos conscientes de bondad. Enfin, les actes de bonté aléatoires sont des actes de bonté conscients. We get people, when they open up their inbox, to write one positive email praising or thanking somebody in their social support network. Cuando abren su bandeja de entrada, hacemos que las personas escriban un correo electrónico positivo alabando o agradeciendo a alguien en su red de apoyo social. Nous invitons les gens, lorsqu'ils ouvrent leur boîte de réception, à écrire un e-mail positif pour féliciter ou remercier quelqu'un de leur réseau de soutien social.

11:54 And by doing these activities and by training your brain just like we train our bodies, what we’ve found is we can reverse the formula for happiness and success, and in doing so, not only create ripples of positivity, but create a real revolution.

12:06 Thank you very much.

12:08 (Applause)