×

We use cookies to help make LingQ better. By visiting the site, you agree to our cookie policy.


image

TED, Kelly McGonigal: How to make stress your friend

Kelly McGonigal: How to make stress your friend

I have a confession to make, but first, I want you to make a little confession to me. In the past year, I want you to just raise your hand

0:25 if you've experienced relatively little stress. Anyone?

0:31 How about a moderate amount of stress?

0:34 Who has experienced a lot of stress? Yeah. Me too.

0:39 But that is not my confession. My confession is this: I am a health psychologist, and my mission is to help people be happier and healthier. But I fear that something I've been teaching for the last 10 years is doing more harm than good, and it has to do with stress. For years I've been telling people, stress makes you sick. It increases the risk of everything from the common cold to cardiovascular disease.Basically, I've turned stress into the enemy. But I have changed my mind about stress, and today, I want to change yours.

1:20 Let me start with the study that made me rethink my whole approach to stress. This study tracked 30,000 adults in the United States for eight years, and they started by asking people, "How much stress have you experienced in the last year? " They also asked, "Do you believe that stress is harmful for your health? " And then they used public death records to find out who died.

1:47 (Laughter)

1:48 Okay. Some bad news first. People who experienced a lot of stress in the previous year had a 43 percent increased risk of dying. But that was only true for the people who also believed that stress is harmful for your health. (Laughter) People who experienced a lot of stress but did not view stress as harmful were no more likely to die. In fact, they had the lowest risk of dying of anyone in the study, including people who had relatively little stress.

2:23 Now the researchers estimated that over the eight years they were tracking deaths, 182,000 Americans died prematurely, not from stress, but from the belief that stress is bad for you. (Laughter) That is over 20,000 deaths a year. Now, if that estimate is correct, that would make believing stress is bad for you the 15th largest cause of death in the United States last year, killing more people than skin cancer, HIV/AIDS and homicide.

2:55 (Laughter)

2:58 You can see why this study freaked me out. Here I've been spending so much energy telling people stress is bad for your health.

3:07 So this study got me wondering: Can changing how you think about stress make you healthier? And here the science says yes. When you change your mind about stress, you can change your body's response to stress.

3:21 Now to explain how this works, I want you all to pretend that you are participants in a study designed to stress you out. It's called the social stress test. You come into the laboratory, and you're told you have to give a five-minute impromptu speech on your personal weaknesses to a panel of expert evaluators sitting right in front of you, and to make sure you feel the pressure, there are bright lights and a camera in your face, kind of like this. And the evaluators have been trained to give you discouraging, non-verbal feedback like this.

4:04 (Laughter)

4:07 Now that you're sufficiently demoralized, time for part two: a math test. And unbeknownst to you, the experimenter has been trained to harass you during it. Now we're going to all do this together. It's going to be fun. For me.

4:24 Okay. I want you all to count backwards from 996 in increments of seven. You're going to do this out loud as fast as you can, starting with 996. Go! Audience: (Counting) Go faster. Faster please. You're going too slow. Stop. Stop, stop, stop. That guy made a mistake. We are going to have to start all over again. (Laughter) You're not very good at this, are you? Okay, so you get the idea. Now, if you were actually in this study, you'd probably be a little stressed out. Your heart might be pounding, you might be breathing faster, maybe breaking out into a sweat. And normally, we interpret these physical changes as anxiety or signs that we aren't coping very well with the pressure.

5:11 But what if you viewed them instead as signs that your body was energized, was preparing you to meet this challenge? Now that is exactly what participants were told in a study conducted at Harvard University. Before they went through the social stress test, they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful. That pounding heart is preparing you for action. If you're breathing faster, it's no problem. It's getting more oxygen to your brain. And participants who learned to view the stress response as helpful for their performance, well, they were less stressed out, less anxious, more confident, but the most fascinating finding to me was how their physical stress response changed.Now, in a typical stress response, your heart rate goes up, and your blood vessels constrict like this.And this is one of the reasons that chronic stress is sometimes associated with cardiovascular disease.It's not really healthy to be in this state all the time. But in the study, when participants viewed their stress response as helpful, their blood vessels stayed relaxed like this. Their heart was still pounding, but this is a much healthier cardiovascular profile. It actually looks a lot like what happens in moments of joy and courage. Over a lifetime of stressful experiences, this one biological change could be the difference between a stress-induced heart attack at age 50 and living well into your 90s. And this is really what the new science of stress reveals, that how you think about stress matters.

6:51 So my goal as a health psychologist has changed. I no longer want to get rid of your stress. I want to make you better at stress. And we just did a little intervention. If you raised your hand and said you'd had a lot of stress in the last year, we could have saved your life, because hopefully the next time your heart is pounding from stress, you're going to remember this talk and you're going to think to yourself, this is my body helping me rise to this challenge. And when you view stress in that way, your body believes you, and your stress response becomes healthier.

7:29 Now I said I have over a decade of demonizing stress to redeem myself from, so we are going to do one more intervention. I want to tell you about one of the most under-appreciated aspects of the stress response, and the idea is this: Stress makes you social.

7:48 To understand this side of stress, we need to talk about a hormone, oxytocin, and I know oxytocin has already gotten as much hype as a hormone can get. It even has its own cute nickname, the cuddle hormone, because it's released when you hug someone. But this is a very small part of what oxytocin is involved in. Oxytocin is a neuro-hormone. It fine-tunes your brain's social instincts. It primes you to do things that strengthen close relationships. Oxytocin makes you crave physical contact with your friends and family. It enhances your empathy. It even makes you more willing to help and support the people you care about. Some people have even suggested we should snort oxytocin to become more compassionate and caring. But here's what most people don't understand about oxytocin. It's a stress hormone. Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out as part of the stress response. It's as much a part of your stress response as the adrenaline that makes your heart pound. And when oxytocin is released in the stress response, it is motivating you to seek support. Your biological stress response is nudging you to tell someone how you feel instead of bottling it up. Your stress response wants to make sure you notice when someone else in your life is struggling so that you can support each other. When life is difficult, your stress response wants you to be surrounded by people who care about you.

9:32 Okay, so how is knowing this side of stress going to make you healthier? Well, oxytocin doesn't only act on your brain. It also acts on your body, and one of its main roles in your body is to protect your cardiovascular system from the effects of stress. It's a natural anti-inflammatory. It also helps your blood vessels stay relaxed during stress. But my favorite effect on the body is actually on the heart.Your heart has receptors for this hormone, and oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate and heal from any stress-induced damage. This stress hormone strengthens your heart, and the cool thing is that all of these physical benefits of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact and social support, so when you reach out to others under stress, either to seek support or to help someone else, you release more of this hormone, your stress response becomes healthier, and you actually recover faster from stress. I find this amazing, that your stress response has a built-in mechanism for stress resilience, and that mechanism is human connection.

10:49 I want to finish by telling you about one more study. And listen up, because this study could also save a life. This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started the study by asking, "How much stress have you experienced in the last year? " They also asked, "How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors, people in your community? " And then they used public records for the next five years to find out who died.

11:26 Okay, so the bad news first: For every major stressful life experience, like financial difficulties or family crisis, that increased the risk of dying by 30 percent. But -- and I hope you are expecting a but by now -- but that wasn't true for everyone. People who spent time caring for others showed absolutely no stress-related increase in dying. Zero. Caring created resilience. And so we see once again that the harmful effects of stress on your health are not inevitable. How you think and how you act can transform your experience of stress. When you choose to view your stress response as helpful, you create the biology of courage. And when you choose to connect with others under stress, you can create resilience. Now I wouldn't necessarily ask for more stressful experiences in my life, but this science has given me a whole new appreciation for stress. Stress gives us access to our hearts. The compassionate heart that finds joy and meaning in connecting with others, and yes, your pounding physical heart, working so hard to give you strength and energy, and when you choose to view stress in this way, you're not just getting better at stress, you're actually making a pretty profound statement.You're saying that you can trust yourself to handle life's challenges, and you're remembering that you don't have to face them alone.

13:20 Thank you.

13:21 (Applause)

13:31Chris Anderson: This is kind of amazing, what you're telling us. It seems amazing to me that a belief about stress can make so much difference to someone's life expectancy. How would that extend to advice, like, if someone is making a lifestyle choice between, say, a stressful job and a non-stressful job, does it matter which way they go? It's equally wise to go for the stressful job so long as you believe that you can handle it, in some sense?

13:59 Kelly McGonigal: Yeah, and one thing we know for certain is that chasing meaning is better for your health than trying to avoid discomfort. And so I would say that's really the best way to make decisions, is go after what it is that creates meaning in your life and then trust yourself to handle the stress that follows.

14:14CA: Thank you so much, Kelly. It's pretty cool. KM: Thank you.

14:16(Applause)

Kelly McGonigal: How to make stress your friend Kelly McGonigal: Wie man Stress zu seinem Freund macht Kelly McGonigal: Πώς να κάνετε το άγχος φίλο σας Kelly McGonigal: How to make stress your friend Kelly McGonigal: Cómo convertir el estrés en tu amigo Kelly McGonigal : Comment faire du stress votre ami Kelly McGonigal: come fare dello stress un amico ケリー・マクゴニガル:ストレスを味方につける方法 켈리 맥고니걸: 스트레스를 친구로 만드는 방법 Kelly McGonigal: Jak uczynić stres swoim przyjacielem Kelly McGonigal: Como fazer do stress seu amigo Келли Макгонигал: Как сделать стресс своим другом Kelly McGonigal: Stresi nasıl arkadaşınız haline getirebilirsiniz? Келлі Макгонігал: Як зробити стрес своїм другом 凯利麦格尼格尔:如何让压力成为你的朋友 凱莉‧麥格尼格爾:如何讓壓力成為你的朋友

I have a confession to make, but first, I want you to make a little confession to me. Tengo una confesión que hacer, pero primero, quiero que me hagas una pequeña confesión. J'ai un aveu à faire, mais d'abord, je veux que vous me fassiez un petit aveu. Я должен признаться, но сначала я хочу, чтобы вы сделали мне небольшое признание. In the past year, I want you to just raise your hand En el último año, quiero que levantes tu mano.

0:25 if you've experienced relatively little stress. 0:25 si has experimentado relativamente poco estrés. Anyone?

0:31 How about a moderate amount of stress?

0:34 Who has experienced a lot of stress? Yeah. Me too.

0:39 But that is not my confession. My confession is this: I am a health psychologist, and my mission is to help people be happier and healthier. But I fear that something I've been teaching for the last 10 years is doing more harm than good, and it has to do with stress. Pero me temo que algo que he estado enseñando durante los últimos 10 años está haciendo más daño que bien, y tiene que ver con el estrés. For years I've been telling people, stress makes you sick. It increases the risk of everything from the common cold to cardiovascular disease.Basically, I've turned stress into the enemy. Aumenta el riesgo de todo, desde el resfriado común hasta la enfermedad cardiovascular. Básicamente, he convertido el estrés en enemigo. But I have changed my mind about stress, and today, I want to change yours.

1:20 Let me start with the study that made me rethink my whole approach to stress. This study tracked 30,000 adults in the United States for eight years, and they started by asking people, "How much stress have you experienced in the last year? " They also asked, "Do you believe that stress is harmful for your health? " And then they used public death records to find out who died. "Y luego usaron los registros públicos de la muerte para averiguar quién murió. "Ils ont ensuite utilisé les registres publics des décès pour savoir qui était décédé.

1:47 (Laughter)

1:48 Okay. Some bad news first. People who experienced a lot of stress in the previous year had a 43 percent increased risk of dying. But that was only true for the people who also believed that stress is harmful for your health. Das galt aber nur für die Menschen, die auch glaubten, dass Stress gesundheitsschädlich ist. (Laughter) People who experienced a lot of stress but did not view stress as harmful were no more likely to die. (Risas) Las personas que experimentaron mucho estrés pero que no consideraron que el estrés fuera dañino no tenían más probabilidades de morir. (Смех) Люди, которые пережили много стресса, но не считали стресс вредным, не имели больше шансов умирать. In fact, they had the lowest risk of dying of anyone in the study, including people who had relatively little stress.

2:23 Now the researchers estimated that over the eight years they were tracking deaths, 182,000 Americans died prematurely, not from stress, but from the belief that stress is bad for you. (Laughter) That is over 20,000 deaths a year. Now, if that estimate is correct, that would make believing stress is bad for you the 15th largest cause of death in the United States last year, killing more people than skin cancer, HIV/AIDS and homicide. Si cette estimation est correcte, le fait de croire que le stress est mauvais pour la santé serait la quinzième cause de décès aux États-Unis l'année dernière, tuant plus de personnes que le cancer de la peau, le VIH/SIDA et les homicides.

2:55 (Laughter)

2:58 You can see why this study freaked me out. 2:58 Puedes ver por qué este estudio me asustó. Here I've been spending so much energy telling people stress is bad for your health. Aquí he estado gastando tanta energía diciendo que la gente es mala para tu salud.

3:07 So this study got me wondering: Can changing how you think about stress make you healthier? And here the science says yes. When you change your mind about stress, you can change your body's response to stress.

3:21 Now to explain how this works, I want you all to pretend that you are participants in a study designed to stress you out. 3:21 Pour vous expliquer comment cela fonctionne, je veux que vous fassiez tous semblant de participer à une étude conçue pour vous stresser. It's called the social stress test. You come into the laboratory, and you're told you have to give a five-minute impromptu speech on your personal weaknesses to a panel of expert evaluators sitting right in front of you, and to make sure you feel the pressure, there are bright lights and a camera in your face, kind of like this. And the evaluators have been trained to give you discouraging, non-verbal feedback like this. Y los evaluadores han sido entrenados para brindarle comentarios desalentadores y no verbales como este.

4:04 (Laughter)

4:07 Now that you're sufficiently demoralized, time for part two: a math test. And unbeknownst to you, the experimenter has been trained to harass you during it. Y sin que usted lo sepa, el experimentador ha sido entrenado para acosarlo durante el mismo. Et à votre insu, l'expérimentateur a été formé pour vous harceler pendant cette période. Now we're going to all do this together. It's going to be fun. For me.

4:24 Okay. I want you all to count backwards from 996 in increments of seven. Quiero que todos cuenten hacia atrás desde 996 en incrementos de siete. You're going to do this out loud as fast as you can, starting with 996. Vas a hacer esto en voz alta lo más rápido que puedas, comenzando con 996. Go! Audience: (Counting) Go faster. Faster please. You're going too slow. Stop. Stop, stop, stop. That guy made a mistake. We are going to have to start all over again. (Laughter) You're not very good at this, are you? Okay, so you get the idea. Está bien, así que entiendes la idea. Now, if you were actually in this study, you'd probably be a little stressed out. Si vous participiez à cette étude, vous seriez probablement un peu stressé. Если бы вы действительно участвовали в этом исследовании, вы бы, вероятно, немного нервничали. Your heart might be pounding, you might be breathing faster, maybe breaking out into a sweat. Su corazón podría estar latiendo con fuerza, podría estar respirando más rápido, tal vez rompiendo en un sudor. Ваше сердце может колотиться, вы можете дышать быстрее, возможно, вы вспотеете. And normally, we interpret these physical changes as anxiety or signs that we aren't coping very well with the pressure. Y normalmente, interpretamos estos cambios físicos como ansiedad o signos de que no estamos lidiando muy bien con la presión.

5:11 But what if you viewed them instead as signs that your body was energized, was preparing you to meet this challenge? 5:11 Pero, ¿qué pasaría si los vieras como signos de que tu cuerpo estaba energizado y te estaba preparando para enfrentar este desafío? 5:11 Но что, если вы вместо этого будете рассматривать их как признаки того, что ваше тело заряжено энергией, готовит вас к встрече с этой проблемой? Now that is exactly what participants were told in a study conducted at Harvard University. C'est exactement ce qui a été dit aux participants d'une étude menée à l'université de Harvard. Before they went through the social stress test, they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful. That pounding heart is preparing you for action. Ese corazón palpitante te está preparando para la acción. If you're breathing faster, it's no problem. It's getting more oxygen to your brain. And participants who learned to view the stress response as helpful for their performance, well, they were less stressed out, less anxious, more confident, but the most fascinating finding to me was how their physical stress response changed.Now, in a typical stress response, your heart rate goes up, and your blood vessels constrict like this.And this is one of the reasons that chronic stress is sometimes associated with cardiovascular disease.It's not really healthy to be in this state all the time. Les participants qui ont appris à considérer la réponse au stress comme utile à leurs performances étaient moins stressés, moins anxieux, plus confiants, mais la découverte la plus fascinante que j'ai faite est la modification de leur réponse physique au stress.Dans une réponse typique au stress, le rythme cardiaque s'accélère et les vaisseaux sanguins se contractent comme ceci.C'est l'une des raisons pour lesquelles le stress chronique est parfois associé aux maladies cardiovasculaires.Il n'est pas vraiment sain d'être dans cet état tout le temps. But in the study, when participants viewed their stress response as helpful, their blood vessels stayed relaxed like this. Their heart was still pounding, but this is a much healthier cardiovascular profile. It actually looks a lot like what happens in moments of joy and courage. Over a lifetime of stressful experiences, this one biological change could be the difference between a stress-induced heart attack at age 50 and living well into your 90s. A lo largo de toda una vida de experiencias estresantes, este cambio biológico podría ser la diferencia entre un ataque cardiaco inducido por el estrés a los 50 años y vivir bien hasta los 90 años. Au cours d'une vie d'expériences stressantes, ce seul changement biologique pourrait faire la différence entre une crise cardiaque due au stress à l'âge de 50 ans et une vie bien remplie jusqu'à 90 ans. На протяжении всей жизни, полной стрессовых переживаний, это одно биологическое изменение может быть разницей между сердечным приступом, вызванным стрессом, в возрасте 50 лет и продолжительностью жизни до 90 лет. And this is really what the new science of stress reveals, that how you think about stress matters.

6:51 So my goal as a health psychologist has changed. I no longer want to get rid of your stress. Ya no quiero deshacerme de tu estrés. Я больше не хочу избавляться от стресса. I want to make you better at stress. And we just did a little intervention. Y acabamos de hacer una pequeña intervención. If you raised your hand and said you'd had a lot of stress in the last year, we could have saved your life, because hopefully the next time your heart is pounding from stress, you're going to remember this talk and you're going to think to yourself, this is my body helping me rise to this challenge. Если бы вы подняли руку и сказали, что в прошлом году у вас было много стресса, мы могли бы спасти вам жизнь, потому что, надеюсь, в следующий раз, когда ваше сердце будет колотиться от стресса, вы вспомните этот разговор и вас ». ты собираешься подумать про себя, это мое тело помогает мне справиться с этой задачей. And when you view stress in that way, your body believes you, and your stress response becomes healthier.

7:29 Now I said I have over a decade of demonizing stress to redeem myself from, so we are going to do one more intervention. 7:29 Ahora dije que tengo más de una década de estrés demoníaco para redimirme, por lo que vamos a hacer una intervención más. 7:29 J'ai dit que j'avais plus d'une décennie de diabolisation du stress à me racheter, alors nous allons faire une dernière intervention. I want to tell you about one of the most under-appreciated aspects of the stress response, and the idea is this: Stress makes you social. Quiero contarles acerca de uno de los aspectos más subestimados de la respuesta al estrés, y la idea es la siguiente: el estrés lo hace social.

7:48 To understand this side of stress, we need to talk about a hormone, oxytocin, and I know oxytocin has already gotten as much hype as a hormone can get. 7:48 Para entender este lado del estrés, necesitamos hablar sobre una hormona, la oxitocina, y sé que la oxitocina ya ha recibido tanta publicidad como una hormona. 7:48 Pour comprendre cet aspect du stress, nous devons parler d'une hormone, l'ocytocine, et je sais que l'ocytocine a déjà fait l'objet d'un battage médiatique aussi important qu'une hormone peut l'être. It even has its own cute nickname, the cuddle hormone, because it's released when you hug someone. Incluso tiene su propio apodo lindo, la hormona del abrazo, porque se libera cuando abrazas a alguien. Elle a même son propre surnom, l'hormone du câlin, parce qu'elle est libérée lorsque l'on serre quelqu'un dans ses bras. But this is a very small part of what oxytocin is involved in. Но это очень небольшая часть того, в чем участвует окситоцин. Oxytocin is a neuro-hormone. It fine-tunes your brain's social instincts. It primes you to do things that strengthen close relationships. Te prepara para hacer cosas que fortalezcan las relaciones cercanas. Het bereidt je voor om dingen te doen die hechte relaties versterken. Ele o prepara para fazer coisas que fortalecem relacionamentos íntimos. Это побуждает вас делать то, что укрепляет близкие отношения. Oxytocin makes you crave physical contact with your friends and family. It enhances your empathy. Mejora tu empatía. It even makes you more willing to help and support the people you care about. Incluso te hace más dispuesto a ayudar y apoyar a las personas que te importan. Vous êtes même plus enclin à aider et à soutenir les personnes qui vous sont chères. Some people have even suggested we should snort oxytocin to become more compassionate and caring. Algunas personas incluso han sugerido que deberíamos inhalar oxitocina para ser más compasivos y cuidadosos. But here's what most people don't understand about oxytocin. It's a stress hormone. Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out as part of the stress response. Su glándula pituitaria bombea esto como parte de la respuesta al estrés. L'hypophyse pompe cette substance dans le cadre de la réponse au stress. Je hypofyse pompt dit spul eruit als onderdeel van de stressreactie. Ваш гипофиз выкачивает это вещество как часть стрессовой реакции. It's as much a part of your stress response as the adrenaline that makes your heart pound. And when oxytocin is released in the stress response, it is motivating you to seek support. Your biological stress response is nudging you to tell someone how you feel instead of bottling it up. Su respuesta biológica al estrés lo está empujando a decirle a alguien cómo se siente en lugar de reprimirlo. Votre réaction biologique au stress vous incite à dire à quelqu'un ce que vous ressentez au lieu de le garder pour vous. Ваша биологическая реакция на стресс подталкивает вас рассказать кому-нибудь о своих чувствах, вместо того, чтобы сдерживать это. Your stress response wants to make sure you notice when someone else in your life is struggling so that you can support each other. When life is difficult, your stress response wants you to be surrounded by people who care about you. Cuando la vida es difícil, su respuesta al estrés quiere que esté rodeado de personas que se preocupan por usted. Lorsque la vie est difficile, votre réaction au stress vous pousse à vous entourer de personnes qui se soucient de vous.

9:32 Okay, so how is knowing this side of stress going to make you healthier? 9:32 Итак, как знание этой стороны стресса сделает вас здоровее? Well, oxytocin doesn't only act on your brain. It also acts on your body, and one of its main roles in your body is to protect your cardiovascular system from the effects of stress. It's a natural anti-inflammatory. It also helps your blood vessels stay relaxed during stress. But my favorite effect on the body is actually on the heart.Your heart has receptors for this hormone, and oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate and heal from any stress-induced damage. This stress hormone strengthens your heart, and the cool thing is that all of these physical benefits of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact and social support, so when you reach out to others under stress, either to seek support or to help someone else, you release more of this hormone, your stress response becomes healthier, and you actually recover faster from stress. Esta hormona del estrés fortalece su corazón, y lo bueno es que todos estos beneficios físicos de la oxitocina se ven mejorados por el contacto social y el apoyo social, por lo que cuando se comunica con otras personas bajo estrés, ya sea para buscar apoyo o para ayudar a alguien más, libere más cantidad de esta hormona, su respuesta al estrés se vuelve más saludable y, de hecho, se recupera más rápido del estrés. Cette hormone de stress renforce votre cœur et, ce qui est génial, c'est que tous ces bienfaits physiques de l'ocytocine sont renforcés par le contact social et le soutien social. Ainsi, lorsque vous vous adressez à d'autres personnes en situation de stress, que ce soit pour chercher du soutien ou pour aider quelqu'un d'autre, vous libérez davantage de cette hormone, votre réponse au stress devient plus saine et vous vous rétablissez en fait plus rapidement du stress. I find this amazing, that your stress response has a built-in mechanism for stress resilience, and that mechanism is human connection. Me parece sorprendente que su respuesta al estrés tenga un mecanismo incorporado para la resistencia al estrés, y ese mecanismo es la conexión humana.

10:49 I want to finish by telling you about one more study. And listen up, because this study could also save a life. И послушайте, потому что это исследование также могло спасти жизнь. This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started the study by asking, "How much stress have you experienced in the last year? " They also asked, "How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors, people in your community? " And then they used public records for the next five years to find out who died.

11:26 Okay, so the bad news first: For every major stressful life experience, like financial difficulties or family crisis, that increased the risk of dying by 30 percent. 11:26 D'abord, les mauvaises nouvelles : chaque expérience de vie stressante, comme des difficultés financières ou une crise familiale, augmente le risque de décès de 30 %. But -- and I hope you are expecting a but by now -- but that wasn't true for everyone. People who spent time caring for others showed absolutely no stress-related increase in dying. Zero. Caring created resilience. El cuidado crea resiliencia. Забота создала стойкость. And so we see once again that the harmful effects of stress on your health are not inevitable. Nous constatons donc une fois de plus que les effets néfastes du stress sur la santé ne sont pas inéluctables. How you think and how you act can transform your experience of stress. When you choose to view your stress response as helpful, you create the biology of courage. Cuando eliges ver tu respuesta al estrés como útil, creas la biología del coraje. And when you choose to connect with others under stress, you can create resilience. Et lorsque vous choisissez d'entrer en contact avec d'autres personnes en situation de stress, vous pouvez créer de la résilience. Now I wouldn't necessarily ask for more stressful experiences in my life, but this science has given me a whole new appreciation for stress. Stress gives us access to our hearts. The compassionate heart that finds joy and meaning in connecting with others, and yes, your pounding physical heart, working so hard to give you strength and energy, and when you choose to view stress in this way, you're not just getting better at stress, you're actually making a pretty profound statement.You're saying that you can trust yourself to handle life's challenges, and you're remembering that you don't have to face them alone. El corazón compasivo que encuentra alegría y significado en la conexión con los demás, y sí, su corazón físico palpitante, trabajando tan duro para darle fuerza y energía, y cuando elige ver el estrés de esta manera, no está mejorando. estrés, en realidad estás haciendo una declaración bastante profunda. Estás diciendo que puedes confiar en ti mismo para manejar los desafíos de la vida, y estás recordando que no tienes que enfrentarlos solo. Le cœur compatissant qui trouve la joie et le sens dans la connexion avec les autres, et oui, votre cœur physique battant, qui travaille si dur pour vous donner de la force et de l'énergie, et lorsque vous choisissez de voir le stress de cette façon, vous ne vous améliorez pas seulement face au stress, vous faites en fait une déclaration assez profonde. Сострадательное сердце, которое находит радость и смысл в общении с другими, и да, ваше бьющееся физическое сердце, которое так много работает, чтобы дать вам силы и энергию, и когда вы решаете смотреть на стресс таким образом, вы не просто становитесь лучше. стресс, вы на самом деле делаете довольно глубокое заявление. вы говорите, что можете доверять себе, чтобы справиться с жизненными проблемами, и вы помните, что вам не нужно сталкиваться с ними в одиночку.

13:20 Thank you.

13:21 (Applause)

13:31Chris Anderson: This is kind of amazing, what you're telling us. It seems amazing to me that a belief about stress can make so much difference to someone's life expectancy. How would that extend to advice, like, if someone is making a lifestyle choice between, say, a stressful job and a non-stressful job, does it matter which way they go? Comment cela s'étendrait-il aux conseils, par exemple, si quelqu'un fait un choix de vie entre, disons, un travail stressant et un travail non stressant, est-ce que cela a de l'importance pour lui de choisir sa voie ? It's equally wise to go for the stressful job so long as you believe that you can handle it, in some sense? Il est tout aussi judicieux d'opter pour un travail stressant si vous pensez pouvoir le gérer, d'une certaine manière ?

13:59 Kelly McGonigal: Yeah, and one thing we know for certain is that chasing meaning is better for your health than trying to avoid discomfort. 13:59 Kelly McGonigal: Sí, y algo que sabemos con certeza es que perseguir el significado es mejor para su salud que tratar de evitar las molestias. 13:59 Kelly McGonigal: Tak, i jedno, co na pewno wiemy, to to, że ściganie znaczenia jest lepsze dla zdrowia niż próbowanie uniknąć dyskomfortu. 13:59 Келли МакГонигал: Да, и одно мы знаем наверняка: поиск смысла лучше для вашего здоровья, чем попытки избежать дискомфорта. And so I would say that's really the best way to make decisions, is go after what it is that creates meaning in your life and then trust yourself to handle the stress that follows. I więc powiedziałbym, że to naprawdę najlepszy sposób podejmowania decyzji, to podążaj za tym, co tworzy znaczenie w Twoim życiu, a potem zaufaj sobie, że poradzisz sobie ze stresem, który następuje.

14:14CA: Thank you so much, Kelly. 14:14CA: Bardzo dziękuję, Kelly. It's pretty cool. KM: Thank you.

14:16(Applause)