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Brains On! Podcast, Canine club: From wolves to dogs! (2)

Canine club: From wolves to dogs! (2)

Maya: You can also send us a drawing, mystery sound or a question.

Molly: Like these listeners did.

Laura: Hi, my name is Laura. I am seven years old.

Braden: My name is Braden. I'm five years old.

Laura: We're from North Providence, Rhode Island.

Braden: My question is, how do lips get chapped?

Maya: We'll answer that question at the end of the show.

Molly: Plus, we'll howl out the new names on the Brains honor roll.

Maya: Keep listening.

Molly: You're listening to Brains On. I'm Molly.

Maya: And I'm Maya.

Molly: And brace yourself. Here comes the-

[Voice: mystery sound.]

Molly: Are you ready, Maya?

Maya: Yeah.

Molly: Okay [laughs], here it is.

[plays mystery sound]

Molly: What is your guess?

Maya: [laughs] My guess is dog sledding.

Molly: Very good guess.

Maya: Because I heard almost like barking and crunching snow and the sound of a sled on snow being pulled. That sounds really ridiculous but there's a certain sound that has.

Molly: You know what? You sound very informed. That's an excellent guess. We're going to be back with the answer in just a moment.

Automated voice: Brains on.

Molly: Let's get back to the wonderful world of wolves.

Maya: Wolves are social creatures.

Molly: Just like us.

Maya: That means wolves like to live in groups and work together. We call their groups packs.

Molly: We sent our friend Britta Greene to the Minnesota Zoo to learn more about life in a wolf pack.

Britta Greene: A big part of pack life takes place in a den but what is a den exactly? Dawn Devins from the Minnesota Zoo says basically it's a place a mama wolf goes to have her babies.

Dawn Devins: Dens can be anything from a crevice in a rock formation, some fallen logs that a female could dig out underneath and have a safe protected area in order to have her pups born.

Britta: Wolf pups are born small and blind so they depend on their parents for everything. Mom gives them milk and dad hunts fresh food. Usually, after just a few months, they'll be exploring outside but this almost didn't happen for the wolves at the zoo.

[music]

They were born in the wild, in Alaska. There was a big wildfire near their den when they were just two weeks old. Their mom disappeared, she either died in the fire or fled from the flames. Luckily, firefighters saved the pups and they were brought here to Minnesota.

Dawn: We have that one over there. I think that might be Hooper.

Britta: Dawn points out one of the wolves. They live in a pen that looks like Northern Minnesota. This time of year, it's covered in snow, dotted with rocks and cedar and pine trees. Visitors can say hi from behind wooden and chain-link fences. Along with Hooper, there's Gannett, Leah, Stebbins, and X-ray.

Dawn: Even though they are a family pack, they have a variety of colors. Wolves can go anywhere from dark grey and black to almost kind of a, I would almost say like a German Shepherd kind of color, a tawny brown and gray color.

Britta: She says a typical pack in Minnesota is about six to eight wolves, usually siblings and their mother and father. Sometimes the pack will let wolves that aren't relatives join in. Having a pack isn't just about having a family to hang out with, it's also about hunting.

[music]

Britta: Wolf packs often track their prey, like herds of deer, for long periods of time. They are looking for an animal that's weak or sick or old, easier to take down. They'll surround their target and coordinate so they can back each other up. If the deer starts to run away, then Dawn says, they'll attack.

Dawn: They have one of the strongest jaw bites. As you can imagine, when they do catch their prey, they want to hold on to it [laughs].

Britta: It's a total team effort and if all goes well, everyone gets enough to eat. At the zoo though, life is a little easier. Wolves here don't have to hunt to get fed. Actually, the zoo delivers their meat that's ready-to-eat, things like rabbits and chickens. Right now, the wolves are just relaxing, lounging around.

Dawn: I think they're just waiting. They're very good at knowing when it's getting close to dinnertime [laughs].

Britta: I saw this guy just came up and was going to nuzzle the other one and then he took off. Are they buddies, you would say?

Dawn: Yes, they are family members so brothers and sisters [laughs]. If you have family members, you know when somebody comes in the room, it's your turn to move because they might just bully you out of your seat in the living room somewhere.

Britta: Just like in any family, she says, pack mates don't always get along, but at least they know they'll be there for each other when they're really in need.

[music]

Molly: Maya, are you ready to try again that mystery sound?

Maya: Yes, I am.

Molly: All right, here it is one more time.

[mystery sound]

Molly: Maya, do you want to stick with your original guess?

Maya: I think I do.

Molly: You thought it was dog sledding. Here is the answer.

Gretta and Gwen: Our names are Greta and Gwen from Plymouth, Minnesota.

Gwen: The sound you just heard is dog sledding way up north, almost in Canada.

Gretta: The dogs' harnesses were jingling when the dogs sled. You can hear the sled crunching on the ice. Our favorite part is when we go on hills, it feels like you're on a roller coaster.

Gwen: You yell commands to teach the dogs what to do. 'Hike' is go faster. If you go 'Whoa', that means slow down or stop.

Greta: I learned how to drive the dog sled but I can't stop the brakes because I'm too light.

Molly: Nice work, Maya.

Maya: Yes [laughs].

Molly: You were 100% correct. Have you been dog sledding?

Maya: No, never ever.

Molly: Well, you sounded very knowledgeable about dog sledding. You've got everything right so I'm very impressed with your excellent ears.

[howls]

Molly: Now, we know dogs and wolves have a lot in common and that leads us to this question.

Maya: Hi, my name is Maya. I'm six and a half years old. My question is, why do we have dogs as pets but not wolves? Wolves are still dogs and foxes, foxes are still dogs, so why not have them as pets?

Leila: My name is Leila. I live in Brussels, Belgium. My question is, how did dogs evolve from wolves?

Maya: Here to help us answer these questions is Bridgett VonHoldt.

Molly: She's an evolutionary biologist at Princeton University.

Maya: Welcome, Bridgett.

Bridgett VonHoldt: Hi, thank you for inviting me.

Maya: How did dogs evolve from wolves?

Bridgett: This is a really complex change, to go from a wild animal to being this domestic dog that we have in our lives and in our homes. This process happened over thousands of years. Really, what happened is that people originally formed this relationship, this communication with wild wolves. We suspect that this had a lot to do with how they hunted. That early on, as humans were still hunting and gathering food that way, that there was this relationship and maybe communication with a local wolf pack where they were also doing the same hunting and gathering of food resources.

That transition took thousands of years. This was a really long process. Early dogs or really rather what they were, are wolves, are living closer and closer to human settlements. Some hypotheses say that these wolves were living closer to our trash dumps where we would put empty carcasses or any other food waste we had and eventually, as these wolves were living closer and closer to people, they had to be more tolerant of people's presence. Ultimately, the idea is that these wild wolves were adjusting to human presence and were living in and among the villages. Often, dogs, even early in domestication, were just living with people but not necessarily inside a house and being restrained on a leash or a harness.

Maya: Why can we have dogs as pets but not wolves, that's my original question?

Bridgett: Wildlife are unpredictable, they are not tame, they don't live in a house, it's hard to train them. Most of the reasons why we shouldn't have a wolf as a pet is because it's for the health of the animal and it's not easy to handle them. Through that domestication, we've turned these wolves into dogs, that way we actually have this little animal that we are very closely bonded to. They rely very heavily upon us for everything from food, to shelter and companionship.

Maya: How did this one species of wolves turn into so many different breeds of dogs and types of dogs just like-- Is that human doing or is that natural?

Bridgett: That is such a good question. This ends up being a combination of both. To give maybe a little example of the natural side of this. If you look at maybe a litter of puppies, and they all come from the same mom and dad, sometimes some of the puppies might have brown fur, others might have little splotchy colors, another one might be white with bigger black patches on them but they all come from the same two parents. The natural part of all of this variation in dogs that we see is because every individual has a slightly different set of genes.

Now, if we talk about how people became involved in that. If we imagine that we were a dog breeder and we wanted to maybe create a brand new type of dog, and we saw something interesting, one of the puppies was maybe this unique color that we'd never seen before. We would really want to use that dog, when it grew up, to have more puppies in hopes that it would have more like it. As we started doing that a lot, we found that humans could create lots of differences between animals from tiny little teacup dogs to these giant Great Danes. It's great quite incredible.

Maya: Wow.

Molly: Thank you so much for being here today, Bridgett.

Bridgett: Thank you.

Maya: Bye, thanks.

Bridgett: Thanks. Bye.

Molly: Canines and people have a special relationship. Wolves, in particular, are very important to many Native American tribes. Wolves and humans are seen as brothers and sisters by the Anishinabe or Ojibwe nations.

[wolf howls]

Bizhikiins: Boozhoo. Hello, my name is Bizhikiins or Dylan Jennings. I come from the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Anishinaabeg in Northern Wisconsin. I work as a public information office director at the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission. Wolves have a very, very important role to play in our communities traditionally and even today. A lot of that goes back to a relationship from our original stories, our original stories of creation.

The wolf and original man were some of the two beings that in our stories, went around and named everything in creation, gave everything a name together, and traveled together. At a different part within our stories, it talks about ma'iingan which is the Ojibwe word that describes wolf, and then the Anishinaabeg having to take separate paths, separate trails, and splitting up kind of diverging along that path. What teaching we derive from that is that what happens to one of us will happen to the other.

Well, there was a time, not too long ago, where wolves were almost eradicated from this area, which means that there weren't many left. A lot of that coincided in a time where it wasn't okay to be Ojibwe or to be Native American. They were told to blend in and essentially remove that Ojibwe-ness or that essence of being an indigenous person from their being. Those two things really mirror each other in our history. There are instances where we believe that saying, 'What happens to one will happen to the other' have actually come to fruition, to take care of and look after one another because we are considered to be relatives or, some say, to be brothers.


Canine club: From wolves to dogs! (2)

**Maya:** You can also send us a drawing, mystery sound or a question.

**Molly:** Like these listeners did.

**Laura:** Hi, my name is Laura. I am seven years old.

**Braden:** My name is Braden. I'm five years old.

**Laura:** We're from North Providence, Rhode Island. 劳拉:我们来自罗德岛北普罗维登斯。

**Braden:** My question is, how do lips get chapped? 布雷登:我的问题是,嘴唇怎么会干裂?

**Maya:** We'll answer that question at the end of the show.

**Molly:** Plus, we'll howl out the new names on the Brains honor roll. 莫莉:另外,我们会大声喊出大脑荣誉榜上的新名字。

**Maya:** Keep listening.

**Molly:** You're listening to __Brains On.__ I'm Molly.

**Maya:** And I'm Maya.

**Molly:** And brace yourself. 莫莉:做好准备。 Here comes the-

**[Voice:** mystery sound.]

**Molly:** Are you ready, Maya?

**Maya:** Yeah.

**Molly:** Okay [laughs], here it is.

[plays mystery sound]

**Molly:** What is your guess?

**Maya:** [laughs]** **My guess is dog sledding.

**Molly:** Very good guess.

**Maya:** Because I heard almost like barking and crunching snow and the sound of a sled on snow being pulled. That sounds really ridiculous but there's a certain sound that has.

**Molly:** You know what? You sound very informed. 你听起来很见多识广。 That's an excellent guess. We're going to be back with the answer in just a moment.

**Automated voice:** Brains on.

**Molly:** Let's get back to the wonderful world of wolves.

**Maya:** Wolves are social creatures.

**Molly:** Just like us.

**Maya:** That means wolves like to live in groups and work together. We call their groups packs.

**Molly:** We sent our friend Britta Greene to the Minnesota Zoo to learn more about life in a wolf pack.

**Britta Greene:** A big part of pack life takes place in a den but what is a den exactly? Dawn Devins from the Minnesota Zoo says basically it's a place a mama wolf goes to have her babies. 明尼苏达动物园的黎明德文斯说,这里基本上是狼妈妈生孩子的地方。

**Dawn Devins:** Dens can be anything from a crevice in a rock formation, some fallen logs that a female could dig out underneath and have a safe protected area in order to have her pups born. Dawn Devins:洞穴可以是任何东西,从岩层的裂缝,一些倒下的原木,雌性可以在下面挖出来,并有一个安全的保护区,以便让她的幼崽出生。

**Britta:** Wolf pups are born small and blind so they depend on their parents for everything. Mom gives them milk and dad hunts fresh food. Usually, after just a few months, they'll be exploring outside but this almost didn't happen for the wolves at the zoo. 通常,仅仅几个月后,他们就会到外面去探索,但动物园里的狼几乎不会这样。

[music]

They were born in the wild, in Alaska. There was a big wildfire near their den when they were just two weeks old. Their mom disappeared, she either died in the fire or fled from the flames. 他们的妈妈失踪了,她要么死于大火,要么逃离了火焰。 Luckily, firefighters saved the pups and they were brought here to Minnesota.

**Dawn:** We have that one over there. Dawn:我们那边有那个。 I think that might be Hooper.

**Britta:** Dawn points out one of the wolves. 布丽塔:黎明指出其中一只狼。 They live in a pen that looks like Northern Minnesota. 他们住在一个看起来像明尼苏达州北部的围栏里。 This time of year, it's covered in snow, dotted with rocks and cedar and pine trees. Visitors can say hi from behind wooden and chain-link fences. 游客可以在木栅栏和链环栅栏后面打招呼。 Along with Hooper, there's Gannett, Leah, Stebbins, and X-ray. 除了 Hooper,还有 Gannett、Leah、Stebbins 和 X-ray。

**Dawn:** Even though they are a family pack, they have a variety of colors. Wolves can go anywhere from dark grey and black to almost kind of a, I would almost say like a German Shepherd kind of color, a tawny brown and gray color. 狼可以去任何地方,从深灰色和黑色到几乎一种,我几乎可以说像德国牧羊犬的一种颜色,一种黄褐色和灰色。

**Britta:** She says a typical pack in Minnesota is about six to eight wolves, usually siblings and their mother and father. Sometimes the pack will let wolves that aren't relatives join in. Having a pack isn't just about having a family to hang out with, it's also about hunting. 拥有一个背包不仅是与家人一起出去玩,而且还与狩猎有关。

[music]

**Britta:** Wolf packs often track their prey, like herds of deer, for long periods of time. Britta:狼群经常长时间追踪猎物,比如鹿群。 They are looking for an animal that's weak or sick or old, easier to take down. They'll surround their target and coordinate so they can back each other up. 他们将包围他们的目标并进行协调,以便他们可以互相支持。 If the deer starts to run away, then Dawn says, they'll attack.

**Dawn:** They have one of the strongest jaw bites. As you can imagine, when they do catch their prey, they want to hold on to it [laughs]. 你可以想象,当他们真的抓住猎物时,他们想抓住它[笑]。

**Britta:** It's a total team effort and if all goes well, everyone gets enough to eat. Britta:这是一个团队的整体努力,如果一切顺利,每个人都能吃饱。 At the zoo though, life is a little easier. Wolves here don't have to hunt to get fed. 这里的狼不必为了得到食物而狩猎。 Actually, the zoo delivers their meat that's ready-to-eat, things like rabbits and chickens. Right now, the wolves are just relaxing, lounging around.

**Dawn:** I think they're just waiting. They're very good at knowing when it's getting close to dinnertime [laughs]. 他们非常擅长知道何时接近晚餐时间[笑]。

**Britta:** I saw this guy just came up and was going to nuzzle the other one and then he took off. 布丽塔:我看到这家伙刚上来就想蹭另一个人,然后他就走了。 Are they buddies, you would say? 他们是哥们,你会说?

**Dawn:** Yes, they are family members so brothers and sisters [laughs]. If you have family members, you know when somebody comes in the room, it's your turn to move because they might just bully you out of your seat in the living room somewhere. 如果你有家人,你知道当有人进来时,轮到你搬家了,因为他们可能会在客厅某个地方把你从座位上欺负出去。

**Britta:** Just like in any family, she says, pack mates don't always get along, but at least they know they'll be there for each other when they're really in need. Britta:就像在任何家庭中一样,她说,同伴并不总是相处融洽,但至少他们知道当他们真正需要时,他们会在彼此身边。

[music]

**Molly:** Maya, are you ready to try again that mystery sound?

**Maya:** Yes, I am.

**Molly:** All right, here it is one more time.

[mystery sound]

**Molly:** Maya, do you want to stick with your original guess?

**Maya:** I think I do.

**Molly:** You thought it was dog sledding. Here is the answer.

**Gretta and Gwen:** Our names are Greta and Gwen from Plymouth, Minnesota. Gretta 和 Gwen:我们的名字是来自明尼苏达州普利茅斯的 Greta 和 Gwen。

**Gwen:** The sound you just heard is dog sledding way up north, almost in Canada. 格温:你刚才听到的声音是狗拉雪橇向北行驶,几乎在加拿大。

**Gretta:** The dogs' harnesses were jingling when the dogs sled. You can hear the sled crunching on the ice. Our favorite part is when we go on hills, it feels like you're on a roller coaster. 我们最喜欢的部分是当我们上山时,感觉就像你在过山车上。

**Gwen:** You yell commands to teach the dogs what to do. 'Hike' is go faster. If you go 'Whoa', that means slow down or stop.

**Greta:** I learned how to drive the dog sled but I can't stop the brakes because I'm too light. 格丽塔:我学会了如何驾驶狗拉雪橇,但我无法停下刹车,因为我太轻了。

**Molly:** Nice work, Maya.

**Maya:** Yes [laughs].

**Molly:** You were 100% correct. Have you been dog sledding?

**Maya:** No, never ever.

**Molly:** Well, you sounded very knowledgeable about dog sledding. You've got everything right so I'm very impressed with your excellent ears.

[howls]

**Molly:** Now, we know dogs and wolves have a lot in common and that leads us to this question.

**Maya:** Hi, my name is Maya. I'm six and a half years old. My question is, why do we have dogs as pets but not wolves? Wolves are still dogs and foxes, foxes are still dogs, so why not have them as pets? 狼还是狗和狐狸,狐狸还是狗,为什么不把它们当宠物呢?

**Leila:** My name is Leila. I live in Brussels, Belgium. My question is, how did dogs evolve from wolves?

**Maya:** Here to help us answer these questions is Bridgett VonHoldt. Maya:Bridgett VonHoldt 可以帮助我们回答这些问题。

**Molly:** She's an evolutionary biologist at Princeton University. 莫莉:她是普林斯顿大学的进化生物学家。

**Maya:** Welcome, Bridgett.

**Bridgett VonHoldt:** Hi, thank you for inviting me.

**Maya:** How did dogs evolve from wolves?

**Bridgett:** This is a really complex change, to go from a wild animal to being this domestic dog that we have in our lives and in our homes. This process happened over thousands of years. 这个过程发生了数千年。 Really, what happened is that people originally formed this relationship, this communication with wild wolves. 真的,发生的事情是人们最初形成了这种关系,这种与野狼的交流。 We suspect that this had a lot to do with how they hunted. 我们怀疑这与他们的狩猎方式有很大关系。 That early on, as humans were still hunting and gathering food that way, that there was this relationship and maybe communication with a local wolf pack where they were also doing the same hunting and gathering of food resources.

That transition took thousands of years. This was a really long process. Early dogs or really rather what they were, are wolves, are living closer and closer to human settlements. 早期的狗,或者更确切地说,它们是狼,生活在离人类住区越来越近的地方。 Some hypotheses say that these wolves were living closer to our trash dumps where we would put empty carcasses or any other food waste we had and eventually, as these wolves were living closer and closer to people, they had to be more tolerant of people's presence. 一些假设说,这些狼生活在离我们的垃圾场更近的地方,我们将在那里放置空的尸体或任何其他食物垃圾,最终,随着这些狼离人类越来越近,它们必须对人类的存在更加宽容。 Ultimately, the idea is that these wild wolves were adjusting to human presence and were living in and among the villages. Often, dogs, even early in domestication, were just living with people but not necessarily inside a house and being restrained on a leash or a harness.

**Maya:** Why can we have dogs as pets but not wolves, that's my original question? 玛雅:为什么我们可以养狗而不是狼,这是我最初的问题?

**Bridgett:** Wildlife are unpredictable, they are not tame, they don't live in a house, it's hard to train them. Most of the reasons why we shouldn't have a wolf as a pet is because it's for the health of the animal and it's not easy to handle them. 我们不应该将狼作为宠物的大多数原因是因为它是为了动物的健康,并且不容易处理它们。 Through that domestication, we've turned these wolves into dogs, that way we actually have this little animal that we are very closely bonded to. 通过这种驯化,我们将这些狼变成了狗,这样我们实际上就拥有了这种与我们息息相关的小动物。 They rely very heavily upon us for everything from food, to shelter and companionship.

**Maya:** How did this one species of wolves turn into so many different breeds of dogs and types of dogs just like-- Is that human doing or is that natural?

**Bridgett:** That is such a good question. This ends up being a combination of both. 这最终是两者的结合。 To give maybe a little example of the natural side of this. 举一个自然方面的小例子。 If you look at maybe a litter of puppies, and they all come from the same mom and dad, sometimes some of the puppies might have brown fur, others might have little splotchy colors, another one might be white with bigger black patches on them but they all come from the same two parents. The natural part of all of this variation in dogs that we see is because every individual has a slightly different set of genes. 我们看到的狗的所有这些变异的自然部分是因为每个人都有一组略有不同的基因。

Now, if we talk about how people became involved in that. 现在,如果我们谈谈人们是如何参与其中的。 If we imagine that we were a dog breeder and we wanted to maybe create a brand new type of dog, and we saw something interesting, one of the puppies was maybe this unique color that we'd never seen before. We would really want to use that dog, when it grew up, to have more puppies in hopes that it would have more like it. 我们真的很想用那只狗,当它长大后,养更多的小狗,希望它能有更多的喜欢它。 As we started doing that a lot, we found that humans could create lots of differences between animals from tiny little teacup dogs to these giant Great Danes. It's great quite incredible. 真是太不可思议了。

**Maya:** Wow.

**Molly:** Thank you so much for being here today, Bridgett.

**Bridgett:** Thank you.

**Maya:** Bye, thanks.

**Bridgett:** Thanks. Bye.

**Molly:** Canines and people have a special relationship. Wolves, in particular, are very important to many Native American tribes. 狼对许多美洲原住民部落来说尤其重要。 Wolves and humans are seen as brothers and sisters by the Anishinabe or Ojibwe nations. 狼和人类被 Anishinabe 或 Ojibwe 国家视为兄弟姐妹。

[wolf howls]

**Bizhikiins:** Boozhoo. Hello, my name is Bizhikiins or Dylan Jennings. I come from the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Anishinaabeg in Northern Wisconsin. 我来自威斯康星州北部的苏必利尔湖 Anishinaabeg 的坏河带。 I work as a public information office director at the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission. 我在五大湖印度鱼类和野生动物委员会担任公共信息办公室主任。 Wolves have a very, very important role to play in our communities traditionally and even today. 狼在传统上甚至今天在我们的社区中都扮演着非常非常重要的角色。 A lot of that goes back to a relationship from our original stories, our original stories of creation. 其中很多都可以追溯到我们最初的故事,我们最初的创作故事。

The wolf and original man were some of the two beings that in our stories, went around and named everything in creation, gave everything a name together, and traveled together. 狼和原始人是我们故事中的两个存在,他们四处走动,为创造中的一切命名,一起给一切命名,一起旅行。 At a different part within our stories, it talks about ma'iingan which is the Ojibwe word that describes wolf, and then the Anishinaabeg having to take separate paths, separate trails, and splitting up kind of diverging along that path. 在我们故事的不同部分,它谈到了 ma'iingan,这是描述狼的 Ojibwe 词,然后 Anishinaabeg 必须采取不同的路径,不同的小径,并沿着这条路径分裂。 What teaching we derive from that is that what happens to one of us will happen to the other. 我们从中得到的教导是,发生在我们中的一个人身上的事情也会发生在另一个人身上。

Well, there was a time, not too long ago, where wolves were almost eradicated from this area, which means that there weren't many left. 嗯,有一段时间,不久前,狼几乎从这个地区被消灭了,这意味着剩下的已经不多了。 A lot of that coincided in a time where it wasn't okay to be Ojibwe or to be Native American. 其中很多都发生在一个不适合成为 Ojibwe 或成为美洲原住民的时代。 They were told to blend in and essentially remove that Ojibwe-ness or that essence of being an indigenous person from their being. 他们被告知要融入并从本质上消除奥吉布韦人的特征或作为土著人的本质。 Those two things really mirror each other in our history. 这两件事在我们的历史上确实相互映照。 There are instances where we believe that saying, 'What happens to one will happen to the other' have actually come to fruition, to take care of and look after one another because we are considered to be relatives or, some say, to be brothers. 在某些情况下,我们相信“发生在一个人身上的事情就会发生在另一个人身上”这句话实际上已经实现,因为我们被认为是亲戚,或者,有人说是兄弟,所以要互相照顾和照顾.