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But Why: A Podcast For Curious Kids, How Deep Is the Ocean? (1)

How Deep Is the Ocean? (1)

September 24, 2021

Jane 00:21

This is But Why: a Podcast for Curious Kids from Vermont Public Radio. I'm Jane Lindholm. And on this show, we explore things you tell us you want to know more about. You sent us questions, and it's the job of me and Melody Bodette to search out answers. Today we're going to explore a part of the world that not much is known about. In fact, you could be one of the people who helps us understand and learn more about this very important and very, very large part of the earth as you grow older. One of the reasons not much is known about this vast part of our planet is because it's really hard to explore there. You need a lot of special equipment and technology. And it all needs to be waterproof. Have you guessed what I'm talking about yet? It's the ocean, specifically, the bottom of the ocean, the sea floor. The land underneath the ocean is as varied and interesting as the terrain up on dry land, with mountains and canyons, plains and forests. That's right, forests. There are kelp forests where the kelp, a type of seaweed, is as much as 150 feet tall. So today, we're going to explore what's known about the bottom of the ocean, and we're going to pay special attention to what's not yet known with two people whose job it is to discover more.

Jamie 01:44

Hello, I'm Jamie McMichael-Phillips, I'm the director of the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 project, a very long name, we normally call it Seabed 2030 for short.

Vicki 01:57

My name is Vicki Ferrini. I am a senior research scientist at Columbia University. And I lead one of the regional centers for the Seabed 2030 project.

Jane 02:08

And what is Seabed 2030.

Jamie 02:10

Seabed 2030 is a global collaboration designed to map our seabed, our ocean floor by the year 2030.

Jane 02:20

The project got started because as Jamie McMichael Phillips told me, we really don't know much about what it looks like on the bottom of the ocean.

Jamie 02:28

Hardly anything, the ocean size is about 362 million square kilometers. And to date, we have mapped nearly 20 percent of the world's ocean floor round about 69-70 million square kilometers. So a long,

long way to go. And considering that we are surrounded by the ocean, we've got a tough task ahead of us.

Jane 02:55

That's amazing to think abou: 20 percent. So if you live in a house or an apartment with five rooms, it would be like only knowing the floor of one room of your house.

Jamie 03:07 That's right.

Vicki 03:08

It would also though be knowing the floor of your room, not with very much detail. Like you wouldn't be able to see the trash basket, or the shoes that you might trip over, you just see the general shape, maybe the shape of the bed and the desk. But you wouldn't see all the other details because we don't have very much detailed information.

Jane 03:28

Well, some parents might be pleased about that you wouldn't see all of the things that the kids had left on the floor. But yeah, I mean, if you can't see, if you don't know everything that's on the floor, you just kind of know the shape of the room. You're right, you're missing a lot of detail, a lot of important things like where those toys are.

Vicki 03:43 exactly,

Jamie 03:44

But the biggest challenge that we've got is that we can't see the ocean floor. So unlike walking across land where we can see what's in front of us, we can see what's underneath us, we can see what's in the sky. That's not the same in the ocean. So we have to use sound waves to penetrate the ocean depths to measure what's on the seabed. And that takes a long time. It's not as quick as looking through our eyes or looking through a camera. It's a slower process.

Jane 04:13

Why do we care about knowing what's on the sea floor if we don't live there? We know there are animals and other kinds of organisms that do live down there, but humans aren't going to so why should we care about knowing exactly what it looks like down there?

Vicki 04:28

So the shape of the ocean floor, which is really what we're getting at here affects all sorts of different things. It effects the way water circulates in the ocean, which can have an effect on climate. It can effect storms moving around hurricanes, we all know are affected by water temperature. You know fish and different resources on the sea floor near the sea floor that we're dependent upon, whether it be for food or for metals, for our phones. Actually our phones, the communication that we're using to talk on our phones. It doesn't go through the sky it goes on cables on the sea floor. And so we don't even realize

that every day we're very all of us are very connected to each other through the sea floor, which is pretty cool.

Jane 05:10

While we have Vicki and Jamie, let's get into some of the questions you've sent us about the ocean depths.

Siri 05:16

My name is Siri, and I am five and I live in Denver, Colorado. My question is, how deep is the sea?

Freya 05:26

My name is Freya, and I'm eight years old. And I live in Wellington in New Zealand. And my question is how deepest the deepest part of the ocean? Thank you.

Sophie 05:36

My name is Sophie. I live in Minneapolis, Minnesota. I'm eight years old. My question is, How deep is the ocean?

Campbell 05:46

My name is Campbell. I'm seven years old. And I live in Pennsylvania. And I want to know how the ocean got so deep?

Jane 05:55

So how deep is it? And how did it get so deep?

Jamie 05:58

Well, I know how deep it is. And I think Vicki's better place to say how it gets so deep. So the deepest part of the ocean, and I'll stand by to be correct on this, is about 11,034 meters in a place called the Challenger Deep in the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean is about seven miles deep.

Jane 06:19 That's amazing.

Jamie 06:20

That is. That is amazing.

Jane 06:22

Let's add two more voices to the chorus wanting to know how that part of the ocean got so deep.

Toby 06:27

Hi, my name is Toby and I'm four and a half. l live in Chicago. And my question is, how did the Mariana Trench get so deep?

Alice 06:28

Hi, my name is Alice. I'm six years old. I'm from Buffalo, New York. And my question is, how was the Mariana Trench formed?

Jane 06:49

Not surprisingly, how the sea floor formed is complicated.

Vicki 06:54

Well, so there's a lot of really large scale processes that are happening on our planet. I think a lot of people have heard of plate tectonics and how the the plates move around the planet. As they're moving around. There's different processes happening like subduction. So one plates going below another one, and that's causing a lot of the trenches. There's collision of plates, which causes the creation of mountains. I think people have some familiarity with the ring of fire that surrounds the Pacific lots of volcanic activity because of how these plates are moving around.

Jane 07:26

Basically the same processes that formed canyons and mountains on dry land also formed the depths of the ocean and the islands that peak above the water. In the case of the Mariana Trench, it was formed by a process called subduction. When one tectonic plate slides underneath another one, a tectonic plate is a gigantic piece of the Earth's crust, and the next layer below that called the upper mantle. These massive slabs of rock are constantly moving, usually very slowly. So a lot of changes to the Earth's surface and structure take place over a long time. But sometimes something like an earthquake can speed that process up. A trench is formed when one plate slides or melts beneath another one. The Mariana Trench is the deepest trench in the world. It's farther below sea level, then Mount Everest is above sea level. And Jamie McMichael-Philip says that's got people interested in learning more,

Jamie 08:27

There's been a huge amount of interest in exploring it, in diving down into it to find out what life exists in such deep water. And that activity has been going on through the years and more recently by an expedition called the Five Deeps where they've been taking a submersible onboard a ship. And they've been going around the world looking at these fantastically deep areas to discover what's down there.

Jane 08:58

Okay, so that's the deepest part. But what about on average? Do we know generally how deep the sea can be and how much it varies?

Vicki 09:06

So this kind of takes us back to, you know, maybe people are surprised to hear that the ocean really hasn't been mapped more than 20 percent, right? So we have an idea of the shape of the sea floor based on prediction. So we're basically using satellite data to look at very small perturbations of the sea surface that responds to the shape of the sea floor. And there's a gravity equation that's used to compute what the shape of the sea floor is from that. And so when you look at a world map, and you see the general shape of the sea floor, that's what it's based on.

Jane 09:38

Did you get that? Basically, because not much of the sea floor has been actually mapped using the best possible technology, scientists use other information to give them kind of a best guess. But it's still pretty vague. It doesn't give a lot of detail.

Vicki 09:53

So we have a relatively you know, good idea of where it's kind of flat where there's bumps where there's ridges. And that's all supplemented with direct observation. But if we really want to see detail like striations on the sea floor, you know, tiny little seamounts, volcanoes of different kinds, we really need to get in there and image directly with sonar.

Jane 10:15

When we come back, we'll go deeper into how teams of researchers are using that enhanced technology like sonar to create a much more detailed map of what the ground looks like all the way at the bottom of the sea.

Jane 10:30

This is, But Why: a Podcast for Curious Kids. I'm Jane Lindholm, and today we're talking with two of the key leaders have a project called Seabed 2030, which has the ambitious goal of mapping the entire bottom of the ocean by that year, 2030. Remember, most of the sea floor hasn't really been mapped yet. So it's a massive project. Just a minute ago, Vicki Ferrini was explaining that modern technology can help us figure out what terrain looks like under the water. But it's not just going down in a boat and looking at the ground. One of the main tools researchers use is called sonar. That technology uses sound to map things. It might sound kind of confusing, but the way sound bounces off the bottom of the sea floor can give researchers using computers a sense of what the landscape looks like. Some animals like bats and dolphins use sonar to help them see underwater or in the dark. In animals, it's usually called echolocation. But it's the same basic idea. I asked Vicki to explain how sonar works. Because no matter how many times I go into my bedroom, close my eyes and shout, I still can't figure out how the sound is supposed to tell me what's on the floor of my room.

Vicki 11:49

So I have some good ways of thinking about this. So fundamentally, what we're using is the time that it takes for the sound to travel from the source to the sea floor and back, we can go back to our room analogy, right. So if you're in a house, and you don't know anything inside, it's dark. And you want to see what it looks like you have a flashlight, maybe you can get little observation. So in some ways, sonar is giving us that little look at little spots. As we look, the closer the flashlight is to the wall, the tighter the light that you see, the further away you are, the more the brighter, it is more diffuse. And the sonar works that way in terms of resolution. If we're close and tight, you can see more crisp, and more focus. If you're broad, and it's wide. It's not as focused.



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How Deep Is the Ocean? (1) Aký hlboký je oceán? (1) Okyanus Ne Kadar Derin? (1) Наскільки глибокий океан? (1) 海洋有多深? (1)

September 24, 2021 September 24, 2021 24 Eylül 2021

**Jane** 00:21

This is But Why: a Podcast for Curious Kids from Vermont Public Radio. C'est mais pourquoi: un podcast pour les enfants curieux de la radio publique du Vermont. これはしかし理由です:バーモント公共ラジオからの好奇心旺盛な子供のためのポッドキャスト。 Bu Ama Neden: Vermont Public Radio'dan Meraklı Çocuklar için bir Podcast. I'm Jane Lindholm. And on this show, we explore things you tell us you want to know more about. You sent us questions, and it's the job of me and Melody Bodette to search out answers. Today we're going to explore a part of the world that not much is known about. Сегодня мы собираемся исследовать часть мира, о которой мало что известно. In fact, you could be one of the people who helps us understand and learn more about this very important and very, very large part of the earth as you grow older. На самом деле, вы могли бы быть одним из тех, кто помогает нам понять и узнать больше об этой очень важной и очень, очень большой части земли, когда вы станете старше. One of the reasons not much is known about this vast part of our planet is because it's really hard to explore there. Одна из причин, по которой мало что известно об этой обширной части нашей планеты, заключается в том, что ее очень трудно исследовать. You need a lot of special equipment and technology. And it all needs to be waterproof. Have you guessed what I'm talking about yet? It's the ocean, specifically, the bottom of the ocean, the sea floor. Это океан, точнее, дно океана, морское дно. The land underneath the ocean is as varied and interesting as the terrain up on dry land, with mountains and canyons, plains and forests. A terra debaixo do oceano é tão variada e interessante quanto o terreno em terra firme, com montanhas e desfiladeiros, planícies e florestas. Земля под океаном так же разнообразна и интересна, как и местность на суше, с горами и каньонами, равнинами и лесами. That's right, forests. Isso mesmo, florestas. There are kelp forests where the kelp, a type of seaweed, is as much as 150 feet tall. Existem florestas de algas onde a alga, um tipo de alga marinha, tem até 150 pés de altura. Есть леса ламинарии, где ламинария, тип водорослей, достигает 150 футов в высоту. So today, we're going to explore what's known about the bottom of the ocean, and we're going to pay special attention to what's not yet known with two people whose job it is to discover more.

**Jamie** 01:44

Hello, I'm Jamie McMichael-Phillips, I'm the director of the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 project, a very long name, we normally call it Seabed 2030 for short. Здравствуйте, я Джейми МакМайкл-Филлипс, я директор проекта Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030, очень длинное название, мы обычно называем его Seabed 2030 для краткости.

**Vicki** 01:57

My name is Vicki Ferrini. I am a senior research scientist at Columbia University. And I lead one of the regional centers for the Seabed 2030 project. Und ich leite eines der regionalen Zentren für das Projekt Seabed 2030. E lidero um dos centros regionais do projeto Seabed 2030. И я руковожу одним из региональных центров проекта «Морское дно 2030».

**Jane** 02:08

And what is Seabed 2030.

**Jamie** 02:10

Seabed 2030 is a global collaboration designed to map our seabed, our ocean floor by the year 2030. Seabed 2030 — это глобальное сотрудничество, призванное составить карту нашего морского дна и дна океана к 2030 году.

**Jane** 02:20

The project got started because as Jamie McMichael Phillips told me, we really don't know much about what it looks like on the bottom of the ocean. O projeto começou porque, como Jamie McMichael Phillips me disse, realmente não sabemos muito sobre como é o fundo do oceano. Проект начался, потому что, как сказал мне Джейми Макмайкл Филлипс, мы действительно мало знаем о том, как выглядит дно океана.

**Jamie** 02:28

Hardly anything, the ocean size is about 362 million square kilometers. Quase nada, o tamanho do oceano é de cerca de 362 milhões de quilômetros quadrados. And to date, we have mapped nearly 20 percent of the world's ocean floor round about 69-70 million square kilometers. E até o momento, mapeamos quase 20% do fundo oceânico do mundo em torno de 69 a 70 milhões de quilômetros quadrados. So a long, So lange, Tão longo, Так долго,

long way to go. долгий путь. And considering that we are surrounded by the ocean, we've got a tough task ahead of us. Und wenn man bedenkt, dass wir vom Meer umgeben sind, haben wir eine schwere Aufgabe vor uns. А учитывая, что нас окружает океан, перед нами стоит непростая задача.

**Jane** 02:55

That's amazing to think abou: 20 percent. Удивительно подумать об этом: 20 процентов. So if you live in a house or an apartment with five rooms, it would be like only knowing the floor of one room of your house.

**Jamie** 03:07 That's right. Jamie 03:07 Isso mesmo.

**Vicki** 03:08

It would also though be knowing the floor of your room, not with very much detail. Seria também saber o piso do seu quarto, não com muitos detalhes. Это также было бы знанием пола вашей комнаты, не очень подробно. Like you wouldn't be able to see the trash basket, or the shoes that you might trip over, you just see the general shape, maybe the shape of the bed and the desk. Como se você não pudesse ver a cesta de lixo, ou os sapatos nos quais você pode tropeçar, você apenas vê a forma geral, talvez a forma da cama e da mesa. Как если бы вы не могли видеть корзину для мусора или обувь, о которую можно споткнуться, вы видите только общую форму, может быть, форму кровати и стола. But you wouldn't see all the other details because we don't have very much detailed information.

**Jane** 03:28

Well, some parents might be pleased about that you wouldn't see all of the things that the kids had left on the floor. Bem, alguns pais podem ficar satisfeitos por você não ver todas as coisas que as crianças deixaram no chão. Что ж, некоторые родители могут быть довольны тем, что вы не увидите все вещи, которые дети оставили на полу. But yeah, I mean, if you can't see, if you don't know everything that's on the floor, you just kind of know the shape of the room. Mas sim, quero dizer, se você não pode ver, se você não sabe tudo o que está no chão, você meio que conhece a forma da sala. Но да, я имею в виду, если ты не видишь, если ты не знаешь всего, что на полу, ты просто как бы знаешь форму комнаты. You're right, you're missing a lot of detail, a lot of important things like where those toys are. Você está certo, você está perdendo muitos detalhes, muitas coisas importantes, como onde estão esses brinquedos. Вы правы, вы упускаете много деталей, много важных вещей, например, где эти игрушки.

**Vicki** 03:43 exactly,

**Jamie** 03:44

But the biggest challenge that we've got is that we can't see the ocean floor. Mas o maior desafio que temos é que não podemos ver o fundo do oceano. Но самая большая проблема, которая у нас есть, заключается в том, что мы не можем видеть дно океана. So unlike walking across land where we can see what's in front of us, we can see what's underneath us, we can see what's in the sky. Então, ao contrário de caminhar pela terra onde podemos ver o que está à nossa frente, podemos ver o que está abaixo de nós, podemos ver o que está no céu. Таким образом, в отличие от ходьбы по земле, когда мы можем видеть то, что находится перед нами, мы можем видеть то, что находится под нами, мы можем видеть то, что находится в небе. That's not the same in the ocean. So we have to use sound waves to penetrate the ocean depths to measure what's on the seabed. Então temos que usar ondas sonoras para penetrar nas profundezas do oceano para medir o que está no fundo do mar. Таким образом, мы должны использовать звуковые волны, чтобы проникнуть в глубины океана, чтобы измерить то, что находится на морском дне. And that takes a long time. А это занимает много времени. It's not as quick as looking through our eyes or looking through a camera. Это не так быстро, как смотреть глазами или через камеру. It's a slower process.

**Jane** 04:13

Why do we care about knowing what's on the sea floor if we don't live there? Pourquoi nous soucions-nous de savoir ce qu'il y a au fond de la mer si nous n'y vivons pas ? Por que nos preocupamos em saber o que há no fundo do mar se não moramos lá? Зачем нам знать, что находится на морском дне, если мы там не живем? We know there are animals and other kinds of organisms that do live down there, but humans aren't going to so why should we care about knowing exactly what it looks like down there? Sabemos que existem animais e outros tipos de organismos que vivem lá embaixo, mas os humanos não vão viver, então por que deveríamos nos preocupar em saber exatamente como é lá embaixo? Мы знаем, что там живут животные и другие виды организмов, но люди не собираются жить, так почему мы должны заботиться о том, чтобы точно знать, как там выглядит?

**Vicki** 04:28

So the shape of the ocean floor, which is really what we're getting at here affects all sorts of different things. Assim, a forma do fundo do oceano, que é realmente o que temos aqui, afeta todo tipo de coisas diferentes. Итак, форма дна океана, к которой мы здесь и подошли, влияет на самые разные вещи. It effects the way water circulates in the ocean, which can have an effect on climate. It can effect storms moving around hurricanes, we all know are affected by water temperature. Pode afetar tempestades que se movem em torno de furacões, todos sabemos que são afetados pela temperatura da água. Это может повлиять на штормы, движущиеся вокруг ураганов, мы все знаем, что на них влияет температура воды. You know fish and different resources on the sea floor near the sea floor that we're dependent upon, whether it be for food or for metals, for our phones. Você conhece peixes e diferentes recursos no fundo do mar perto do fundo do mar dos quais dependemos, seja para alimentos ou metais, para nossos telefones. Вы знаете рыбу и различные ресурсы на морском дне вблизи морского дна, от которых мы зависим, будь то еда или металлы для наших телефонов. Actually our phones, the communication that we're using to talk on our phones. Na verdade, nossos telefones, a comunicação que estamos usando para falar em nossos telefones. На самом деле наши телефоны, связь, которую мы используем, чтобы говорить по нашим телефонам. It doesn't go through the sky it goes on cables on the sea floor. And so we don't even realize E assim nem percebemos И поэтому мы даже не осознаем

that every day we're very all of us are very connected to each other through the sea floor, which is pretty cool. que todos os dias somos muito todos nós estamos muito conectados uns aos outros através do fundo do mar, o que é muito legal. что каждый день мы все очень связаны друг с другом через морское дно, что довольно круто.

**Jane** 05:10

While we have Vicki and Jamie, let's get into some of the questions you've sent us about the ocean depths. Enquanto temos Vicki e Jamie, vamos responder a algumas das perguntas que você nos enviou sobre as profundezas do oceano.

**Siri** 05:16

My name is Siri, and I am five and I live in Denver, Colorado. Meu nome é Siri, tenho cinco anos e moro em Denver, Colorado. My question is, how deep is the sea?

**Freya** 05:26

My name is Freya, and I'm eight years old. And I live in Wellington in New Zealand. And my question is how deepest the deepest part of the ocean? E minha pergunta é quão mais profunda é a parte mais profunda do oceano? Thank you.

**Sophie** 05:36

My name is Sophie. I live in Minneapolis, Minnesota. I'm eight years old. My question is, How deep is the ocean?

**Campbell** 05:46

My name is Campbell. I'm seven years old. And I live in Pennsylvania. And I want to know how the ocean got so deep? E eu quero saber como o oceano ficou tão profundo? И я хочу знать, как океан стал таким глубоким?

**Jane** 05:55

So how deep is it? And how did it get so deep? Et comment est-ce devenu si profond ? E como ficou tão profundo?

**Jamie** 05:58

Well, I know how deep it is. And I think Vicki's better place to say how it gets so deep. Und ich denke, Vicki kann besser sagen, wie es so tief wird. E acho que Vicki é o melhor lugar para dizer como isso se torna tão profundo. So the deepest part of the ocean, and I'll stand by to be correct on this, is about 11,034 meters in a place called the Challenger Deep in the Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean is about seven miles deep. Also der tiefste Teil des Ozeans, und ich werde dabei bleiben, um richtig zu sein, ist etwa 11.034 Meter an einem Ort namens Challenger Deep im Marianengraben im Pazifischen Ozean, der etwa sieben Meilen tief ist. Donc, la partie la plus profonde de l'océan, et je m'en tiendrai pour être correct là-dessus, est d'environ 11 034 mètres dans un endroit appelé Challenger Deep dans la fosse des Mariannes dans l'océan Pacifique, à environ sept milles de profondeur. Então, a parte mais profunda do oceano, e vou aguardar para estar correto sobre isso, é de cerca de 11.034 metros em um lugar chamado Challenger Deep na Fossa das Marianas no Oceano Pacífico tem cerca de sete milhas de profundidade.

**Jane** 06:19 That's amazing.

**Jamie** 06:20

That is. Isso é. That is amazing.

**Jane** 06:22

Let's add two more voices to the chorus wanting to know how that part of the ocean got so deep. Ajoutons deux autres voix au chœur voulant savoir comment cette partie de l'océan est devenue si profonde. Vamos adicionar mais duas vozes ao coro querendo saber como aquela parte do oceano ficou tão profunda. Давайте добавим к припеву еще два голоса, желающих узнать, как эта часть океана стала такой глубокой.

**Toby** 06:27

Hi, my name is Toby and I'm four and a half. Olá, meu nome é Toby e tenho quatro anos e meio. l live in Chicago. And my question is, how did the Mariana Trench get so deep?

**Alice** 06:28

Hi, my name is Alice. I'm six years old. I'm from Buffalo, New York. And my question is, how was the Mariana Trench formed?

**Jane** 06:49

Not surprisingly, how the sea floor formed is complicated. Неудивительно, что формирование морского дна сложное.

**Vicki** 06:54

Well, so there's a lot of really large scale processes that are happening on our planet. I think a lot of people have heard of plate tectonics and how the the plates move around the planet. As they're moving around. Como eles estão se movendo ao redor. There's different processes happening like subduction. Há diferentes processos acontecendo como subducção. So one plates going below another one, and that's causing a lot of the trenches. Então uma placa vai abaixo da outra, e isso está causando muitas trincheiras. Итак, одна плита проходит под другой, и это вызывает множество траншей. There's collision of plates, which causes the creation of mountains. Há colisão de placas, o que causa a criação de montanhas. I think people have some familiarity with the ring of fire that surrounds the Pacific lots of volcanic activity because of how these plates are moving around. Eu acho que as pessoas têm alguma familiaridade com o anel de fogo que envolve o Pacífico com muita atividade vulcânica por causa de como essas placas estão se movendo.

**Jane** 07:26

Basically the same processes that formed canyons and mountains on dry land also formed the depths of the ocean and the islands that peak above the water. Basicamente os mesmos processos que formaram desfiladeiros e montanhas em terra firme também formaram as profundezas do oceano e as ilhas que se elevam acima da água. В основном те же самые процессы, которые сформировали каньоны и горы на суше, также сформировали глубины океана и острова, возвышающиеся над водой. In the case of the Mariana Trench, it was formed by a process called subduction. В случае с Марианской впадиной она образовалась в результате процесса, называемого субдукцией. When one tectonic plate slides underneath another one, a tectonic plate is a gigantic piece of the Earth's crust, and the next layer below that called the upper mantle. Quando uma placa tectônica desliza por baixo de outra, uma placa tectônica é um pedaço gigantesco da crosta terrestre, e a próxima camada abaixo é chamada de manto superior. Когда одна тектоническая плита скользит под другую, тектоническая плита представляет собой гигантский кусок земной коры, а следующий за ним слой называется верхней мантией. These massive slabs of rock are constantly moving, usually very slowly. Essas lajes maciças de rocha estão em constante movimento, geralmente muito lentamente. So a lot of changes to the Earth's surface and structure take place over a long time. Então, muitas mudanças na superfície e estrutura da Terra ocorrem ao longo de um longo tempo. But sometimes something like an earthquake can speed that process up. Mas às vezes algo como um terremoto pode acelerar esse processo. A trench is formed when one plate slides or melts beneath another one. Uma trincheira é formada quando uma placa desliza ou derrete sob outra. Траншея образуется, когда одна плита скользит или плавится под другой. The Mariana Trench is the deepest trench in the world. It's farther below sea level, then Mount Everest is above sea level. C'est plus loin en dessous du niveau de la mer, alors le mont Everest est au-dessus du niveau de la mer. Está mais abaixo do nível do mar, então o Monte Everest está acima do nível do mar. Это ниже уровня моря, чем гора Эверест выше уровня моря. And Jamie McMichael-Philip says that's got people interested in learning more, E Jamie McMichael-Philip diz que tem pessoas interessadas em aprender mais,

**Jamie** 08:27

There's been a huge amount of interest in exploring it, in diving down into it to find out what life exists in such deep water. Tem havido um enorme interesse em explorá-lo, em mergulhar nele para descobrir que vida existe em águas tão profundas. Было очень много интереса к его исследованию, погружению в него, чтобы узнать, какая жизнь существует в таких глубоких водах. And that activity has been going on through the years and more recently by an expedition called the Five Deeps where they've been taking a submersible onboard a ship. Et cette activité s'est poursuivie au fil des ans et plus récemment par une expédition appelée les Five Deeps où ils ont embarqué un submersible à bord d'un navire. E essa atividade vem acontecendo ao longo dos anos e, mais recentemente, por uma expedição chamada Five Deeps, onde eles levaram um submersível a bordo de um navio. И эта деятельность продолжалась на протяжении многих лет, а совсем недавно в рамках экспедиции под названием «Пять глубин», где они взяли подводную лодку на борт корабля. And they've been going around the world looking at these fantastically deep areas to discover what's down there. E eles estão percorrendo o mundo olhando para essas áreas fantasticamente profundas para descobrir o que há lá embaixo.

**Jane** 08:58

Okay, so that's the deepest part. D'accord, c'est donc la partie la plus profonde. But what about on average? Mas e em média? Do we know generally how deep the sea can be and how much it varies? Sabemos geralmente quão profundo o mar pode ser e quanto ele varia? Знаем ли мы вообще, насколько глубоким может быть море и насколько оно изменчиво?

**Vicki** 09:06

So this kind of takes us back to, you know, maybe people are surprised to hear that the ocean really hasn't been mapped more than 20 percent, right? Donc, cela nous ramène à, vous savez, peut-être que les gens sont surpris d'apprendre que l'océan n'a vraiment pas été cartographié à plus de 20 %, n'est-ce pas ? Então, isso nos leva de volta para, você sabe, talvez as pessoas fiquem surpresas ao ouvir que o oceano realmente não foi mapeado em mais de 20%, certo? So we have an idea of the shape of the sea floor based on prediction. Итак, у нас есть представление о форме морского дна, основанное на прогнозах. So we're basically using satellite data to look at very small perturbations of the sea surface that responds to the shape of the sea floor. Таким образом, мы в основном используем спутниковые данные, чтобы наблюдать за очень маленькими возмущениями поверхности моря, которые реагируют на форму морского дна. And there's a gravity equation that's used to compute what the shape of the sea floor is from that. E há uma equação de gravidade que é usada para calcular qual é a forma do fundo do mar a partir disso. И есть гравитационное уравнение, которое используется для вычисления формы морского дна. And so when you look at a world map, and you see the general shape of the sea floor, that's what it's based on. Итак, когда вы смотрите на карту мира и видите общую форму морского дна, это то, на чем она основана.

**Jane** 09:38

Did you get that? Est-ce que tu a reçu sa? Ты понял это? Basically, because not much of the sea floor has been actually mapped using the best possible technology, scientists use other information to give them kind of a best guess. Basicamente, porque não muito do fundo do mar foi realmente mapeado usando a melhor tecnologia possível, os cientistas usam outras informações para dar-lhes um melhor palpite. По сути, поскольку не так уж много морского дна было нанесено на карту с использованием наилучших возможных технологий, ученые используют другую информацию, чтобы дать им своего рода наилучшее предположение. But it's still pretty vague. Mas ainda é muito vago. Но это все еще довольно расплывчато. It doesn't give a lot of detail. Это не дает много деталей.

**Vicki** 09:53

So we have a relatively you know, good idea of where it's kind of flat where there's bumps where there's ridges. Então, nós temos uma ideia relativamente boa de onde é meio plano onde há saliências onde há cumes. Итак, у нас есть относительно, знаете ли, хорошее представление о том, где равнина, где неровности, где гребни. And that's all supplemented with direct observation. E tudo isso é complementado com observação direta. И все это дополнено непосредственным наблюдением. But if we really want to see detail like striations on the sea floor, you know, tiny little seamounts, volcanoes of different kinds, we really need to get in there and image directly with sonar. Mais si nous voulons vraiment voir des détails comme des stries sur le fond marin, vous savez, de minuscules petits monts sous-marins, des volcans de différentes sortes, nous devons vraiment entrer là-dedans et imager directement avec le sonar. Mas se nós realmente queremos ver detalhes como estrias no fundo do mar, você sabe, pequenos montes submarinos, vulcões de diferentes tipos, nós realmente precisamos chegar lá e capturar imagens diretamente com o sonar. Но если мы действительно хотим увидеть такие детали, как бороздки на морском дне, крошечные подводные горы, вулканы разных видов, нам действительно нужно попасть туда и получить изображение непосредственно с помощью сонара.

**Jane** 10:15

When we come back, we'll go deeper into how teams of researchers are using that enhanced technology like sonar to create a much more detailed map of what the ground looks like all the way at the bottom of the sea. Quando voltarmos, aprofundaremos como as equipes de pesquisadores estão usando essa tecnologia aprimorada, como o sonar, para criar um mapa muito mais detalhado de como é o solo até o fundo do mar. Когда мы вернемся, мы углубимся в то, как группы исследователей используют эту усовершенствованную технологию, такую как гидролокатор, для создания гораздо более подробной карты того, как выглядит земля на всем протяжении морского дна.

**Jane** 10:30

This is, But Why: a Podcast for Curious Kids. Это, но почему: подкаст для любознательных детей. I'm Jane Lindholm, and today we're talking with two of the key leaders have a project called Seabed 2030, which has the ambitious goal of mapping the entire bottom of the ocean by that year, 2030. Меня зовут Джейн Линдхольм, и сегодня мы разговариваем с двумя ключевыми руководителями проекта под названием «Морское дно 2030», амбициозная цель которого — нанести на карту все дно океана к 2030 году. Remember, most of the sea floor hasn't really been mapped yet. So it's a massive project. Just a minute ago, Vicki Ferrini was explaining that modern technology can help us figure out what terrain looks like under the water. But it's not just going down in a boat and looking at the ground. Но это не просто спускаться в лодке и смотреть на землю. One of the main tools researchers use is called sonar. Один из основных инструментов, используемых исследователями, называется сонар. That technology uses sound to map things. It might sound kind of confusing, but the way sound bounces off the bottom of the sea floor can give researchers using computers a sense of what the landscape looks like. Pode parecer meio confuso, mas a forma como o som reflete no fundo do mar pode dar aos pesquisadores que usam computadores uma noção de como é a paisagem. Some animals like bats and dolphins use sonar to help them see underwater or in the dark. In animals, it's usually called echolocation. But it's the same basic idea. I asked Vicki to explain how sonar works. Because no matter how many times I go into my bedroom, close my eyes and shout, I still can't figure out how the sound is supposed to tell me what's on the floor of my room. Parce que peu importe combien de fois je vais dans ma chambre, ferme les yeux et crie, je n'arrive toujours pas à comprendre comment le son est censé me dire ce qu'il y a sur le sol de ma chambre. Porque não importa quantas vezes eu vá para o meu quarto, feche os olhos e grite, eu ainda não consigo descobrir como o som deve me dizer o que está no chão do meu quarto. Потому что сколько бы раз я ни заходил в свою спальню, закрывал глаза и кричал, я все еще не могу понять, как звук должен сказать мне, что находится на полу в моей комнате.

**Vicki** 11:49

So I have some good ways of thinking about this. Так что у меня есть несколько хороших способов думать об этом. So fundamentally, what we're using is the time that it takes for the sound to travel from the source to the sea floor and back, we can go back to our room analogy, right. Então, fundamentalmente, o que estamos usando é o tempo que leva para o som viajar da fonte para o fundo do mar e voltar, podemos voltar à nossa analogia da sala, certo. По сути, то, что мы используем, — это время, которое требуется звуку, чтобы пройти от источника до морского дна и обратно, мы можем вернуться к аналогии с нашей комнатой, верно. So if you're in a house, and you don't know anything inside, it's dark. Então, se você está em uma casa e não conhece nada lá dentro, está escuro. And you want to see what it looks like you have a flashlight, maybe you can get little observation. E você quer ver como parece que você tem uma lanterna, talvez você possa obter pouca observação. So in some ways, sonar is giving us that little look at little spots. As we look, the closer the flashlight is to the wall, the tighter the light that you see, the further away you are, the more the brighter, it is more diffuse. À medida que olhamos, quanto mais perto a lanterna estiver da parede, quanto mais forte a luz que você vê, quanto mais longe você estiver, mais brilhante, mais difusa. Как мы смотрим, чем ближе фонарь к стене, тем плотнее свет, который вы видите, чем дальше вы находитесь, тем ярче, он более рассеян. And the sonar works that way in terms of resolution. И сонар работает именно так с точки зрения разрешения. If we're close and tight, you can see more crisp, and more focus. Se estivermos próximos e firmes, você poderá ver mais nítido e mais foco. Если мы близко и плотно, вы можете увидеть более четкое и более сфокусированное изображение. If you're broad, and it's wide. Se você é amplo, e é amplo. Если ты широкая, и она широкая. It's not as focused. Não é tão focado.

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