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Crash Course: English Literature, Ghosts, Murder, and More Murder - Hamlet Part 1: Crash Course Literature 203 - YouTube (1)

Ghosts, Murder, and More Murder - Hamlet Part 1: Crash Course Literature 203 - YouTube (1)

Hi I'm John Green, this is CrashCourse Literature and today we're going to talk about the

greatest Dane of all, Scooby-Doo. No, it's Hamlet.

So Hamlet is either a 16h or 17th century play, we're not positive. The Tragedy of

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark was written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1602

and it's considered by many to be Shakespeare's best work, even better than Timon of Athens

or Cymbeline. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I know Hamlet's like

super famous and important and everything, but isn't it basically just like a super

long play about a guy who never makes up his mind?

Well, Me From The Past, some argue that Hamlet doesn't have trouble making up his mind

so much as he has trouble executing his vision. More specifically, executing his uncle.

Then again, Me From The Past, many of us would argue that Hamlet does struggle to make decisions,

but the decisions he has to make are quite difficult. I mean this is a play about justice

and revenge and your conscience, and your place in the social order, and once again

deeply uncomfortable feelings about mothers.

[Theme Music]

So, Shakespeare based Hamlet on a medieval Scandinavian tale chronicled by everyone's

favorite Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus, pictured here, depending on your world view

as either Santa Claus or God. But shakespeare probably knew the tale from

contemporary plays rather than like actual Danish history because up to that point had

been mostly about Vikings and pastries. Actually, that's still mostly what it is.

So Saxo tells the story of Prince Amleth, a kid who he sees his uncle murder his father.

And then young Amleth bides his time and pretends to be crazy in order to lull his uncle into

a false sense of security. And then, as soon as he's grown up, Amleth slaughters his

uncle with his father's sword. Amleth by the way, 80% of the way to being

Pig Latin for Hamlet. Anyway, it's interesting to know that background

because it makes you think about the changes that Shakespeare makes to that story which

indicates something about what's really important to Shakespeare.

For instance, Hamlet isn't unable to kill his uncle because he's young. And he doesn't

actually see his uncle murder his father. So basically, Shakespeare was introducing

ambiguity into the story which is kind of Shakespeare's specialty.

So Hamlet is Shakespeare's most popular play, in fact, it's perhaps the only one

to have been consistently performed since it debuted. It's also, very long.

Like when Kenneth Branagh attempted to film every line the movie lasted more than four

hours. Some theatrical productions have gone on as long as six.

The general consensus is that Shakespeare wrote the play so long to satisfy himself,

and he knew that theatre troupes would just like make it shorter any way they wanted.

But it's also possible that he thought that by keeping the audience at the theater for

longer, would help him to sell more mutton pies at the concession stand.

We have to remember art is also commerce. But this whole link thing brings us to the

fact that there are actually three different versions of Hamlet. There are two quartos,

one from 1603 and another from 1604, and then the Folio edition from 1623

The second quarto and the folio are somewhat similar, although the first was probably based

on Shakespeare's notes and the second based on seeing the play in performance.

But the first quarto is known as the “bad quarto,” and not in the sense that it's

evil, but in the sense that it's kind of terrible.

Historians believe that an actor probably transcribed the first quarto his memory and

that that actor probably only played really small parts. Like Marcellus.

Basically, the scenes he was onstage for he remembered pretty well, but the other ones not so much.

He was probably that actor who's always mouthing other peoples' lines. For example,

here's the bad quarto's “To be or not to be” speech: “To be, or not to be, that's the point,

to die, to sleepe, is that all?” Yeah, that's fantastic. Anyway, in all the versions, the plot is the same:

Hamlet is a grad student who returns home to Elsinore when his father dies and

then his mother Gertrude suddenly marries his uncle Claudius. Claudius takes over as

king even though technically Hamlet should inherit the throne.

So a grieving Hamlet deals with this as any grad student would by wearing black, listening

to sad music, and making long speeches about how he wishes his flesh would melt. Which

spoiler: It eventually will. But then, his father's ghost appears to

him and begs Hamlet to revenge his murder by that aforementioned uncle Claudius. Hamlet

isn't sure about this. So he pretends to be insane, you know as you do.

He then hires a troupe of players to put on a show that will make Claudius to

reveal his guilt, Claudius is indeed overwhelmed with emotion,

flees the play, Gertrude summons Hamlet to her bedchamber where they have a weirdly intimate

discussion, until Hamlet hears a noise and in a rare decisive moment stabs the curtain.

Oh, but it's not my uncle, it's Polonius.

Polonius, who was never brief despite saying that, “brevity is the soul of wit.”

And then also famously said, “to thine own self be true” and you know, proceeded to

not be terribly true to himself. So Gertrude decides that Hamlet should get

out of town for a while and he sails away and there's a writ of death and storms and

pirates, and then Hamlet returns only to find that Polonius's daughter Ophelia has committed

suicide and that her brother Laertes is kind of mad at Hamlet.

So Claudius schedules a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet, poisoning Laertes's

sword and Hamlet's wine. Hamlet is stabbed, but manages to wound Laertes

while Gertrude downs the fatal wine. And then, once everyone is dead or dying Hamlet decides

that, now, is finally a good time to stab Claudius.

Basically, all the Danes die. Except Horatio of course because you need someone to say,

“Good night sweet prince: And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest!”

What kind of place is this Denmark where people have stunningly un-Danish names like Claudius

and Polonius. Well, let's go to the Thought Bubble.

So, throughout the play, Claudius is building up an army to take on Norway and Denmark is

caught in a strange limbo between war and not war. As often happens, the specter of

external enemies leads the ruling powers to search for enemies within, and we see a lot

of examples of Elsinore as a surveillance society. Like, Hamlet's not wrong when he

tells Rosencrantz and Guildenstern “Denmark's a prison.”

The characters are closely watching each other; I mean Gertrude and Claudius are watching

Hamlet, so is Polonius, though he's awfully bad at it. Hamlet's schoolmates, Rosencrantz

and Guildenstern are watching him closely as Claudius is encouraging them to spy while

they throw back Danish grog and talk about girls. Ophelia is watching Hamlet, too, but

Hamlet isn't watching her, because he's too busy staring at Claudius, trying to figure

out if he really did murder his father and of course Hamlet also spends a lot of time

watching himself and then reciting anguished soliloquies about it.

Personally, in the end, I'm more struck my Hamlet's narcissism than by his indecisiveness.

Anyway, all of this is probably less a criticism

of Denmark, which is a perfectly nice place full of herring sandwiches and competitive

handball, than it is a commentary on Elizabethan England, a place notorious for spying and

also the place where Shakespeare actually lived. There were all sorts of anti-royal,

anti-Catholic conspiracies going and Elizabeth I ran a whole network of spies to help discover

them — sort of like M in James Bond, but with more tiaras. Even Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeare's

rival and one of the most badass playwright's ever, was a spy. So the court of Elsinore

can be read as a commentary on Shakespeare's own environment, in which being tried and

beheaded for secret treason was kind of a national pastime.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. So Hamlet is a play about watching and being watched. Something

that we're all pretty familiar with these days, but it's also a play about doubling

and mirroring. This is a common Shakespearian thing but it

gets to some really core questions about being a person.

Like are people really capable of change, can they become different people over time,

and when you look in the mirror are you seeing the person that is actually you? Are you the

person you imagine yourself to be? So, there are at least two Hamlets in this

play, right, there is the old dead King Hamlet who goes around haunting the Elsinore battlements

and our hero who is supposed to avenge that old Hamlet .

But the living Hamlet is also split into two people: the one who wants to kill Claudius

and the one who's like, “You know maybe not. Maybe I should just be a grad student.”

And some critics argue that the Hamlet who returns home from the pirate adventure is

yet another person, because he is a very different guy from the one who left.

And you can even see Ophelia as a kind of extreme, subversive double for Hamlet, like

what Hamlet might be like if he were robbed of all of his power and agency.

And then obviously when the actors perform their play The Murder of Gonzago, they're

mirroring all the recent events in Elsinore. But it's not a regular mirror right. It's

kind of a funhouse mirror. But ultimately, it's not just…. oh no!

My desk is moving! That must mean it's time for the open letter!

An open letter to Simba. Hey there Simba, let's take a look at the 1990s adaptation

of Hamlet that DIDN'T star Mel Gibson. The one starring you - The Lion King.

Simba? Hamlet Mufasa? Recently murdered king.

Scar? Claudius Mufasa in the sky and smoke? Oviously, Ghost.

Nala? Ophelia The Elephant Graveyard? England. Or maybe

the actual graveyard with the last poor Yorick whom I knew well.

The point is: YOU MUST NEVER GO THERE, SIMBA. Sorry, I don't have a good James Earl Jones.

Best wishes, John Green. So anyway, it's not just one mirror, but

many, that reflect Hamlet's trouble figuring out what kind of a man he is and how he should act.

These mirrors also underscore the perpetual cycle of violence at the heart of the revenge

tragedy which you'll no doubt remember from our talk of ancient Greek stories.

Like in these tragedies the desire for vengeance

ultimately corrupts the revenger and he or she has to die, too. Each murder has to be

answered for with another murder until we are out of people who can die.

A good example of this unending violence is old Hamlet's ghost, who can't rest in

this grave until he's avenged. Now, the critics Andrew Bennett and Nicholas Royle

describe ghosts as “the very embodiment of strange repetition or recurrence: it is

a revenant, it comes back” Okay, but it comes back from where? Like ghosts

don't really fit into Hamlet's understanding of death. He describes death as “The undiscover'd

country, from whose born / No traveller returns.” Except his dad, apparently.

In fact, one way to read it is that the ghost's fate is in some ways aligned with Catholic

purgatory, “confin'd to fast in fires / till the foul crimes done in my days of

nature / are burnt and purg'd away.” And Hamlet seems to fear something similar, “For

in that sleep of death what dreams may come.” Though it's also worth nothing that Hamlet

wonders if the ghost really is his father. Hamlet has to ask if the ghost is a “spirit

of health or goblin damn'd.” Regardless, the ghost makes Hamlet wonder



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Ghosts, Murder, and More Murder - Hamlet Part 1: Crash Course Literature 203 - YouTube (1)

Hi I'm John Green, this is CrashCourse Literature and today we're going to talk about the Hi, ich bin John Green, dies ist Crash Course Literatur und heute werden wir über den größten Oi eu sou John Green, este é Literatura CrashCourse e hoje nós estamos indo falar sobre o hej Jag heter John Green, detta är CrashCourse litteratur och idag ska vi prata om

greatest Dane of all, Scooby-Doo. No, it's Hamlet. سكوبي دو، كلا، أقصد هاملت. Dänen aller Zeiten reden, Scooby-doo. Nein, es ist Hamlet. Non c'est Hamlet. Dane maior de todos, Scooby-Doo. Não é Hamlet. största Dansk av alla, Scooby-Doo. Nej, det är Hamlet.

So Hamlet is either a 16h or 17th century play, we're not positive. The Tragedy of Hamlet ist ein Stück des 16. oder 17. Jahrhunderts, wir sind nicht sicher. Die Tragödie von Hamlet, Então, Hamlet é ou uma ou 16h século 17 jogar, não estamos positivo. A tragédia de Så Hamlet är antingen en 1500- eller 1600-talspjäs, vi är inte helt säkra. Tragedin av

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark was written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1602 Prinz von Dänemark, wurde von William Shakespeare irgendwann zwischen 1599 und 1602 geschrieben Hamlet, príncipe da Dinamarca foi escrito por William Shakespeare em algum momento entre 1599 e 1602 Hamlet, prins av Danmark är skriven av William Shakespeare någon gång mellan 1599 och 1602

and it's considered by many to be Shakespeare's best work, even better than Timon of Athens und wird von vielen als Shakespeares bestes Stück angesehen, sogar besser als Timon von Athen et est considérée par beaucoup comme la meilleure oeuvre de Shakespeare, encore mieux que Timon d'Athènes ou Cymbeline. e é considerado por muitos como Shakespeare melhor trabalho, ainda melhor do que Timon de Atenas och det anses av många vara Shakespeares bästa arbete, ännu bättre än Timon av Aten

or Cymbeline. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I know Hamlet's like سيد غرين، أعلم أن هاملت مشهورة جًدا ومهمة جًدا وكل هذا، oder Cymbeline. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, Ich weiß, Hamlet ist M. Green, M. Green, je sais qu'Hamlet est super connue et importante et tout, ou Cymbeline. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, eu sei como Hamlet de eller Cymbeline. Mr Green, Mr Green, jag vet att Hamlet är

super famous and important and everything, but isn't it basically just like a super echt berühmt und wichtig und alles, aber ist es nicht nur ein echt mais n'est-ce pas fondamentalement juste une super longue pièce super-famosa e importante e tudo mais, mas não é basicamente como um super- superberömd och viktig och allt, men är inte det i princip precis som en superlång

long play about a guy who never makes up his mind? langes Stück über einen Typ, der sich nicht entscheiden kann? à propos d'un gars qui n'arrive pas à se décider ? longa peça sobre um cara que nunca faz a sua mente? pjäs om en kille som aldrig bestämmer sig?

Well, Me From The Past, some argue that Hamlet doesn't have trouble making up his mind Nun, Ich der Vergangenheit, manche argumentieren, dass Hamlet keine Problem hat sich zu entscheiden, Eh bien, Moi du Passé, certains font valoir qu'Hamlet n'a pas autant de mal à se décider Bem, Me From The Past, alguns argumentam que Hamlet não tem problemas para fazer a sua mente Tja, Jag-från-förr, vissa hävdar att Hamlet inte har problem med att bestämma sig

so much as he has trouble executing his vision. More specifically, executing his uncle. بقدر ما يواجه صعوبة في تطبيق رؤيته، أو بشكل محدد أكثر، صعوبة في إعدام عّمه. sondern eher damit, seine Vorstellung auszuführen. Beziehungsweise seinen Onkel hinzurichten. qu'il en a à mettre ses plans à exécution. Plus précisément, l'exécution de son oncle. tanto como ele tem dificuldade de executar a sua visão. Mais especificamente, a execução de seu tio. så mycket som han har svårt att utföra sin vision. Närmare bestämt att avrätta sin farbror.

Then again, Me From The Past, many of us would argue that Hamlet does struggle to make decisions, ولكن يا أنا من الماضي، يجادل العديد مّنا أن هاملت يجد صعوبة في اتخاذ القرارات، Auf der anderen Seite, Ich der Vergangenheit, viele würden doch sagen, dass Hamlet nur schwer Entscheidungen trifft, Là encore, Moi du Passé, beaucoup soutiennent qu'Hamlet lutte pour prendre des décisions, Então, novamente, Me From The Past, muitos de nós faria argumentam que Hamlet faz lutar para tomar decisões, Men hur som helst, Jag-från-förr, många av oss skulle hävda att Hamlet faktiskt kämpar för att fatta beslut,

but the decisions he has to make are quite difficult. I mean this is a play about justice aber die Entscheidungen, die er fällen muss, sind ziemlich schwer. Das ist ein Stück über Gerechtigkeit mais les décisions qu'il doit prendre sont assez difficiles. Je veux dire c'est une pièce sur la justice et la vengeance mas as decisões que ele tem que fazer são bastante difícil. Quero dizer isso é uma peça sobre justiça men besluten han har att fatta är väldigt svårt. Jag menar att detta är en pjäs om rättvisa

and revenge and your conscience, and your place in the social order, and once again und Rache und Gewissen, und die Stellung in der sozialen Ordnung, und schon wieder, et la conscience morale, et la place qu'on occupe dans l'ordre social e vingança e sua consciência, e sua colocar na ordem social, e mais uma vez och hämnd och ditt samvete, och din plats i den sociala ordningen, och än en gång

deeply uncomfortable feelings about mothers. sehr unbehagliche Gefühle über Mütter. et encore une fois, des sentiments profondément malsains au sujet des mères. profundamente sentimentos desconfortáveis ​​sobre mães. Intro djupt obehagliga känslor om mödrar. Introduktion

[Theme Music] "موسيقى البداية"

So, Shakespeare based Hamlet on a medieval Scandinavian tale chronicled by everyone's

favorite Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus, pictured here, depending on your world view

as either Santa Claus or God. But shakespeare probably knew the tale from

contemporary plays rather than like actual Danish history because up to that point had

been mostly about Vikings and pastries. Actually, that's still mostly what it is. في الحقيقة، لا يزال معظمه هكذا. En fait, c'est en encore plus ou moins le cas.

So Saxo tells the story of Prince Amleth, a kid who he sees his uncle murder his father. إذن، قّص ساكسو قصة الأمير آملث، وهو طفل يرى عّمه يقتل والده، Saxo erzählt die Geschichte von Prinz Amleth, einem Kind, das zusieht, wie sein Onkel seinen Vater ermordet. Alors Saxo raconte l'histoire du prince Amleth, un gamin qui il voit son oncle assassiner son père Então Saxo conta a história do príncipe Amleth, um garoto que ele vê seu tio assassinar seu pai. Så Saxo berättar historien om prins Amleth, en kille som han ser sin farbror mörda sin far.

And then young Amleth bides his time and pretends to be crazy in order to lull his uncle into ثم ينتظر آملث الصغير بترقب ويتظاهر بأنه مجنون لكي يخدع عّمه ويجعله يشعر بأمان كاذب. Und dann erwartet Amleth seine Zeit und gibt vor, verrückt zu sein, um seinen Onkel in falscher Et puis le jeune Amleth attend son heure en faisant semblant d'être fou pour faire croire à son oncle qu'il est sauf. E então jovem Amleth bides seu tempo e finge que ser louco, a fim de acalmar seu tio em Och sedan bidar den unga Amleth sin tid och låtsas vara galen för att invagga sin farbror i

a false sense of security. And then, as soon as he's grown up, Amleth slaughters his Sicherheit zu wiegen. Und dann, als er erwachsen ist, ermordet Amleth seinen uma falsa sensação de segurança. E então, logo como ele cresceu, Amleth massacra seu en falsk känsla av trygghet. Och sedan, så snart han har vuxit upp, slaktar Amleth hans

uncle with his father's sword. Amleth by the way, 80% of the way to being Onkel mit seines Vaters Schwert. Amleth ist übrigens 20% davon entfernt, Schweinelatein Au fait, Amleth, verlan à 80% de Hamlet. tio com a espada de seu pai. Amleth a propósito, 80% do caminho para ser farbror med sin fars svärd. Amleth förresten, 80% på väg att bli

Pig Latin for Hamlet. Anyway, it's interesting to know that background على كل حال، معرفة هذه الخلفية أمر مشّوق für Hamlet zu sein. Auf jeden Fall ist es interessant, diesen Hintergrund zu kennen, Pig Latin para Hamlet. De qualquer forma, é interessante saber que o fundo SvinLatin för Hamlet. Hur som helst, det är intressant att veta om denna bakgrund

because it makes you think about the changes that Shakespeare makes to that story which لأنها تدفعكم للتفكير بالتغييرات التي أجراها شكسبير على تلك القصة، denn dann denkt man über die Veränderungen nach, die Shakespeare vornimmt, was porque faz você pensar sobre as mudanças que Shakespeare faz a essa história que eftersom den får dig att tänka på ändringarna som Shakespeare gör i den historien som

indicates something about what's really important to Shakespeare. وهذا يشير نوعًا ما إلى ما يعتبره شكسبير مهًما جًدا. andeutet, was Shakespeare wirklich wichtig war. et donc de comprendre ce qui est vraiment important pour Shakespeare. indica algo sobre o que é realmente importante Shakespeare. anger något om vad som verkligen är viktigt för Shakespeare.

For instance, Hamlet isn't unable to kill his uncle because he's young. And he doesn't فمثلًا، هاملت غير قادر على قتل عّمه لأنه صغير. Zum Beispiel ist es Hamlet nicht unmöglich seinen Onkel zu töten, weil er jung ist. Und er sieht Par exemple : Hamlet n'est incapable de tuer son oncle parce qu'il est jeune, Por exemplo, Hamlet não é incapaz de matar seu tio porque ele é jovem. E ele não faz Till exempel är inte Hamlet oförmögen att döda hans farbror eftersom han är ung. Och han ser faktiskt inte

actually see his uncle murder his father. So basically, Shakespeare was introducing nicht direkt, wie sein Onkel seinen Vater mordet. Also bringt Shakespeare Mehrdeutigkeit realmente ver seu tio assassinar seu pai. Então, basicamente, Shakespeare estava introduzindo sin farbror mörda sin far. Så i princip så införde Shakespeare

ambiguity into the story which is kind of Shakespeare's specialty. in die Geschichte, was irgendwie seine Spezialität ist. ce qui est une sorte de la spécialité chez Shakespeare. ambiguidade na história que é tipo de A especialidade de Shakespeare. tvetydighet i berättelsen, vilket är Shakespeares specialitet.

So Hamlet is Shakespeare's most popular play, in fact, it's perhaps the only one Hamlet ist Shakespeares bekanntestes Stück, tatsächlich ist es vielleicht das einzige, Então Hamlet de Shakespeare é mais popular jogo, de fato, é talvez o único Så Hamlet är Shakespeares mest populära pjäs, i själva verket är det kanske den enda

to have been consistently performed since it debuted. It's also, very long. وهي طويلة جًدا أيًضا. das seit seiner Uraufführung ständig gespielt wurde. Und es ist sehr lang. Elle est aussi très longue. ter sido realizada de forma consistente desde ele estreou. É também, muito longo. som har blivit konsekvent uppsatt sedan den debuterade. Den är också mycket lång.

Like when Kenneth Branagh attempted to film every line the movie lasted more than four عندما حاول كينيث براناه مثلًا تصوير كل جملة، استمر الفيلم لأكثر من أربع ساعات. Als Kenneth Branagh versucht hat, jede Zeile zu verfilmen, hat der Film mehr als vier Stunden Quand Kenneth Branagh a voulu filmer chaque vers, le film durait plus de quatre heures. Como quando Kenneth Branagh tentou filmar cada linha do filme durou mais de quatro När Kenneth Branagh försökte filma varje rad filmen så varade den i mer än fyra

hours. Some theatrical productions have gone on as long as six. وبعض الإنتاجات المسرحية دامت ست ساعات. gedauert. Manche Theaterproduktionen waren bis zu sechs Stunden lang. Certaines productions théâtrales ont duré jusqu'à six heures. horas. Algumas produções teatrais ter ido sobre o tempo que seis. timmar. Några sceniska produktioner har varat så länge som sex timmar.

The general consensus is that Shakespeare wrote the play so long to satisfy himself, الإجماع العام هو أن شكسبير كتب المسرحية بهذا الطول ليرضي نفسه، Die gängige Meinung ist, dass Shakespeare das Stück nur für sich selbst so lang geschrieben hat, Le consensus général est que Shakespeare a écrit une pièce aussi grande pour se faire plaisir O consenso geral é que Shakespeare escreveu a peça tanto tempo para satisfazer a si mesmo, Den allmänna uppfattningen är att Shakespeare skrev pjäsen som så lång tid för att tillfredsställa sig själv,

and he knew that theatre troupes would just like make it shorter any way they wanted. وعلم أن الفَرق المسرحية ستجعلها أقصر كيفما أرادوا. und er wusste, dass Theatertruppen es so kürzen würden, wie es ihnen passte. et il savait que les troupes de théâtre n'aurait qu'une envie : la raccourcir. E ele sabia que seria apenas companhias de teatro como torná-lo mais curto de qualquer maneira que queria. och han visste att teatergrupper helt enkelt skulle göra den kortare precis som de ville, om de ville.

But it's also possible that he thought that by keeping the audience at the theater for لكن من الممكن أيًضا أنه اعتقد أن إبقاء الجمهور في المسرح لوقت أطول Aber es ist auch möglich, dass er dachte, dass wenn die Zuschauer länger im Theater bleiben, Mais il est aussi possible qu'il pensait qu'en gardant plus longtemps le public au théâtre, Mas também é possível que ele pensou que por manter o público no teatro para Men det är också möjligt att han trodde att genom att hålla publiken på teatern under

longer, would help him to sell more mutton pies at the concession stand. سيساعده على بيع طعام أكثر من كشك الأطعمة. sie mehr Hammelspasteten am Imbissstand verkaufen würden. Wir müssen daran denken, cela l''aiderait à vendre plus tourtes au mouton à la concession du théâtre. mais tempo, iria ajudá-lo a vender mais carne de carneiro tortas no estande de concessão. Temos que lembrar längre tid, så skulle detta hjälpa honom att sälja mer fårköttspajer i kioskerna. Vi måste komma ihåg

We have to remember art is also commerce. But this whole link thing brings us to the dass Kunst auch Kommerz ist. Aber das ganze Längenzeug bringt uns zu der que a arte é também commerce. Mas essa coisa toda ligação leva-nos à att konsten också är handel. Men hela denna länksak leder oss till

fact that there are actually three different versions of Hamlet. There are two quartos, Tatsache, dass es drei verschiedene Versionen von Hamlet gibt. Es gibt zwei Quartos, fato de que há realmente três diferentes versões de Hamlet. Existem dois in-quartos, faktumet är att det faktiskt finns tre olika versioner av Hamlet. Det finns två quartos,

one from 1603 and another from 1604, and then the Folio edition from 1623 ثم هناك الإصدار بصفحات مطوية من 1623. einmal von 1603 und einmal von 1604, und die Folioversion von 1623. um de 1603 e outro de 1604, e em seguida a edição de 1623 Folio en från 1603 och en från 1604, och sedan Folioutgåvan från 1623

The second quarto and the folio are somewhat similar, although the first was probably based Das zweite Quarto und das Folio sind ähnlich, auch wenn ersteres wohl auf Shakespeares bien que le premier était probablement tiré des notes de Shakespeare, A segunda edição in-quarto e o fólio são um pouco similar, embora o primeiro foi provavelmente baseada Den andra quarton och folion är något liknande, även om den första troligen är baserad

on Shakespeare's notes and the second based on seeing the play in performance. والإصدار مبني على رؤية المسرحية أثناء تأديتاها. Notizen basierte, und letzteres auf einer Aufführung des Stückes. et deuxième basé sur une représentation de la pièce. em notas de Shakespeare ea segunda base em ver o jogo no desempenho. på Shakespeares anteckningar, och den andra baserad på att se pjäsen under utförande.

But the first quarto is known as the “bad quarto,” and not in the sense that it's Aber das erste Quarto ist als "schlechtes Quarto" bekannt, und nicht in dem Sinne, dass es Mas o primeiro-quarto é conhecido como o "mau Quarto, "e não no sentido de que é Men den första quarton kallas den "dåliga quarton", och inte i den meningen att den innehåller mer

evil, but in the sense that it's kind of terrible. böse ist, sondern in dem, dass es ziemlich schrecklich ist. mal, mas no sentido de que é uma espécie de terrível. ondska, men i den bemärkelsen att den är ganska fruktansvärt dålig.

Historians believe that an actor probably transcribed the first quarto his memory and Historiker glauben, dass ein Schauspieler das erste Quarto aus dem Gedächtnis geschrieben hat, und Os historiadores acreditam que um ator provavelmente transcreveu o Primeiro Quarto sua memória e Historiker tror att en skådespelare förmodligen transkriberade den första quarton från hans minne och

that that actor probably only played really small parts. Like Marcellus. وأن ذلك الممثل قام بتأدية أدوار صغيرة جًدا، مثل َمْرِسُلس. dass der Schauspieler nur wirklich kleine Rollen hatte. Wie Marcellus. que o ator provavelmente só jogou realmente peças pequenas. Como Marcellus. att denna skådespelare förmodligen bara spelade riktigt små delar. Som Marcellus.

Basically, the scenes he was onstage for he remembered pretty well, but the other ones not so much. ببساطة، المشاهد التي كان فيها على خشبة المسرح تذّكرها بشكل ممتاز، لكن لم يتذكر المشاهد الأخر كثيًرا.

He was probably that actor who's always mouthing other peoples' lines. For example, كان هو ذلك الممثل الذي يتمتم دائًما مقاطع الممثلين الآخرين على الأغلب.

here's the bad quarto's “To be or not to be” speech: “To be, or not to be, that's the point,

to die, to sleepe, is that all?” Yeah, that's fantastic. Anyway, in all the versions, the plot is the same: أجل، هذا رائع. على كل حال، الحبكة هي نفسها في جميع النسخ: Fleisch. Wie auch immer, in allen Versionen ist die Handlung die Ouais, c'est fantastique. Quand même, dans toutes les versions, l'intrigue est la même : carne. De qualquer forma, em todas as versões, a trama é a kött. Hur som helst, i alla versioner, är handlingen

Hamlet is a grad student who returns home to Elsinore when his father dies and هامت هو طالب دراسات عليا يعود إلى دياره ألسينور حين يموت أبوه gleiche. Hamlet ist ein Student, der nach Hause nach Helsingör zurückkommt, als sein Vater stirbt, und Hamlet est un étudiant maîtrise qui retourne chez lui à Elseneur quand son père meurt mesmo: Hamlet é um estudante de graduação que retorna o lar de Elsinore quando seu pai morre e densamma: Hamlet är en högskolestudent som återvänder hem till Helsingör när hans far dör och

then his mother Gertrude suddenly marries his uncle Claudius. Claudius takes over as dann heiratet seine Mutter Gertrude plötzlich seinen Onkel Claudius. Claudius übernimmt die Rolle em seguida, sua mãe Gertrude repente se casa seu tio Cláudio. Claudius assume como när hans mor Gertrud plötsligt gifter sig med hans farbror Claudius. Claudius tar över som

king even though technically Hamlet should inherit the throne. des Königs, obwohl eigentlich Hamlet den Thron erben sollte. rei, embora tecnicamente Hamlet deveria herdar o trono. kung fastän Hamlet, tekniskt sett, bör ärva tronen.

So a grieving Hamlet deals with this as any grad student would by wearing black, listening لذا يتعامل هاملت الحزين مع هذا كما يفعل أي طالب دراسات عليا من خلال ارتداء ملابس سوداء والاستماع إلى موسيقى حزينة Ein trauernder Hamlet geht damit um, wie jeder Student es würde, indem er schwarz trägt, traurige Assim, um Hamlet luto lida com isso como qualquer estudante de graduação seria vestindo preto, escuta Så en sörjande Hamlet hanterar detta som vilken högskolestudent som helst, genom att bära svart, lyssna

to sad music, and making long speeches about how he wishes his flesh would melt. Which وإلقاء خطابات طويلة عن رغبته في أن ُيذاب لحمه. Musik hört, und lange Reden darüber verfasst, dass er wünscht sein Fleisch würde schmelzen. Was a música triste, e fazendo longos discursos sobre como ele deseja sua carne iria derreter. Qual på ledsen musik, och göra långa tal om hur han önskar att hans kropp skulle smälta. Vilken

spoiler: It eventually will. But then, his father's ghost appears to وهذا ما يحدث في النهاية. لكن حينها يظهر له طيف أبيه، Spoiler: Es schließlich tut. Aber dann erscheint ihm seines Vaters Geist und Mais alors, le spectre de son père lui apparaît Spoiler: ele acabará. Mas então, o fantasma de seu pai parece spoiler: Det kommer så småningom. Men sedan så uppenbarar sig hans fars spöke för

him and begs Hamlet to revenge his murder by that aforementioned uncle Claudius. Hamlet ويتوسل إلى هاملت أن ينتقم لموته على يد عّمه كلوديوس المذكور آنًفا. bittet Hamlet, dass er seinen Mord durch den eben erwähnten Onkel Claudius rächt. Hamlet et le supplie de venger son meurtre accusant ainsi l'oncle Claudius ele e implora Hamlet para vingar seu assassinato por que o tio Claudius acima mencionado. Aldeola honom och ber Hamlet att hämnas hans mord av tidigare nämnda morbror Claudius. Hamlet

isn't sure about this. So he pretends to be insane, you know as you do. لا يكون هاملت متأكًدا بخصوص هذا لذا يّدعي أنه مجنون، كما يفعل المرء في العادة. ist sich dessen nicht sicher, also gibt er vor, verrückt zu sein, wie man das halt so tut. Das verschafft ihm Alors, il prétend être cinglé, vous savez ce que n'importe qui ferait. não tem certeza sobre isso. Assim, ele finge estar louco, você sabe que você faz. Que lhe compra är inte helt säker på detta. Så han låtsas vara galen, du vet, så som man brukar göra. Detta ger honom

He then hires a troupe of players to put on a show that will make Claudius to ثم يوّظف مجموعة ممثلين لتأدية مسرحية تجعل كلوديوس يكشف عن ذنبه. Zeit. Dann engagiert er eine Truppe von Schauspielern, um eine Show aufzuführen, die Claudius dazu bringen Il engage ensuite des acteurs afin qu'ils montent un spectacle qui fera avouer Claudius. às vezes. Ele então contrata uma trupe de jogadores para colocar em um show que vai fazer a Claudius lite mer tid. Han hyr sedan en trupp av skådespelare för att sätta upp en show som kommer att få Claudius till

reveal his guilt, Claudius is indeed overwhelmed with emotion, غمرت المشاعر كلوديوس بالفعل، وهرب من المسرحية، soll, seine Schuld einzugestehen. Claudius ist tatsächlich von Emotionen überwältigt, Claudius est en effet submergé par l'émotion, et se sauve revelar sua culpa, Claudius é realmente sobrecarregado com emoção, att avslöja hans skuld, Claudius blir verkligt överväldigad av känslor,

flees the play, Gertrude summons Hamlet to her bedchamber where they have a weirdly intimate تستدعي غرترود هاملت إلى حجرة نومها حيث يخوضان في نقاش حميم إلى حد غريب flieht von dem Stück, Gertrude bestellt Hamlet in ihr Gemach, wo sie ein merkwürdig intimes Gespräch Gertrude fait venir Hamlet dans sa chambre où ils ont une discussion étrangement intime. foge do jogo, Gertrude convoca para Hamlet seu quarto, onde eles têm um estranhamente íntimo flyr pjäsen, Gertrude tillkallar Hamlet till hennes sängkammare där de har en konstig och intim

discussion, until Hamlet hears a noise and in a rare decisive moment stabs the curtain. حتى يسمع هاملت صوًتا ويقوم في لحظة حاسمة نادرة بطعن الستارة، führen, bis Hamlet ein Geräusch hört und, mit seltener Entschlossenheit, den Vorhang sticht. Quand soudain Hamlet entend un bruit et étonnement décide de poignarder le rideau. discussão, até Hamlet ouve um barulho e em um momento decisivo rara apunhala a cortina. diskussion, tills Hamlet hör ett ljud och i en sällsynt avgörande ögonblick sticker sin dolk i gardinen.

Oh, but it's not my uncle, it's Polonius. لكنه ليس عّمه، إنه بولونيوس. Oh, aber es ist nicht mein Onkel, es ist Polonius. Oh, mais ce n'est pas mon oncle, c'est Polonius ; Ah, mas não é meu tio, é Polônio. Åh, men det är inte min farbror, det är Polonius.

Polonius, who was never brief despite saying that, “brevity is the soul of wit.” بولونيوس الذي لم يعرف الإيجاز في كلامه قط رغم أنه قال إن "الإيجاز روح البلاغة"، Polonius, der sich nie kurz fasst, obwohl er sagte, dass "Kürze denn des Witzes Seele ist". Polonius qui n'était jamais concis, bien qu'il ait dit : « la brièveté est l'âme de l'esprit » ; Polônio, que nunca foi breve apesar de dizer que, "a brevidade é a alma da sagacidade." Polonius, som var aldrig var sen på att säga att "koncist tal är själen av förståndet."

And then also famously said, “to thine own self be true” and you know, proceeded to ثم قال عبارته الشهيرة "كن صادًقا مع نفسك" وأكمل حياته وهو غير صادق مع نفسه. Und dann auch berühmterweise sagte " sei dir selber treu" und, naja, sich dann nicht et par la suite, il dit « À toi-même sois fidèle » et vous vous en doutez ne fut pas très fidèle à lui-même. E, em seguida, também disse famosa ", a tua própria o auto seja verdadeiro "e você sabe, passou a Och sedan också berömt sa, "till ditt eget själv var sann"och du vet, fortsatte att

not be terribly true to himself. So Gertrude decides that Hamlet should get إذن، تقرر غرترود أنه يجدر بهاملت أن يخرج من المدينة لفترة، besonders treu war. Gertrude entscheidet, dass Hamlet für eine Weile aus Gertrude décide qu'Hamlet doit quitter la ville pendant quelques temps. não ser terrivelmente fiel a si mesmo. Então Gertrude Hamlet decide que deve começar inte vara fruktansvärt trogen sig själv. Så Gertrud beslutar att Hamlet ska

out of town for a while and he sails away and there's a writ of death and storms and فيبحر بعيًدا وهناك أمر بقتله وعواصف وقراصنة، der Stadt heraus sollte, und er segelt davon, und da ist Tod und Stürme und Il prend alors le large, mais frôle la mort à cause de tempêtes et de pirates. fora da cidade por um tempo e ele navega longe e há um mandado de morte e tempestades e ta sig ut ur staden för en stund och han seglar bort och det finns en stämning av död och stormar och

pirates, and then Hamlet returns only to find that Polonius's daughter Ophelia has committed ثم يعود هاملت ليجد أن ابنة بولونيوس أوفيليا قد انتحرت، Piraten, und dann kehrt Hamlet zurück, nur um heraus zu finden, dass Polonius' Tochter Ophelia Selbstmord Il décide donc de rentrer et apprend qu'Ophélie, la fille de Polonius, s'est suicidée piratas, e, em seguida, Hamlet retorna apenas para descobrir que a filha de Polonius Ophelia cometeu pirater, och sedan så återvänder Hamlet återvänder för att finna att Polonius dotter Ophelia har begått

suicide and that her brother Laertes is kind of mad at Hamlet. وأن أخيها لرتيس غاضب من هاملت بعض الشيء. begangen hat und ihr Bruder Laertes ziemlich sauer auf Hamlet ist. et que Laërte, son frère, est furieux après Hamlet. suicídio e que seu irmão Laertes é amável de raiva de Hamlet. självmord och att hennes bror Laertes är ganska galen på Hamlet.

So Claudius schedules a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet, poisoning Laertes's Also organisiert Claudius einen Fechtkampf zwischen Laertes und Hamlet, und vergiftet Laertes Então Cláudio agenda um jogo de esgrima entre Laertes e Hamlet, Laertes de envenenamento Så Claudius planerar en fäktningsmatch mellan Laertes och Hamlet, förgiftar Laertes

sword and Hamlet's wine. Hamlet is stabbed, but manages to wound Laertes Schwert und Hamlets Wein. Hamlet wird getroffen, aber schafft es Laertes zu verwunden, espada e vinho de Hamlet. Hamlet é esfaqueado, mas consegue ferida Laertes svärd och Hamlets vin. Hamlet blir knivhuggen, men lyckas att såra Laertes

while Gertrude downs the fatal wine. And then, once everyone is dead or dying Hamlet decides ثم ما إن يكون الجميع إما أمواًتا أو يحتضرون während Gertrude den tödlichen Wein trinkt. Und dann, während alle tot sind oder sterben, entscheidet Hamlet, enquanto baixos Gertrudes o vinho fatal. E depois, uma vez que todos estão mortos ou moribundos Hamlet decide medan Gertrude sveper det dödliga vinet. Och då, när alla är döda eller döende så beslutar sig Hamlet

that, now, is finally a good time to stab Claudius. يقرر هاملت أن الآن هو وقت مناسب ليطعن كلوديوس أخيًرا. dass jetzt endlich ein guter Zeitpunkt ist, Claudius zu erstechen. que, agora, é finalmente um bom momento para apunhalar Claudius. för att nu är det äntligen en bra tid att sticka Claudius.

Basically, all the Danes die. Except Horatio of course because you need someone to say, ببساطة، يموت جميع الدنماركيين، باستثناء هوراشيو بالطبع، لأننا بحاجة إلى شخص ليقول: Im Grunde sterben alle Dänen. Außer Horatio natürlich, weil man jemanden braucht, der sagt, Sauf Horatio, évidemment, parce qu'il faut bien quelqu'un pour dire : Basicamente, todos os dinamarqueses morrem. Exceto Horatio é claro, porque você precisa de alguém para dizer, I grund och botten, alla danskar dör. Utom Horatio, naturligtvis, eftersom du behöver någon som kan säga,

“Good night sweet prince: And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest!” "طاب مساؤك يا أميري الحبيب، حملتك إلى راحتك الأبدية أسراب من ملائكة يرّتلون." "Gute Nacht, mein Fürst! Und Engelscharen singen dich zur Ruh!" «Bonne nuit... doux prince ; que des essaims d'anges te bercent de leurs chants ! » "Boa noite doce príncipe: e vôos de anjos cantam ti na tua resto! " "God natt kära prins: Och flygande änglar sjunger dig till vila! "

What kind of place is this Denmark where people have stunningly un-Danish names like Claudius ما هو هذا المكان الدنمارك حيث أسماء الناس فيه غير دنماركية بشكل عجيب مثل كلوديوس وبولونيوس؟ Was für ein Ort ist Dänemark, dass Leute völlig un-dänische Namen haben wie Claudius Quel genre d'endroit est ce Danemark où les gens ont des noms aussi peu danois que Claudius et Polonius ? Que tipo de lugar é este Dinamarca, onde as pessoas têm nomes incrivelmente un-dinamarqueses como Claudius Vilken typ av plats är detta Danmark där människor har otroligt odanska namn som Claudius

and Polonius. Well, let's go to the Thought Bubble. لنذهب إلى فقاعة التفكير. und Polonius. Lasst uns zur Denkblase gehen. Eh bien, allons à la Thought Bubble. e Polônio. Bem, vamos para o Pensamento Bolha. och Polonius. Nåväl, låt oss gå till TankeBubblan.

So, throughout the play, Claudius is building up an army to take on Norway and Denmark is إذن، طوال المسرحية، يبني كلوديوس جيًشا ليواجه النرويج Während des Stückes bildet Claudius eine Armee, um Norwegen einzunehmen, und Dänemark ist Ainsi, tout au long de la pièce, Claude construit une armée pour conquérir la Norvège Assim, durante todo o jogo, Claudius é edifício um exército para assumir a Noruega ea Dinamarca é Så, under hela pjäsen håller Claudius på att bygga upp en armé för att ta sig an Norge och Danmark är

caught in a strange limbo between war and not war. As often happens, the specter of gefangen in einem Limbo zwischen Krieg und nicht-Krieg. Wie häufig geschieht führt der Geist eines preso em um limbo estranho entre guerra e não guerra. Como muitas vezes acontece, o espectro de fångad i en märklig limbo mellan krig och inte-krig. Som så ofta händer, så

external enemies leads the ruling powers to search for enemies within, and we see a lot äußeren Feindes dazu, dass die herrschende Macht im Innern nach Feinden sucht, und wir sehen viele inimigos externos leva os poderes dominantes para procurar inimigos dentro, e vemos um monte leder vålnaden av yttre fiender de styrande att söka efter fiender inom landet, och vi ser en hel del

of examples of Elsinore as a surveillance society. Like, Hamlet's not wrong when he Beispiele dafür, dass Helsingör eine Überwachungs- gesellschaft ist. Hamlet liegt nicht falsch, wenn er exemplos de Elsinore como uma vigilância sociedade. Como, Hamlet não é errado quando ele exempel på Helsingör som ett övervakningssamhälle. Liksom, Hamlet har inte fel när han

tells Rosencrantz and Guildenstern “Denmark's a prison.” Rosencrantz und Guildenstern sagt: "Dänemark ist ein Gefängnis." diz Rosencrantz e Guildenstern "da Dinamarca uma prisão." berättar för Rosencrantz och Guildenstern att "Danmarks är ett fängelse. "

The characters are closely watching each other; I mean Gertrude and Claudius are watching Die Charaktere beobachten sich gegenseitig scharf; ich meine, Gertrude und Claudius beobachten Os personagens estão intimamente assistindo-se mutuamente; Quero dizer Gertrude e Claudius está assistindo Karaktärerna bevakar noga varandra; Jag menar Gertrud och Claudius bevakar

Hamlet, so is Polonius, though he's awfully bad at it. Hamlet's schoolmates, Rosencrantz Hamlet, genau wie Polonius, auch wenn er darin extrem schlecht ist. Hamlets Schulfreunde, Rosencrantz Hamlet, por isso é Polonius, embora ele é terrivelmente ruim nisso. Colegas de Hamlet, Rosencrantz Hamlet, så också Polonius, även om han är fruktansvärt dålig på det. Hamlets klasskamrater, Rosencrantz

and Guildenstern are watching him closely as Claudius is encouraging them to spy while und Guildenstern beobachten ihn genau, als Claudius sie ermuntern zu spionieren, während e Guildenstern estão observando de perto como Claudius está incentivando-os a espiar enquanto och Guildenstern har nära uppsikt över honom medan Claudius uppmuntrar dem att spionera

they throw back Danish grog and talk about girls. Ophelia is watching Hamlet, too, but sie dänischen Grog trinken und über Mädchen reden. Ophelia beobachtet Hamlet auch, aber eles jogam de volta grog dinamarquês e falar sobre meninas. Ophelia está olhando Hamlet, também, mas under tiden som de sveper dansk grogg och pratar om flickor. Ophelia bevakar också Hamlet, men

Hamlet isn't watching her, because he's too busy staring at Claudius, trying to figure Hamlet beobachtet sie nicht, weil er zu sehr damit beschäftig ist, Claudius anzusehen und herauszufinden, Hamlet não está olhando para ela, porque ele é muito ocupado olhando para Claudius, tentando figura Hamlet har inte henne under uppsikt, eftersom han är alltför upptagen med att stirra på Claudius, funderandes på

out if he really did murder his father and of course Hamlet also spends a lot of time ob er wirklich seinen Vater ermordet hat, und natürlich verbringt Hamlet viel Zeit damit se ele realmente fez assassinar seu pai e é claro Hamlet também gasta muito tempo om han verkligen mördade hans far. Och så tillbringar naturligtvis Hamlet också mycket tid

watching himself and then reciting anguished soliloquies about it. sich selbst zu betrachten und dann gepeinigte Monologe darüber zu rezitieren. assistindo a si mesmo e, em seguida, recitando angustiado solilóquios sobre ele. på att titta på sig själv och sedan recitera ångestmonologer om det.

Personally, in the end, I'm more struck my Hamlet's narcissism than by his indecisiveness. أنا شخصًيا مصعوق من نرجسية هاملت أكثر من تردده في النهاية. Ich persönlich bin am Ende mehr von Hamlets Narzissmus als seiner Unentschlossenheit getroffen. Pessoalmente, no final, eu estou mais impressionado meu narcisismo de Hamlet do que por sua indecisão. Personligen, i slutändan, känner jag mig mer drabbad av Hamlets narcissism än av hans obeslutsamhet.

Anyway, all of this is probably less a criticism على كل حال، على الأغلب أن كل هذا ليس انتقاًدا للدنمارك، Auf jeden Fall ist all dies wahrscheinlich weniger eine Kritik an Cependant, tout cela est probablement moins une critique du Danemark, Note12_Watching_Hamlet.jpg Enfim, tudo isso é provavelmente menos uma crítica Hur som helst är allt detta förmodligen mindre en kritik

of Denmark, which is a perfectly nice place full of herring sandwiches and competitive وهي مكان لطيف جًدا مليء بشطائر السمك ومباريات كرة اليد التنافسية، Dänemark, was ein sehr netter Ort voll von Hering-Sandwichen und kompetetivem Handball ist, qui un endroit fort agréable pour manger des sandwichs au hareng et regarder des matchs de hand, da Dinamarca, que é um lugar perfeitamente legal cheia de sanduíches de arenque e competitivo av Danmark, som är en mycket trevlig plats full av sillsmörgåsar och konkurrenskraftig

handball, than it is a commentary on Elizabethan England, a place notorious for spying and بقدر ما هو تعليف على إنجلترا في العصر الإليزابيثي، وهو مكان مشهور بالتجسس als ein Kommentar über das Elisabethanische England, ein Ort, der berüchtigt war für Spionage und qu'un commentaire sur l'Angleterre élisabéthaine, un endroit connu pour son espionnage. handball, do que é um comentário sobre Isabelino Inglaterra, um lugar famoso por espionagem e handboll, än en kommentar till det Elisabetanska England: en plats ökänd för spioneri och

also the place where Shakespeare actually lived. There were all sorts of anti-royal, auch der Ort, wo Shakespeare tatsächlich lebte. Es gab alle möglichen anti-königlichen, também o lugar onde Shakespeare realmente viveu. Havia todos os tipos de anti-royal, också den plats där Shakespeare faktiskt bodde. Det fanns alla typer av anti-kungliga,

anti-Catholic conspiracies going and Elizabeth I ran a whole network of spies to help discover وأدارت إليزابيث الأولى شبكة كاملة من الجواسيس لتساعدها على كشفها، anti-katholischen Verschwörungen, und Elizabeth I. betrieb ein ganzes Netzwerk von Spionen, um sie zu et Elizabeth I gérait tout un réseau d'espions pour les mettre à jour. conspirações anti-católicas indo e Elizabeth Corri toda uma rede de espiões para ajudar a descobrir anti-katolska konspirationer och Elizabeth I hade ett helt nätverk av spioner för att upptäcka

them — sort of like M in James Bond, but with more tiaras. Even Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeare's مثل إم في جيمس بوند لكنها ترتدي تيجان أكثر. وحتى كريستوفر مارلو، الذي كان منافس شكسبير enthüllen - etwa wie M in James Bond, nur mit mehr Diademen. Sogar Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeares los-tipo de como M em James Bond, mas com mais tiaras. Mesmo Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeare dem. Ungefär som M i James Bond, men med mer tiaror. Även Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeares

rival and one of the most badass playwright's ever, was a spy. So the court of Elsinore وأحد أكثر كّتاب المسرحيات جرأة على الإطلاق، كان جاسوًسا،. Rivale und einer der krassesten Bühnenautoren überhaupt, war ein Spion. Also kann der Hof von rival e um dos mais durona do dramaturgo nunca, era um espião. Assim, o tribunal de Elsinore rival och en av de mest hårdkokta dramatikerna någonsin, var en spion. Så hovet i Helsingör

can be read as a commentary on Shakespeare's own environment, in which being tried and Helsingör als Kommentar auf Shakespeares eigene Umgebung gelesen werden, wo es eine Art pode ser lido como um comentário sobre Shakespeare próprio ambiente, em que ser julgado e kan läsas som en kommentar till Shakespeares egen miljö, där att bli prövad och

beheaded for secret treason was kind of a national pastime. Nationalsport war, wegen Geheimverrates angeklagt und hingerichtet zu werden. decapitado por traição segredo era uma espécie de passatempo nacional. halshuggen för hemligt förräderi var en typ av nationellt tidsfördriv.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. So Hamlet is a play about watching and being watched. Something Danke, Denkblase. Also ist Hamlet ein Stück über das beobachten und beobachtet werden. Etwas, Alors Hamlet est une pièce la surveillance et le fait d'être surveillé, Obrigado, Balão de Pensamento. Então, Hamlet é um jogo sobre a observação e seja visto. Algo Tack, TankeBubbla. Så Hamlet är en lek om att bevaka och bli bevakad. Något

that we're all pretty familiar with these days, but it's also a play about doubling mit dem wir heutzutage alle ziemlich vertraut sind, aber es ist auch ein Stück über Verdoppelung quelque chose avec lequel que nous sommes désormais tous assez familiers, mais c'est aussi une pièce sur les doublures et les effets miroir. que estamos todos muito familiarizados com estas dias, mas é também uma peça sobre duplicação som vi alla är ganska bekanta med i dessa dagar, men det är också en pjäs om dubblering

and mirroring. This is a common Shakespearian thing but it und Spiegelung. Das kommt bei Shakespeare oft vor, aber es e espelhamento. Isso é uma coisa comum, mas de Shakespeare och spegling. Detta är en vanlig Shakespearsak, men det

gets to some really core questions about being a person. erreicht einige Kernfragen darüber, was einen Menschen ausmacht. chega a algumas questões realmente fundamentais sobre ser uma pessoa. kommer till några riktiga kärnfrågor om att vara en person.

Like are people really capable of change, can they become different people over time, Können sich Leute wirklich ändern, können sie mit der Zeit zu anderen Menschen werden, Les gens sont-ils capables de changer ? Peuvent-ils devenir quelqu'un d'autre au fil du temps ? Como são as pessoas realmente capazes de mudança, eles podem se tornar pessoas diferentes ao longo do tempo, Är människor verkligen kapabla till förändring, kan de bli olika människor över tid,

and when you look in the mirror are you seeing the person that is actually you? Are you the وحين تنظرون إلى المرآة، هل ترون أنفسكم حًقا؟ und wenn man in den Spiegel schaut, ist die Person darin tatsächlich man selbst? Ist man derjenige, Quand on se regarde dans le miroir, qui voyons-nous ? Sommes-nous vraiment comme nous l'imaginons ? e quando você olha no espelho você está vendo a pessoa que é realmente você? Você é o och när du tittar i spegeln ser du den person som faktiskt är du? Är du

person you imagine yourself to be? So, there are at least two Hamlets in this هل أنتم الأشخاص الذين تتخيلونهم؟ هناك شخصيتان اسماهما هاملت في هذه المسرحية، صحيح؟ der man zu sein glaubt? In diesem Stück gibt es mindestens zwei Hamlets, Donc, il y a au moins deux Hamlets dans cette pièce :. pessoa que você imagina ser? Assim, existem, pelo menos, dois Aldeolas neste den person som du föreställt dig att vara? Så det finns åtminstone två Hamlets i denna

play, right, there is the old dead King Hamlet who goes around haunting the Elsinore battlements هناك الملك هاملت القديم الميت الذي يتردد طيفه على أبراج ألسينور، richtig, da ist der alte tote König Hamlet, der die Brustwehr von Halingör umspukt, le fantôme du roi mort qui hante les remparts du château jogar, certo, não é o velho morto Rei Hamlet que anda assombrando as ameias Elsinore pjäs, eller hur. Det är den gamla döda kungen Hamlet som går runt och hemsöker Helsingörs bröstvärn,

and our hero who is supposed to avenge that old Hamlet . وبطلنا الذي من الُمفترض أن يثأر لهاملت القديم. und unser Helt, der den alten Hamlet rächen soll. et son fils, le héros, qui doit le venger. e nosso herói que é suposto para vingar essa old Hamlet. och vår hjälte som är tänkt att hämnas den gamla Hamlet.

But the living Hamlet is also split into two people: the one who wants to kill Claudius لكن هاملت الحي ُمنقسم إلى شخصين أيًضا: الشخص الذي يريد قتل كلوديوس، Aber der lebende Hamlet ist auch zwiegespalten: der eine möchte Claudius töten, Mais le Hamlet vivant est également divisé en deux personnes : celui qui veut tuer Claudius Mas o Hamlet viver também é dividido em dois pessoas: quem quer matar Claudius Men den levande Hamlet är också uppdelad i två personer: den som vill döda Claudius

and the one who's like, “You know maybe not. Maybe I should just be a grad student.” والشخص الذي يفّكر "ربما لن أفعل ذلك، ربما يجدر بي الذهاب لأكمل دراستي وحياتي." und der andere denkt eher, "Naja, vielleicht nicht. Vielleicht sollte ich einfach nur Student sein." et celui qui hésite, en mode : « Hum peut-être pas. Peut-être que je devrais juste être étudiant. » e aquele que é como, "Você sabe talvez não. Talvez eu devesse ser apenas um estudante de graduação. " och den som tänker "Kanske inte. Kanske borde jag bara vara en grad student. "

And some critics argue that the Hamlet who returns home from the pirate adventure is ويجادل بعض الناقدين أن هاملت الذي يعود إلى دياره من مغامرات القرصنة هو شخص آخر Und einige Kritiker behaupten, dass der Hamlet, der von dem Piratenabenteuer zurückkehrt, Certains estiment que le Hamlet qui rencontre les pirates est encore une autre personne, E alguns críticos argumentam que o Hamlet que retorna para casa a partir da aventura pirata é Och vissa kritiker hävdar att Hamlet som återvänder hem från piratäventyret är

yet another person, because he is a very different guy from the one who left. لأنه شخص مختلف جًدا عن الشخص الذي شرع في تلك الرحلة. noch jemand anders ist, weil er sich stark von dem Typen unterscheidet, der weggefahren war. parce qu'il est un très différent comparé à avant son départ. Ainda uma outra pessoa, porque ele é um muito diferente cara de quem saiu. ännu en person, eftersom han är en mycket annorlunda kille från den som lämnat.

And you can even see Ophelia as a kind of extreme, subversive double for Hamlet, like ويمكنكم رؤية أوفيليا كأنها شخص مزدوج متطرف وتخريبي لهاملت، Und man kann sogar Ophelia als eine Art extrem subversives Doppel von Hamlet sehen, Et on peut même considérer Ophélie comme une sorte de double extrême et subversif d'Hamlet, E você ainda pode ver Ophelia como uma espécie de extremo casal, subversivo para Hamlet, como Och du kan även se Ophelia som ett slags ytterlighet, en omstörtande dubbelgångare för Hamlet, som

what Hamlet might be like if he were robbed of all of his power and agency. أي مثل ما قد يكون هاملت إن ُسلبت منه كل قوته ومكانته. was Hamlet sein könnte, wenn er jeglicher Macht und Handlungsmöglichkeit beraubt wäre. comment il aurait été si on lui avait pris pouvoir et libre arbitre. Hamlet que poderia ser como se ele fosse roubado de todo o poder e agência. vad Hamlet skulle vara om han blev fråntagen all makt och myndighet.

And then obviously when the actors perform their play The Murder of Gonzago, they're وثم من الواضح أنه حين يقوم الممثلين بأداء مسرحيتهم "مصرع غونزاغوه"، Und natürlich wenn die Schauspieler ihr Stück Die Ermordung des Gonzagos aufführen, dann Et évidemment quand les acteurs jouent "Le Meurtre de Gonzague", ils reflètent ce qui s'est passé à Elseneur. E então, obviamente, quando os atores executar sua jogar O Assassinato de Gonzaga, eles são Och då, uppenbart, när aktörerna utför deras pjäs Mordet av Gonzago, så speglar

mirroring all the recent events in Elsinore. But it's not a regular mirror right. It's spiegeln sie all die jüngsten Ereignisse in Helsingör. Aber es ist kein normaler Spiegel, oder? Es ist espelhamento de todos os acontecimentos recentes em Elsinore. Mas não é um direito espelho regular. As suas de alla de senaste händelserna i Helsingör. Men det är inte en vanlig spegelbild, eller hur? Det är

kind of a funhouse mirror. But ultimately, it's not just…. oh no! لكن في النهاية، ليس الأمر... كلا! إن مكتبي يتحرك! eine Art Zerrspiegel. Aber letztendlich ist es nicht nur ... oh nein! Mais en fin de compte, il n'y a pas que ... Oh non! Mon bureau se fait la malle. tipo de um espelho de parque de diversões. Mas, afinal, não é apenas .... Ah não! typ av en spegel från lustiga huset. Men i slutändan, det är inte bara .... å nej!

My desk is moving! That must mean it's time for the open letter! لا بد أن هذا يعني أنه وقت الرسالة المفتوحة. Mein Tisch bewegt sich! Das muss heißen, dass es Zeit für den offenen Brief ist! Cela doit vouloir dire qu'il est l'heure de la lettre ouverte ! Minha mesa está se movendo! Isso deve significar que é hora para a carta aberta! Mitt skrivbord rör sig! Det måste betyda att det är dags för det öppna brevet!

An open letter to Simba. Hey there Simba, let's take a look at the 1990s adaptation Ein offener Brief an Simba. Hallo Simba, lass uns einen Blick werden auf die 1990er Verfilmung Une lettre ouverte à Simba. Hé Simba, nous allons examiner l'adaptation d'Hamlet des années 1990. Uma carta aberta ao Simba. Hey lá Simba, vamos dar uma olhada na adaptação 1990 Ett öppet brev till Simba. Hej där Simba, låt oss ta en titt på 1990-talet anpassning

of Hamlet that DIDN'T star Mel Gibson. The one starring you - The Lion King. بل الفيلم الذي مّثلَت فيه أنت، ألا وهو الأسد الملك، أو The Lion King. von Hamlet, die NICHT mit Mel Gibson war. Die, die dich enthielt - den König der Löwen. Celle sans Mel Gibson. Celle avec toi, juste toi, Le Roi Lion. de Hamlet, que não estrelar Mel Gibson. o uma estrelado por você - The Lion King. av Hamlet som inte innehåller Mel Gibson. Den som innehåller dig - Lejonkungen.

Simba? Hamlet Mufasa? Recently murdered king. سيمبا هو هاملت، موفاسا هو الملك الذي ُقتل مؤخًرا، Simba? Hamlet. Mufasa? Kürzlich ermordeter König. Simba ? Hamlet Mufasa ? Roi récemment assassiné. Simba? Aldeola Mufasa? Recentemente assassinado rei. Simba? Hamlet Mufasa? Nyligen mördad kung.

Scar? Claudius Mufasa in the sky and smoke? Oviously, Ghost. سكار هو كلوديوس، موفاسا الذي في السماء والدخان هو الطيف بكل وضوح، Scar? Claudius. Mufasa im Himmel und Rauch? Klar, Geist. Scar ? Claudius Mufasa dans le ciel ? Evidemment, Le Spectre. Cicatriz? Claudius Mufasa no céu e fumaça? Oviously, Ghost. Scar? Claudius Mufasa i himlen och rök? Självklart, spöke.

Nala? Ophelia The Elephant Graveyard? England. Or maybe نالا هي أوفيليا، مقبرة الفيلة هي إنجلترا Nala? Ophelia. Der Elefantenfriedhof? England. Oder vielleicht Nala? Ophélie. Le Cimetière Elephant? Angleterre. Nala? Ophelia O cemitério de elefantes? Inglaterra. Ou talvez Nala? Ophelia Elefantkyrkogården? England. Eller kanske

the actual graveyard with the last poor Yorick whom I knew well. أو ربما المقبرة الحقيقية التي فيها آخر يوريك مسكين كنُت أعرفه جيًدا. der tatsächliche Friedhof mit "Ach armer Yorick - ich kannte ihn." Ou peut-être le vrai cimetière où gît Yorick. o cemitério real com o passado pobre Yorick que eu conhecia bem. själva kyrkogården med den sista stackars Yorick som jag kände väl.

The point is: YOU MUST NEVER GO THERE, SIMBA. Sorry, I don't have a good James Earl Jones. إياك والذهاب إلى هناك أبًدا يا سيمبا. المعذرة، صوتي ليس مثل جيمس إيرل جونز. Der Punkt ist: DU DARFST NIEMALS DORTHIN GEHEN, SIMBA. Sorry, ich habe keinen guten James Earl Jones. O ponto é: VOCÊ NUNCA DEVE IR PARA LÁ, SIMBA. Desculpe, eu não tenho uma boa James Earl Jones. Poängen är: DU FÅR ALDRIG ÅKA DIT, SIMBA. Tyvärr, jag har inte en bra James Earl Jones.

Best wishes, John Green. So anyway, it's not just one mirror, but Beste Grüße, John Green. Auf jeden Fall ist es nicht nur ein Spiegel, sondern Os melhores cumprimentos, John Green. Então, de qualquer maneira, não é apenas um espelho, mas Lyckönskningar, John Green. Så hur som helst, det är inte bara en spegel, men

many, that reflect Hamlet's trouble figuring out what kind of a man he is and how he should act. في اكتشاف معدن نفسه كرجل وكيف يجدر به التصرف. viele, die Hamlets Probleme wiederspiegeln herauszufinden, was für ein Mann er ist und wie er à prendre conscience de qui il est vraiment et de comment il devrait agir. muitos, que refletem problemas de Hamlet figurando que tipo de homem ele é e como ele deveria många, som återspeglar Hamlet problem med att ta reda på vilken typ av man som han är och hur han ska

These mirrors also underscore the perpetual cycle of violence at the heart of the revenge وتؤكد هذه المرايا أيًضا دورة العنف الأبدية الكامنة في صميم مأساة الانتقام handeln sollte. Die Spiegeln unterstreichen auch den fortwährenden Kreislauf der Gewalt im Zentrum der Ces miroirs soulignent aussi le cycle perpétuel de la violence au cœur de la vengeance dans un tragédie, Aja. Esses espelhos também ressaltam a perpétua ciclo de violência no coração da vingança handla. Dessa speglar understryker också den eviga våldsspiralen i hjärtat av hämndtragedier

tragedy which you'll no doubt remember from our talk of ancient Greek stories. والتي ستتذكرونها بلا شك من حديثنا عن القصص اليونانية القديمة. Rache-Tragödie, an den ihr euch bestimmt noch aus unserem Gespräch über antike griechische Geschichten erinnert. ce qui vous rappelle sans doute notre vidéo sur les histoires de la Grèce antique. tragédia que você vai se lembrar, sem dúvida, a partir de nossa conversa de histórias gregos antigos. som du utan tvekan kommer att minnas från vårt samtal av antika grekiska berättelser.

Like in these tragedies the desire for vengeance ففي تلك المآسي، الرغبة في الانتقام تفسد المنتقم في النهاية ويجب أن يموت هو أيًضا. Es gibt, wortwörtlich, immer einen weiteren Hamlet. In diesen Tragödien verdirbt der Wunsch nach Dans ces tragédies le désir de vengeance finit par corrompre le héros, qui finit par mourir aussi. Há, literalmente, sempre um outro Hamlet. Como nessas tragédias do desejo de vingança Det är bokstavligt talat, alltid en annan Hamlet. Som i dessa tragedier är det önskan om hämnd

ultimately corrupts the revenger and he or she has to die, too. Each murder has to be Vergeltung schließlich den Rächer, und er oder sie muss auch sterben. Jeder Mord muss mit einem em última análise, corrompe o vingador e ele ou ela tem que morrer também. Cada assassinato tem que ser som i slutändan korrumperar hämnaren och han eller hon måste då också dö. Varje mord måste

answered for with another murder until we are out of people who can die. anderen Mord beantwortet werden, bis niemand mehr da ist, der noch sterben kann. respondeu para com outro assassinato até que estão fora de pessoas que podem morrer. besvaras med ett annat mord tills vi har slut på människor som kan dö.

A good example of this unending violence is old Hamlet's ghost, who can't rest in Ein gutes Beispiel für diese endlose Gewalt ist des alten Hamlets Geist, der nicht in seinem Grab Um bom exemplo dessa violência sem fim é fantasma do velho Hamlet, que não podem descansar em Ett bra exempel på detta ändlösa våld är gamla Hamlets spöke, som inte kan vila i

this grave until he's avenged. Now, the critics Andrew Bennett and Nicholas Royle يصف الناقدان آندرو بينيت ونيكولاس رويال الأطياف ruhen kann, bis er gerächt ist. Die Kritiker Andrew Bennett und Nicholas Royle Les critiques Andrew Bennett et Nicholas Royle décrivent les fantômes comme : esta grave até que ele está vingado. Agora o críticos Andrew Bennett e Nicholas Royle denna grav tills han har hämnats. Nu, kritikerna Andrew Bennett och Nicholas Royle

describe ghosts as “the very embodiment of strange repetition or recurrence: it is بأنها "التجسيد بعينه لتكرار أو معاودة غريبين: إنها تعود من الموت، تعود إلى الحياة." beschreiben Geister als "die Verkörperung von befremdlicher Wiederholung oder Wiederauftreten: descrever fantasmas como "a personificação repetição de estranho ou de reincidência: é beskriver spöken som "själva förkroppsligandet av märklig repetition eller återkommande: det är

a revenant, it comes back” Okay, but it comes back from where? Like ghosts er ist ein Wiedergänger, er kommt zurück." Okay, aber zurück woher? Geister passen D'accord, mais il revient d'où ? um fantasma, ele volta " Ok, mas ele vem de volta de onde? Como fantasmas en odödlig som kommer tillbaka " Okej, men det kommer tillbaka från var? Spöken

don't really fit into Hamlet's understanding of death. He describes death as “The undiscover'd nicht wirklich in Hamlets Verständnis vom Tod. Er beschreibt den Tod als "Das unentdeckte Land, realmente não se encaixam em compreensão de Hamlet da morte. Ele descreve a morte como "O undiscover'd passar inte riktigt in i Hamlets förståelse av döden. Han beskriver döden som ett "oupptäckt

country, from whose born / No traveller returns.” Except his dad, apparently. باستثناء أبيه على ما يبدو. von des Bezirk / Kein Wandrer wiederkehrt." Außer seinem Vater, anscheinend. Sauf son père, apparemment. país, de cuja nascido / nenhum viajante retorna. " Exceto seu pai, aparentemente. land, från vars födda / Inga resenärer återvänder. " Utom hans pappa, tydligen.

In fact, one way to read it is that the ghost's fate is in some ways aligned with Catholic في الحقيقة، إن إحدى طرق قراءة ذلك هي أن مصير الطيف يتماشى بشكل ما مع الَمطَهر الكاثوليكي، Eine Möglichkeit es zu lesen ist, dass das Schicksal des Geistes in etwa mit dem katholischen Fegefeuer En fait, une façon de lire est que le sort du spectre est en quelque sorte alignées avec le purgatoire catholique : Na verdade, uma maneira de lê-lo é que o fantasma destino é, de certa forma alinhados com Catholic I själva verket så är ett sätt att läsa det att spökets öde på vissa sätt är i linje med den katolska

purgatory, “confin'd to fast in fires / till the foul crimes done in my days of "أتضور جوًعا في اللهب إلى أن يحترق ما اقترفته من الآثام في حياتي الدنيا فأّطَهر منها." überein stimmt, "gebannt, zu fasten in der Glut / bis die Verbrechen meiner Zeitlichkeit / purgatório ", confin'd a jejuar em incêndios / Até que os crimes sujos feitos em meus dias de skärselden "fängslad till att fasta i bränder / tills vidriga brott gjorda i mina dagars

nature / are burnt and purg'd away.” And Hamlet seems to fear something similar, “For hinweggeläutert sind". Und Hamlet scheint etwas ähnliches zu fürchten, "Was Et Hamlet semble craindre quelque chose de similaire, natureza / são queimados e purg'd de distância. "E Hamlet parece temer algo similar ", para natur / bränns upp och renas bort. "Och Hamlet verkar frukta något liknande, "För

in that sleep of death what dreams may come.” Though it's also worth nothing that Hamlet in dem Schlaf [des Todes] für Träume kommen mögen." Aber es ist auch beachtenswert, dass Hamlet em que o sono da morte que sonhos podem vir ". Embora também vale a pena nada que Hamlet i denna dödens sömn vilka drömmar kan komma. " Men det är också värt att notera att ingenting som Hamlet

wonders if the ghost really is his father. Hamlet has to ask if the ghost is a “spirit sich fragt, ob der Geist wirklich sein Vater ist. Hamlet muss fragen, ob der Geist "ein Geist des Segens, se pergunta se o fantasma é realmente seu pai. Hamlet tem que perguntar se o fantasma é um "espírito undrar över om spöket verkligen är hans far. Hamlet måste fråga om spöket är en "ande

of health or goblin damn'd.” Regardless, the ghost makes Hamlet wonder [oder] ein Kobold" sei. Auf jeden Fall bewirkt der Geist, dass Hamlet über die de saúde ou goblin Damn '. " Independentemente disso, o fantasma faz pensar Hamlet av hälsa eller troll fördömd. " Oavsett, får spöket Hamlet att undra

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