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Crash Course: English Literature, Before I Got My Eye Put Out - The Poetry of Emily Dickinson: Crash Course English Lit #8 - YouTube (1)

Before I Got My Eye Put Out - The Poetry of Emily Dickinson: Crash Course English Lit #8 - YouTube (1)

Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature, and today we're gonna talk about this lady, Emily Dickinson.

By the way we don't have a book today cause she's on my Nook. Emily Dickinson was a great

19th Century American poet who-

Mr. Green! Mr. Green! I already know everything about her: she was a recluse and you can sing

all of her poems to the tune of "I'd like to buy the world a coke", like: [sings] "because

I could not stop for death, he kindly stopped for me"' -

Stop, Me from the Past, you cannot sing! Fortunately, your inability to sing does insulate us from

copyright claims, because I, for one, did not recognize that as

"If I could buy the world a coke." Also, Dickinson's meter is more complicated than you're making

it out to be, but yes, you could sing most of her poems to "If I could buy the world

a Coke", also, "Yellow Rose of Texas".

More importantly, these poems have a lot to say about the relationship between death and

life, between faith and doubt, between the power of god and the power of individuals,

so let's focus on that, because it actually might change your life and stuff.

[Theme Music]

So Joyce Carol Oats once called Emily Dickinson "The most paradoxical of poets, the very poet

of paradox", and this can really frustrate students and literary critics alike, particularly

when Dickinson seems to contradict herself within a single poem.

Take, for example, this bit of light verse. ''Faith' is a fine invention when gentlemen

can see - but microscopes are prudent in an emergency". So this seems like a pretty pro-science,

anti-religion poem right? I mean, faith is put in quotation marks and called an invention.

But she also implies the possibility of a different and valuable kind of sight, only

available to some people at some times, "when" gentlemen "can" see. And this is where is

becomes important to look at how Dickinson, for lack of a better phrase, "sees" sight.

Dickinson often imagines seeing as a sort of power, so much so that seeing, not just

literal sight, but also the ability to witness and observe and understand, becomes the central

expression of the self. Like her famous poem that begins "I heard a fly buzz when I died"

ends with the line "I could not see to see" associating the lack of sight, with death itself.

Dickinson also often played with the fact that this "I" and this "eye" sound the same.

Her poem beginning, "Before I got my eye put out" is about death, for instance, not just

monocularizaton. In that poem, she clearly associates sight not just with the power to

observe but ownership. She writes, "But were it told to me, today, that I might have the

sky for mine, I tell you that my heart would split, for size of me - the meadows - mine

- the mountains - mine -". Of course in 19th century America, the idea

that an eye, possibly a female eye, could own the mountains, the meadows, and the sky

was a little bit radical. I mean, all the stuff was supposed to be under the control

of God, not any human being who could see it.

All this is made even more complex and interesting by the fact that Dickinson's poems sounded

like hymns, and throughout her life you can see her faith waxing and waning in her poetry.

In short, I don't think you can make easy conclusions about microscopes and faith in

Dickinson's poetry, but that's precisely what's so important about it.

Dickinson's work reflects a conflicted American world view. I mean, we're a nation of exceptional

individuals who believe that we control our success and our happiness, but we are also

more likely to profess a belief in an omnipotent god than people in any other industrialized nation.

All right, I know you guys want all the creepy, macabre details of Dickinson's biography so

let's go to the thought bubble. So, Emily Dickinson was born in 1830 to a prominent

family. Her father because a US congressman, and lived her whole life in Massachusetts.

She was haunted, by what she called, the menace of death throughout her life. Although, then

again, who isn't? Between 1858 and 1865, Dickinson wrote nearly 800 poems, but she also became

increasingly confined to her home in those years, and eventually, rarely left her room.

She usually talked to visitors from the other side of a closed door, and didn't even leave

her room when her father's funeral took place downstairs.

Dickinson published few than a dozen poems in her lifetime. In fact, no one knew that she'd

been nearly so prolific until her sister discovered more than 1800 poems after Emily's death in 1886.

Dickinson was considered an eccentric in Amherst, and known locally for only wearing white when

she was spotted outside the home. In fact, her only surviving article of clothing is

a white cotton dress. This image of a pale wraith clad all in white is a symbol of the

reclusive, brilliant poet, but it's worth noting that for Dickinson, white was not the

color of innocence, or purity, or ghosts. It was the color of passion and intensity.

"Dare you see a soul at the white heat? Then crouch within the door," she once wrote. She

called red, the color most associate with passion, "fire's common tint." For Dickinson,

the real, true rich life of a soul even if it was physically sheltered burned white hot. Thanks thought bubble.

Oh, it's time for the open letter? An open letter to the color white.

But, first let's see what's in the secret compartment today. Oh, it's a Dalek. Stan,

more flagrant pandering to the Whovians.

Dear White, you are a complicated and symbolic -- AH! DALEK! They're not very bright. So,

white you're often associated with purity, like wedding dresses. You can symbolize heaven,

or the creepy infinite nowhere where parts of Harry Potter, and all of Crash Course Humanities

take place. But, many 19th century writers inverted those associations. Like, Melville's

famous great white wall of whale, that terrifying blankness of nature. And to Dickinson, white,

you were the color of passion and intensity. This reminds us that our symbolic relationships

aren't fixed. We are creating them as we go, communally. I mean, other than Daleks, which

are universally terrifying no matter what color they come in. Best wishes, John Green.

Okay, let's take a close look at a poem we've already mentioned, sometimes called Poem 465,

and sometimes known by its first line "I heard a fly buzz when I died,". Speaking of which,

here in the studio we've had a genuine plague of flies in the last few weeks. I mean, in

the lights up there, there are thousands of fly carcasses. Okay, let's out aside the fly

carcasses, and read a poem together about flies.

I heard a Fly buzz - when I died - The Stillness in the Room

Was like the Stillness in the Air - Between the Heaves of Storm -

The Eyes around - had wrung them dry - And Breaths were gathering firm

For that last Onset - when the King Be witnessed - in the Room -

I willed my Keepsakes - Signed away What portion of me be

Assignable - and then it was There interposed a Fly -

With Blue - uncertain - stumbling Buzz - Between the light - and me -

And then the Windows failed - and then I could not see to see -

Okay, first let's talk about the dashes. Some critics think that Dickinson's use of dashes

as punctuation is just eccentric handwriting, or else an accident. I mean, they point out

that Dickinson also similar dashes, for instance, in her cake recipes. Others argue that the

use of dashes are a typographical attempt to symbolize the way the mind works, or that

the dash is used as a punctuation stronger than a comma but weaker than a period. Regardless though,

the appearance of a dash at the end of this poem at the moment of death is a very interesting choice.

So, in this poem the speaker is dying, or I guess, has died in a still room surrounded

by loved ones. A will is signed, and then the fly with a "blue - uncertain - stumbling

Buzz -" comes between the light and the speaker. This makes it so the narrator cannot see to

see, and by now you know what happens in Dickinson poems when people can't see. They're dead.

So, Dickinson was just a smidge obsessed with death, which means she got to imagine death

in a lot of different ways: as a suitor, as a gentle guide, but here death is a buzzing

fly. So, everyone in the room is waiting for the arrival of "the king", which before Elvis

took over the title in 1958 was a reference to God. But, instead of the quiet, peaceful

arrival of God they're expecting it's a dirty little fly with "uncertain stumbling buzz"

that gets between the narrator and the light.

So, this poem features Dickinson at her most formal. The lines are very iambic (John speaks rhythmically):

"I heard a fly buzz when I died the stillness in the room,", and they alternate between

tetrameter, four feet, and trimeter, three feet.

The rhyme scheme throughout the poem is ABCB, which means that the first line ends with

one sound, the second line with yet another, the third line with another still, and then

the fourth line rhymes with the second line.

But, Dickinson employs her famous slant rhymes here. Like in the first stanza, "room" is

matched with "storm". In the second, "be" with "fly". These words sort of, almost rhyme

like "room" and "storm" both end in /m/ sounds. "Be" and "fly both end in hard vowel sounds,

but they don't rhyme. This discomforting lack of closure is a hallmark of Dickinson's poetry,

also of most of my romantic relationships.

Only in the final stanza, when death comes do we get a full rhyme. "Me", the eye, is

rhymed with "see" the thing the eye can no longer do. So, is this a peaceful death? Hardly.

I mean, the stillness in the room is broken by the buzzing fly, and yet with that final

full rhyme, Dickinson offers us a bit of peace and closure that we didn't get in the first two stanzas.

To return to an old theme, even though we live in an image drenched culture, this is

a good reminder that language is made out of words, and it might sound like over reading

to you to say that a full rhyme brings peace. But, I'm remind of the story of Mozart's children

playing a series of unfinished scales in order to taunt their father, who would eventually

have to go to the piano and finish them.

Poetry isn't just a series of images. It's rhythmic and it's metric, and we crave the

closure of a good rhyme at the end of a poem. That's why sonnets end with couplets. Dickinson

gives us that closure, and the she gives us a Jose Saramago-ine dash. The poet of paradox,

still haunting us. Thanks for watching our Crash Course Literature Mini Series. Next

week, we begin a year of learning about US History together.

[Libertage] [explosions and patriotic guitar riffs]

Now begins the complaining by non-Americans that we're shallow and self-interested and

call ourselves Americans, even though in fact, this is America. But even my friends, if you

don't live here the history of the United States matters to you because we are always meddling

in your affairs. Thanks for watching. See you next week.

Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Miller. Our script supervisor is Meredith

Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson, and the show is written by me.

Every week instead of cursing, I've used the name of writers I like. That tradition is



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Before I Got My Eye Put Out - The Poetry of Emily Dickinson: Crash Course English Lit #8 - YouTube (1)

Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature, and today we're gonna talk about this lady, Emily Dickinson. مرحًبا، أنا جون غرين وهذه سلسلة Crash Course Literature وسنتحدث اليوم عن هذه الآنسة، إيميلي ديكنسون.

By the way we don't have a book today cause she's on my Nook. Emily Dickinson was a great

19th Century American poet who-

Mr. Green! Mr. Green! I already know everything about her: she was a recluse and you can sing

all of her poems to the tune of "I'd like to buy the world a coke", like: [sings] "because

I could not stop for death, he kindly stopped for me"' -

Stop, Me from the Past, you cannot sing! Fortunately, your inability to sing does insulate us from توقف يا أنا من الماضي، أنت لا تستطيع الغناء. لحسن حظنا، إن عدم قدرتك على الغناء تحمينا من ادعاءات حقوق الملكية،

copyright claims, because I, for one, did not recognize that as لأنني أنا لم أدرك أن هذه هي أغنية "If I could buy the world a coke".

"If I could buy the world a coke." Also, Dickinson's meter is more complicated than you're making والوزن الشعري لقصائد ديكنسون معقد أكثر مما تجعله يبدو،

it out to be, but yes, you could sing most of her poems to "If I could buy the world

a Coke", also, "Yellow Rose of Texas".

More importantly, these poems have a lot to say about the relationship between death and

life, between faith and doubt, between the power of god and the power of individuals, وبين الإيمان والشك وبين قوة الّله وقوة الأفراد،

so let's focus on that, because it actually might change your life and stuff. لذا دعونا نركز على هذا، لأنه قد يغير حياتكم فعلًا.

[Theme Music] "شارة البداية"

So Joyce Carol Oats once called Emily Dickinson "The most paradoxical of poets, the very poet قالت جويس كارول أوتس مرة عن إيميلي ديكنسون "أكثر الشعراء تناقًضا،

of paradox", and this can really frustrate students and literary critics alike, particularly ويمكن لهذا أن يحبط الطلاب والنقاد الأدبين على على حد سواء،

when Dickinson seems to contradict herself within a single poem. وخاصة حين يبدو أن ديكنسون تناقض نفسها في قصيدة واحدة.

Take, for example, this bit of light verse. ''Faith' is a fine invention when gentlemen فمثلًا، انظروا إلى هذا الأبيات اليسيرة. ""الإيمان" هو اختراع حسن حين يتمكن السادة من الرؤية -

can see - but microscopes are prudent in an emergency". So this seems like a pretty pro-science,

anti-religion poem right? I mean, faith is put in quotation marks and called an invention. أعني، وضعت كلمة إيمان بين علامتي اقتباس وقيل إنه اختراع.

But she also implies the possibility of a different and valuable kind of sight, only لكنها أوحت أيًضا إلى إمكانية وجود نوع مختلف وقّيم من الرؤية،

available to some people at some times, "when" gentlemen "can" see. And this is where is متوفر لبعض الناس في بعض الأحيان فقط، ""حين" "يتمكن" السادة من الرؤية."

becomes important to look at how Dickinson, for lack of a better phrase, "sees" sight. وهنا تصبح ملاحظة كيفية نظر ديكنسون إلى الرؤية شيئًا مهًما.

Dickinson often imagines seeing as a sort of power, so much so that seeing, not just

literal sight, but also the ability to witness and observe and understand, becomes the central

expression of the self. Like her famous poem that begins "I heard a fly buzz when I died" مثل قصيدتها المشهورة التي تبدأ هكذا: "سمعت ذبابة تطّن حين مّت"

ends with the line "I could not see to see" associating the lack of sight, with death itself. تنتهي بالبيت "لم أستطع أن أنظر لأرى" فتربط الافتقار إلى الرؤية مع الموت.

Dickinson also often played with the fact that this "I" and this "eye" sound the same. وتلاعبت ديكنسون كثيًرا بحقيقة أن باللغة الإنجليزية الحرف "I" ويعني "أنا" وكلمة "eye" وتعني "عين" ُينطقان بالطريقة نفسها.

Her poem beginning, "Before I got my eye put out" is about death, for instance, not just فمثلًا، بداية إحدى قصائدها "قبل أن ُتفقأ عيني" هي عن الموت وليس عن اقتلاع العيون.

monocularizaton. In that poem, she clearly associates sight not just with the power to

observe but ownership. She writes, "But were it told to me, today, that I might have the فتكتب: "لكن إن قيل لي اليوم إنني قد أملك السماء

sky for mine, I tell you that my heart would split, for size of me - the meadows - mine

- the mountains - mine -". Of course in 19th century America, the idea

that an eye, possibly a female eye, could own the mountains, the meadows, and the sky

was a little bit radical. I mean, all the stuff was supposed to be under the control أعني، من المفترض أن تكون كل هذه الأشياء تحت سيطرة الرب،

of God, not any human being who could see it. وليس أي إنسان يمكنه أن يراها.

All this is made even more complex and interesting by the fact that Dickinson's poems sounded وحقيقة أن قصائد ديكنسون تشبه التراتيل يجعل هذا كله معقًدا ومثيًرا للاهتمام أكثر،

like hymns, and throughout her life you can see her faith waxing and waning in her poetry. ويمكنكم ملاحظة أن إيمانها يزداد ويضعف في ِشعرها في مراحل حياتها.

In short, I don't think you can make easy conclusions about microscopes and faith in باختصار، لا أعتقد أنه بالإمكان الوصول إلى استنتاجات سهلة عن المجاهر والإيمان في شعر ديكنسون،

Dickinson's poetry, but that's precisely what's so important about it. لكن هذا بالضبط هو المهم فيه.

Dickinson's work reflects a conflicted American world view. I mean, we're a nation of exceptional

individuals who believe that we control our success and our happiness, but we are also

more likely to profess a belief in an omnipotent god than people in any other industrialized nation.

All right, I know you guys want all the creepy, macabre details of Dickinson's biography so حسًنا، أعلم أنكم تريدون معرفة جميع التفاصيل المخيفة المروعة لسيرة ديكنسون الذاتية،

let's go to the thought bubble. So, Emily Dickinson was born in 1830 to a prominent لذا لنذهب إلى فقاعة التخيل. إذن، ُولدت إيميلي ديكنسون في عام 1830 لعائلة مرموقة،

family. Her father because a US congressman, and lived her whole life in Massachusetts. فأبوها أصبح عضًوا في مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكي، وعاشت في ماساتشوستس طوال حياتها.

She was haunted, by what she called, the menace of death throughout her life. Although, then كانت يطاردها هاجس ما أطلقت عليه اسم "وعيد الموت" طيلة فترة حياتها،

again, who isn't? Between 1858 and 1865, Dickinson wrote nearly 800 poems, but she also became بين 1858 و1865، كتبت ديكنسون نحو 800 قصيدة،

increasingly confined to her home in those years, and eventually, rarely left her room. لكنها أصبحت حبيسة في غرفتها بشكل متزايد في هذه السنين، وفي النهاية، كانت تغادر غرفتها نادًرا.

She usually talked to visitors from the other side of a closed door, and didn't even leave كانت تتحدث إلى الزوار من وراء باب مغلق في العادة،

her room when her father's funeral took place downstairs. ولم تترك غرفتها حتى حين أقيمت جنازة أبيها في الطابق السفلي.

Dickinson published few than a dozen poems in her lifetime. In fact, no one knew that she'd

been nearly so prolific until her sister discovered more than 1800 poems after Emily's death in 1886. حتى اكتشفت أختها أكثر من 1800 قصيدة بعد وفاة إيميلي في 1886.

Dickinson was considered an eccentric in Amherst, and known locally for only wearing white when

she was spotted outside the home. In fact, her only surviving article of clothing is

a white cotton dress. This image of a pale wraith clad all in white is a symbol of the

reclusive, brilliant poet, but it's worth noting that for Dickinson, white was not the

color of innocence, or purity, or ghosts. It was the color of passion and intensity. بل كان لون الشغف والحدة.

"Dare you see a soul at the white heat? Then crouch within the door," she once wrote. She كتبت مرة: "أتجرؤ على رؤية روح في الحرارة البيضاء؟ إذن، فاجثم داخل الباب."

called red, the color most associate with passion, "fire's common tint." For Dickinson,

the real, true rich life of a soul even if it was physically sheltered burned white hot. Thanks thought bubble. كانت تشتعل بحرارة بيضاء.

Oh, it's time for the open letter? An open letter to the color white. شكًرا يا فقاعة التفكير. هل حان وقت الرسالة المفتوحة؟ رسالة مفتوحة إلى اللون الأبيض.

But, first let's see what's in the secret compartment today. Oh, it's a Dalek. Stan,

more flagrant pandering to the Whovians.

Dear White, you are a complicated and symbolic -- AH! DALEK! They're not very bright. So, عزيز اللون الأبيض، أنت معقد ورمزي.. داليك! إنهم ليسوا أذكياء جًدا.

white you're often associated with purity, like wedding dresses. You can symbolize heaven,

or the creepy infinite nowhere where parts of Harry Potter, and all of Crash Course Humanities حيث تقع أحداث معينة من هاري بوتر وجميع حلقات Crash Course Humanities.

take place. But, many 19th century writers inverted those associations. Like, Melville's لكن َعَكس العديد من كتاب القرن التاسع عشر هذه الروابط،

famous great white wall of whale, that terrifying blankness of nature. And to Dickinson, white,

you were the color of passion and intensity. This reminds us that our symbolic relationships

aren't fixed. We are creating them as we go, communally. I mean, other than Daleks, which

are universally terrifying no matter what color they come in. Best wishes, John Green. مع أطيب تمنياتي، جون غرين.

Okay, let's take a close look at a poem we've already mentioned, sometimes called Poem 465, لنلقي نظرة عن كثب إلى قصيدة ذكرناها سابًقا، وُتدعى في بعض الأحيان القصيدة 465،

and sometimes known by its first line "I heard a fly buzz when I died,". Speaking of which, وُتعرف في أحيان أخرى بأول بيت فيها: "سمعت ذبابة تطّن حين مّت".

here in the studio we've had a genuine plague of flies in the last few weeks. I mean, in بالحديث عن ذلك، عانينا من طاعون ذباب حقيقي هنا في الاستوديو في الأسابيع الماضية.

the lights up there, there are thousands of fly carcasses. Okay, let's out aside the fly

carcasses, and read a poem together about flies.

I heard a Fly buzz - when I died - The Stillness in the Room "سمعت ذبابة تطّن - حين مّت - السكون في الغرفة

Was like the Stillness in the Air - Between the Heaves of Storm - كان مثل السكون في الجو - قبل تجدد العاصفة -

The Eyes around - had wrung them dry - And Breaths were gathering firm الأعين من حولي - قد عصروها إلى أن جّفت - والأنفاس تجتمع بقوة

For that last Onset - when the King Be witnessed - in the Room - من أجل البداية الأخيرة - حين الملك ُيشهد - في الغرفة -

I willed my Keepsakes - Signed away What portion of me be أوصيت بما تذكروني به - أورثت أجزاء نفسي التي

Assignable - and then it was There interposed a Fly - يمكن توريثها - ثم كانت هناك توّسطت ذبابة

With Blue - uncertain - stumbling Buzz - Between the light - and me - طنينها أزرق مترنح غير ُمحدد - بين الضوء - وبيني -

And then the Windows failed - and then I could not see to see - ثم هوت النوافذ - ثم لم أستطع أن أنظر لأرى -"

Okay, first let's talk about the dashes. Some critics think that Dickinson's use of dashes

as punctuation is just eccentric handwriting, or else an accident. I mean, they point out

that Dickinson also similar dashes, for instance, in her cake recipes. Others argue that the

use of dashes are a typographical attempt to symbolize the way the mind works, or that

the dash is used as a punctuation stronger than a comma but weaker than a period. Regardless though,

the appearance of a dash at the end of this poem at the moment of death is a very interesting choice. هو خيار مثير جًدا للاهتمام.

So, in this poem the speaker is dying, or I guess, has died in a still room surrounded إذن، إن المتحدث يحتضر في هذه القصيدة، أو مات بالفعل، في غرفة ساكنة وُمحاًطا بأحبائه.

by loved ones. A will is signed, and then the fly with a "blue - uncertain - stumbling تم التوقيع على وصية، ثم ذبابة "طنينها أزرق - مترنح غير ُمحدد -"

Buzz -" comes between the light and the speaker. This makes it so the narrator cannot see to تأتي بين الضوء والمتحدث. هذا يجعل الراوي لا يستطيع أن ينظر ليرى،

see, and by now you know what happens in Dickinson poems when people can't see. They're dead. وأنتم تعلمون الآن ماذا يحدث في قصائد ديكنسون حين لا يستطيع الناس النظر، يكونون أمواًتا.

So, Dickinson was just a smidge obsessed with death, which means she got to imagine death

in a lot of different ways: as a suitor, as a gentle guide, but here death is a buzzing كخاطب وكرجل لطيف، لكن هنا، إن الموت هو ذبابة طنانة.

fly. So, everyone in the room is waiting for the arrival of "the king", which before Elvis إذن، ينتظر كل من في الغرفة وصول "الملك"،

took over the title in 1958 was a reference to God. But, instead of the quiet, peaceful

arrival of God they're expecting it's a dirty little fly with "uncertain stumbling buzz"

that gets between the narrator and the light.

So, this poem features Dickinson at her most formal. The lines are very iambic (John speaks rhythmically):

"I heard a fly buzz when I died the stillness in the room,", and they alternate between

tetrameter, four feet, and trimeter, three feet.

The rhyme scheme throughout the poem is ABCB, which means that the first line ends with

one sound, the second line with yet another, the third line with another still, and then

the fourth line rhymes with the second line.

But, Dickinson employs her famous slant rhymes here. Like in the first stanza, "room" is

matched with "storm". In the second, "be" with "fly". These words sort of, almost rhyme

like "room" and "storm" both end in /m/ sounds. "Be" and "fly both end in hard vowel sounds,

but they don't rhyme. This discomforting lack of closure is a hallmark of Dickinson's poetry, وهذا الافتقار غير المريح لخاتمة هو سمة مميزة لشعر ديكنسون،

also of most of my romantic relationships. ولمعظم علاقاتي الرومانسية أيًضا.

Only in the final stanza, when death comes do we get a full rhyme. "Me", the eye, is

rhymed with "see" the thing the eye can no longer do. So, is this a peaceful death? Hardly. وهو الشيء الذي لم تعد العين قادرة على فعله. إذن، أهذا موت سلمّي؟ بالكاد.

I mean, the stillness in the room is broken by the buzzing fly, and yet with that final

full rhyme, Dickinson offers us a bit of peace and closure that we didn't get in the first two stanzas. اللذان لم نحصل عليهما في أول مقطعين.

To return to an old theme, even though we live in an image drenched culture, this is عودة إلى موضوع قديم. مع أننا نعيش في ثقافة ُمشبعة بالصور،

a good reminder that language is made out of words, and it might sound like over reading

to you to say that a full rhyme brings peace. But, I'm remind of the story of Mozart's children

playing a series of unfinished scales in order to taunt their father, who would eventually

have to go to the piano and finish them.

Poetry isn't just a series of images. It's rhythmic and it's metric, and we crave the

closure of a good rhyme at the end of a poem. That's why sonnets end with couplets. Dickinson

gives us that closure, and the she gives us a Jose Saramago-ine dash. The poet of paradox, شبح شاعرة التناقض، لا يزال يطاردنا.

still haunting us. Thanks for watching our Crash Course Literature Mini Series. Next شكًرا على مشاهدة سلسلة Crash Course Literature القصيرة.

week, we begin a year of learning about US History together. سنبدأ سنة من التعلم عن التاريخ الأمريكي مًعا في الأسبوع القادم.

[Libertage] [explosions and patriotic guitar riffs] "أمريكا - أعطني حريتي أو أعطني شطيرة برغر كبيرة"

Now begins the complaining by non-Americans that we're shallow and self-interested and والآن يبدأ التذمر من قبل غير الأمريكيين بأننا سطحيين ونعمل لمصلحتنا الخاصة

call ourselves Americans, even though in fact, this is America. But even my friends, if you

don't live here the history of the United States matters to you because we are always meddling لأننا نتدخل دائًما في شؤونكم.

in your affairs. Thanks for watching. See you next week. شكًرا على المشاهدة. سأراكم الأسبوع المقبل.

Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Miller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Crash Course من إخراج وإنتاج ستان ميلر، ومشرفة النص هي ميريدث دانكو،

Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson, and the show is written by me. والمنتجة المساعدة هي دانيكا جونسون، وأنا أكتب حلقات البرنامج.

Every week instead of cursing, I've used the name of writers I like. That tradition is

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