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E-Books (english-e-reader), Animal Life Cycles (2)

Animal Life Cycles (2)

Breeding

Most amphibians go to wet places like ponds, lakes, or rivers to breed, because their eggs and larvae live in water. Many go back to the same place every year, and some go back to the pond or stream where they were born. Male frogs croak and shout to tell the females that they are ready to breed. They push their throats out so that their calls are louder. When the female has chosen a mate, she lays her eggs in the water, and the male covers them with sperm.

CHAPTER SIX

Reptiles

Reptiles are cold-blooded, and their skin is dry and covered with special scales. Lizards, snakes, crocodiles, alligators, and turtles are all reptiles. Some live on land and some live in water.

Eggs

Most reptiles hatch from eggs, but a few are born as living animals. Females lay their eggs in a warm, wet place. They usually lay a lot of eggs, but many eggs are eaten by predators. Most reptiles lay their eggs and then they leave them, but pythons put their body around their eggs to keep them warm. Alligators make a big nest from mud and leaves. They lay their eggs and stay near the nest. They don't eat for weeks when they are keeping their eggs safe.

Growing Up

Crocodiles and alligators are very good parents after their eggs hatch. The female Nile crocodile is very careful - she puts her babies inside her mouth to carry them to water. She stays near them to keep them safe for up to two months.

When snakes and lizards grow, they get too big for their skin. The old skin comes off and there's a new one underneath. This is called sloughing. Most snakes lose their old skin three or four times every year.

Breeding

When reptiles are ready to breed, they have to find a mate. Male crocodiles lift their head up and make a loud sound. They also blow bubbles in the water so that females will see and hear them. Snakes find their mate by smell. The females leave a special smell that the male follows. Other male reptiles, like monitor lizards, fight each other for a mate. The females choose the winner of the fight because he's the strongest.

Some whiptail lizards can produce young without mating! The eggs are not fertilized, but they still hatch.

Keeping Safe

Reptiles are in danger from many predators, and they have lots of ways of keeping safe. If a predator catches a lizard by its tail, the lizard can break its tail off and escape. It then grows a new tail. The stinkpot turtle makes a horrible smell from its legs to make predators go away. Many reptiles also use camouflage to keep safe. Some chameleons can change color so that predators do not see them, and the leaf-tailed gecko can hide easily because its body looks like a leaf.

CHAPTER SEVEN

Birds

There are about 9,000 different species of bird, and they all lay eggs. Baby birds called chicks come from eggs. Birds are the only animals that have feathers. All birds have wings and most birds can fly.

Courtship

Courtship is when male birds try to find female birds that they can mate with. Male birds do many different things to find a mate. Some males show females their colors. The male frigate bird pushes his red throat out like a balloon. The blue-footed booby shows his big blue feet.

Songbirds sing for their females, and the bower bird builds a special place with twigs and puts bright colored things in it so that it looks pretty.

Nests

Birds work very hard to build nests - special homes where they can keep their eggs and chicks safe and warm. They find grass, mud, and twigs, and they push them together. Many birds build nests in high places like trees and cliffs. Others build them on the ground. These birds are usually brown and speckled, so they are well camouflaged.

Eggs

The female bird lays her eggs in the nest. Then the female or the male sits on the eggs to keep them warm. When the chick is ready to hatch, it breaks the shell with a special 'tooth' on its beak.

Cuckoos lay their eggs in other birds' nests. When the baby cuckoo hatches, it pushes the other eggs or chicks out of the nest so that it can have more food. It often grows much, much bigger than the adult bird that is feeding it!

Ostrich eggs are the biggest bird eggs, and they can weight about 2 kilograms. If you stand on one, it will not break!

Chicks

Many chicks have no feathers, and they can't see or move when they hatch, but some can run, swim, and find food. Birds feed their chicks and keep them safe until they can care for themselves. Birds often have to fly to and from the nest hundreds of times a day to bring enough food for their chicks.

Growing Up

Some small birds can fly just two weeks after they hatch, but bigger birds take longer. Chicks watch their parents and learn to fly, feed, sing, and keep safe. Some baby birds do not become adults for months or even years.

Many birds that migrate every year have to make long, dangerous journeys when they are still very young. These birds fly to warmer places for winter and come back to their breeding places for summer.

CHAPTER EIGHT

Mammals

All mammals have fur or hair and they produce milk to feed their babies. Giraffes, bears, kangaroos, elephants, and people are all mammals.

Breeding

It's usually the female mammals who choose a mate, so the males want the females to look at them. Leopards make marks on trees with their claws so that the females will know they are there. Other animals make special smells.

Males often fight with each other to win a mate. Male giraffes fight with their head and neck to show which animal is the strongest.

Having Babies

Most mammals do not lay eggs. The babies grow inside the mother's body, and they get food and oxygen from a special part of the body called the placenta. This is called gestation.

The gestation time for shrews is only two weeks, but for African elephants it's 22 months!

When mammals are ready to have their babies, many look for safe, quiet places. Polar bears dig special dens in the snow so that their babies will be warm and safe.

Baby Mammals

Some baby mammals grow a lot inside their mother's body, and they can stand up as soon as they are born. Other baby mammals can't see or move when they are born. Mammals produce milk for their babies, and this is the only food or drink that they need at first.

Marsupials

Marsupials are animals like kangaroos and koalas. Baby marsupials only grow for a short time inside their mother's body. After they are born, they continue to grow on the outside of their mother's body, usually in a pouch. Baby kangaroos are only 5 centimeters long when they are born. They climb into their mother's pouch, where they stay for up to a year.

Growing Up

Mammals are different from many other types of animal because they feed and care for their babies. Anteaters carry their babies on their back for the first year, and elephants stay near their mother until they are ten years old. Baby mammals learn from their parents, and they learn by playing, too.

Life Cycles

Life is very dangerous for a lot of animals. Many are killed by predators. Also, people hunt them and damage their habitats - the places where they live.

Many animals die before they become adults, but if they grow up, then they can produce young. This is all part of their life cycle. Because of this, there will always be millions of species of animal on Earth, if we care for them and their habitats.

- THE END -


Animal Life Cycles (2) Lebenszyklen der Tiere (2) Ciclos de vida de los animales (2) Cycles de vie des animaux (2) 動物のライフサイクル (2) 동물의 생애 주기 (2) Cykle życia zwierząt (2) Ciclos de vida animal (2) Життєві цикли тварин (2) 動物生命週期 (2)

Breeding

Most amphibians go to wet places like ponds, lakes, or rivers to breed, because their eggs and larvae live in water. Many go back to the same place every year, and some go back to the pond or stream where they were born. Многие возвращаются в одно и то же место каждый год, а некоторые возвращаются к пруду или ручью, где они родились. Male frogs croak and shout to tell the females that they are ready to breed. They push their throats out so that their calls are louder. 鳴き声が大きくなるように喉を突き出します。 목을 내밀어 더 큰 소리로 통화합니다. Они выпячивают горло, чтобы их крики были громче. When the female has chosen a mate, she lays her eggs in the water, and the male covers them with sperm. Когда самка выбрала себе пару, она откладывает яйца в воду, а самец покрывает их спермой.

CHAPTER SIX

Reptiles 爬虫類

Reptiles are cold-blooded, and their skin is dry and covered with special scales. Lizards, snakes, crocodiles, alligators, and turtles are all reptiles. Some live on land and some live in water.

Eggs

Most reptiles hatch from eggs, but a few are born as living animals. ほとんどの爬虫類は卵から孵化しますが、一部は生きた動物として生まれます。 Большинство рептилий вылупляются из яиц, но некоторые рождаются живыми животными. Females lay their eggs in a warm, wet place. They usually lay a lot of eggs, but many eggs are eaten by predators. Most reptiles lay their eggs and then they leave them, but pythons put their body around their eggs to keep them warm. Большинство рептилий откладывают яйца, а затем покидают их, но питоны обвивают яйца своим телом, чтобы согреть их. Alligators make a big nest from mud and leaves. アリゲーターは泥や落ち葉で大きな巣を作ります。 Аллигаторы строят большое гнездо из грязи и листьев. They lay their eggs and stay near the nest. They don't eat for weeks when they are keeping their eggs safe.

Growing Up

Crocodiles and alligators are very good parents after their eggs hatch. クロコダイルとワニは、卵が孵化した後はとても良い親です。 The female Nile crocodile is very careful - she puts her babies inside her mouth to carry them to water. 암컷 나일 악어는 매우 조심스러워 새끼를 입 안에 넣고 물가로 데려가기도 합니다. Самка нильского крокодила очень осторожна - она кладет своих детенышей в рот, чтобы отнести их к воде. She stays near them to keep them safe for up to two months. 彼女は彼らの近くにいて、最大2か月間彼らを安全に保ちます. 그녀는 최대 두 달 동안 아이들의 안전을 지키기 위해 아이들 곁에 머물러 있습니다. Она остается рядом с ними, чтобы обеспечить их безопасность до двух месяцев.

When snakes and lizards grow, they get too big for their skin. ヘビやトカゲが成長すると、皮膚に対して大きくなりすぎます。 The old skin comes off and there's a new one underneath. Старая кожа снимается, а под ней новая. This is called sloughing. Esto se llama descamación. Это называется шелушением. Most snakes lose their old skin three or four times every year.

Breeding

When reptiles are ready to breed, they have to find a mate. Male crocodiles lift their head up and make a loud sound. 雄のワニが頭を上げて大きな音を立てます。 Самцы крокодилов поднимают голову и издают громкий звук. They also blow bubbles in the water so that females will see and hear them. Они также пускают пузыри в воду, чтобы самки их видели и слышали. Snakes find their mate by smell. The females leave a special smell that the male follows. Самки оставляют особый запах, за которым следует самец. Other male reptiles, like monitor lizards, fight each other for a mate. 모니터도마뱀과 같은 다른 수컷 파충류는 짝을 찾기 위해 서로 싸우기도 합니다. Другие самцы рептилий, такие как вараны, дерутся друг с другом за пару. The females choose the winner of the fight because he's the strongest. Самки выбирают победителя боя, потому что он самый сильный.

Some whiptail lizards can produce young without mating! Некоторые ящерицы-хлыстохвосты могут производить потомство без спаривания! The eggs are not fertilized, but they still hatch. 알은 수정되지는 않았지만 여전히 부화합니다. Яйца не оплодотворены, но все равно вылупляются.

Keeping Safe

Reptiles are in danger from many predators, and they have lots of ways of keeping safe. Рептилии находятся в опасности от многих хищников, и у них есть много способов защититься. If a predator catches a lizard by its tail, the lizard can break its tail off and escape. 捕食者がトカゲの尻尾をつかむと、トカゲは尻尾を折って逃げることができます。 Если хищник поймает ящерицу за хвост, ящерица может отломить себе хвост и убежать. It then grows a new tail. The stinkpot turtle makes a horrible smell from its legs to make predators go away. スティンクポット カメは足からひどい臭いを発し、捕食者を遠ざけます。 Черепаха-вонючка испускает ужасный запах своими ногами, чтобы отпугнуть хищников. Many reptiles also use camouflage to keep safe. Some chameleons can change color so that predators do not see them, and the leaf-tailed gecko can hide easily because its body looks like a leaf. Некоторые хамелеоны могут менять цвет, чтобы хищники их не видели, а листохвостый геккон может легко прятаться, потому что его тело похоже на лист.

CHAPTER SEVEN

Birds

There are about 9,000 different species of bird, and they all lay eggs. Baby birds called chicks come from eggs. Птенцы, называемые цыплятами, появляются из яиц. Birds are the only animals that have feathers. Птицы — единственные животные, у которых есть перья. All birds have wings and most birds can fly.

Courtship Ухаживание

Courtship is when male birds try to find female birds that they can mate with. 求愛は、オスの鳥が交尾できるメスの鳥を見つけようとするときです。 구애는 수컷 새가 짝짓기를 할 수 있는 암컷 새를 찾으려는 행동입니다. Ухаживание — это когда самцы птиц пытаются найти самок, с которыми они могут спариться. Male birds do many different things to find a mate. Some males show females their colors. Некоторые самцы показывают самкам свои цвета. The male frigate bird pushes his red throat out like a balloon. Самец фрегата выпячивает свое красное горло, как воздушный шар. The blue-footed booby shows his big blue feet. Голубоногая олуша показывает свои большие синие ноги.

Songbirds sing for their females, and the bower bird builds a special place with twigs and puts bright colored things in it so that it looks pretty. Певчие птицы поют для своих самок, а беседка строит из веточек специальное место и кладет туда яркие цветные вещи, чтобы оно выглядело красиво.

Nests Гнезда

Birds work very hard to build nests - special homes where they can keep their eggs and chicks safe and warm. Птицы очень усердно строят гнезда — специальные дома, где они могут хранить свои яйца и птенцов в безопасности и тепле. They find grass, mud, and twigs, and they push them together. Они находят траву, грязь и ветки и сталкивают их вместе. Many birds build nests in high places like trees and cliffs. Многие птицы строят гнезда на высоких местах, таких как деревья и скалы. Others build them on the ground. These birds are usually brown and speckled, so they are well camouflaged. Эти птицы обычно коричневые и крапчатые, поэтому хорошо маскируются.

Eggs

The female bird lays her eggs in the nest. Then the female or the male sits on the eggs to keep them warm. When the chick is ready to hatch, it breaks the shell with a special 'tooth' on its beak. ひよこは孵化の準備が整うと、くちばしの特別な「歯」で殻を割ります。 Когда птенец готов вылупиться, он проламывает скорлупу специальным «зубом» на клюве.

Cuckoos lay their eggs in other birds' nests. Кукушки откладывают яйца в гнезда других птиц. When the baby cuckoo hatches, it pushes the other eggs or chicks out of the nest so that it can have more food. It often grows much, much bigger than the adult bird that is feeding it! 餌を与えている成鳥よりもはるかに大きくなることがよくあります。 먹이를 주는 성체 새보다 훨씬 더 크게 자라는 경우가 많습니다! Часто он вырастает намного больше, чем взрослая птица, которая его кормит!

Ostrich eggs are the biggest bird eggs, and they can weight about 2 kilograms. Страусиные яйца — самые большие птичьи яйца, они могут весить около 2 кг. If you stand on one, it will not break! 하나에 서 있으면 부러지지 않습니다! Если вы встанете на один, он не сломается!

Chicks

Many chicks have no feathers, and they can't see or move when they hatch, but some can run, swim, and find food. У многих птенцов нет перьев, и они не могут видеть или двигаться, когда вылупляются, но некоторые могут бегать, плавать и находить пищу. Birds feed their chicks and keep them safe until they can care for themselves. Птицы кормят своих птенцов и оберегают их, пока они не смогут позаботиться о себе сами. Birds often have to fly to and from the nest hundreds of times a day to bring enough food for their chicks. Птицам часто приходится летать к гнезду и обратно сотни раз в день, чтобы принести достаточное количество еды для своих птенцов.

Growing Up Взросление

Some small birds can fly just two weeks after they hatch, but bigger birds take longer. 작은 새는 부화 후 2주만 지나면 날 수 있지만, 큰 새는 더 오래 걸립니다. Некоторые маленькие птицы могут летать уже через две недели после вылупления, но более крупным птицам для этого требуется больше времени. Chicks watch their parents and learn to fly, feed, sing, and keep safe. Some baby birds do not become adults for months or even years. Некоторые птенцы не становятся взрослыми месяцами и даже годами.

Many birds that migrate every year have to make long, dangerous journeys when they are still very young. 매년 이동하는 많은 새들은 아직 아주 어릴 때 길고 위험한 여정을 떠나야 합니다. Многим птицам, которые мигрируют каждый год, приходится совершать долгие и опасные путешествия, когда они еще очень молоды. These birds fly to warmer places for winter and come back to their breeding places for summer.

CHAPTER EIGHT

Mammals Млекопитающие

All mammals have fur or hair and they produce milk to feed their babies. Giraffes, bears, kangaroos, elephants, and people are all mammals. Жирафы, медведи, кенгуру, слоны и люди — все это млекопитающие.

Breeding

It's usually the female mammals who choose a mate, so the males want the females to look at them. 通常、配偶者を選ぶのはメスの哺乳動物なので、オスはメスに見てもらいたいのです。 Обычно самки млекопитающих выбирают себе пару, поэтому самцы хотят, чтобы самки смотрели на них. Leopards make marks on trees with their claws so that the females will know they are there. ヒョウは、女性がそこにいることを知るために、爪で木に印を付けます。 Леопарды когтями оставляют следы на деревьях, чтобы самки знали, что они там. Other animals make special smells.

Males often fight with each other to win a mate. Самцы часто дерутся друг с другом, чтобы завоевать себе пару. Male giraffes fight with their head and neck to show which animal is the strongest. Жирафы-самцы дерутся головой и шеей, чтобы показать, какое животное сильнее.

Having Babies

Most mammals do not lay eggs. The babies grow inside the mother's body, and they get food and oxygen from a special part of the body called the placenta. This is called gestation. Это называется беременностью.

The gestation time for shrews is only two weeks, but for African elephants it's 22 months! Беременность у землероек всего две недели, а у африканских слонов — 22 месяца!

When mammals are ready to have their babies, many look for safe, quiet places. 포유류는 새끼를 낳을 준비가 되면 대부분 안전하고 조용한 장소를 찾습니다. Когда млекопитающие готовы завести детенышей, многие ищут безопасные и тихие места. Polar bears dig special dens in the snow so that their babies will be warm and safe. Белые медведи роют в снегу специальные норы, чтобы их детеныши были в тепле и безопасности.

Baby Mammals

Some baby mammals grow a lot inside their mother's body, and they can stand up as soon as they are born. Некоторые детеныши млекопитающих сильно растут внутри тела матери и могут вставать, как только рождаются. Other baby mammals can't see or move when they are born. Другие детеныши млекопитающих не могут видеть или двигаться, когда рождаются. Mammals produce milk for their babies, and this is the only food or drink that they need at first. 포유류는 새끼를 위해 우유를 생산하며, 이것은 처음에 필요한 유일한 음식이나 음료입니다. Млекопитающие производят молоко для своих детенышей, и это единственная пища или питье, которые им нужны в первое время.

Marsupials Сумчатые

Marsupials are animals like kangaroos and koalas. Сумчатые — это животные, такие как кенгуру и коалы. Baby marsupials only grow for a short time inside their mother's body. 有袋類の赤ちゃんは、母親の体内で短期間しか成長しません。 Детеныши сумчатых растут в теле матери лишь на короткое время. After they are born, they continue to grow on the outside of their mother's body, usually in a pouch. 새끼는 태어난 후에도 엄마의 몸 바깥쪽, 보통 주머니에서 계속 자랍니다. После рождения они продолжают расти снаружи тела матери, обычно в сумке. Baby kangaroos are only 5 centimeters long when they are born. They climb into their mother's pouch, where they stay for up to a year. Они забираются в сумку матери, где остаются до года.

Growing Up

Mammals are different from many other types of animal because they feed and care for their babies. Млекопитающие отличаются от многих других видов животных тем, что они кормят своих детенышей и заботятся о них. Anteaters carry their babies on their back for the first year, and elephants stay near their mother until they are ten years old. Муравьеды носят своих детенышей на спине в течение первого года, а слоны остаются рядом с матерью до тех пор, пока им не исполнится десять лет. Baby mammals learn from their parents, and they learn by playing, too. Детеныши млекопитающих учатся у своих родителей, а также учатся, играя.

Life Cycles

Life is very dangerous for a lot of animals. Many are killed by predators. Многие погибают от хищников. Also, people hunt them and damage their habitats - the places where they live. Также люди охотятся на них и наносят ущерб их средам обитания — местам, где они обитают.

Many animals die before they become adults, but if they grow up, then they can produce young. This is all part of their life cycle. これはすべて、ライフサイクルの一部です。 Все это часть их жизненного цикла. Because of this, there will always be millions of species of animal on Earth, if we care for them and their habitats. このため、動物とその生息地を大切にすれば、地球上には常に数百万種の動物が存在します。 우리가 동물과 동물의 서식지를 돌본다면 지구에는 항상 수백만 종의 동물이 존재할 것입니다. Из-за этого на Земле всегда будут миллионы видов животных, если мы позаботимся о них и их среде обитания.

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