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E-Books (english-e-reader), Amazing Women by Helen Parker (1)

Amazing Women by Helen Parker (1)

Chapter one

Harriet Tubman

c. 1820 - 1913

The slave who escaped and helped hundreds of other slaves to escape

I escaped from slavery in the south of the USA. I then helped hundreds of other slaves to escape to the north of the USA and Canada. I also freed hundreds of slaves who wanted to fight in the Civil War.

My parents were slaves for the Brodess family in Maryland, USA. I was the fifth of nine children. At the age of 6, I started work as a nursemaid for another family. After that I had to work in the woods and fields. Our owners did not think of us as people. For them, we were like animals or machines. If we did something wrong, they hit us or punished us in horrible ways.

In 1831, at the age of 11, I started to do the same work as the adult slaves. Every day we had to work for many hours in the fields. Around this time, I received an injury, which I never forgot. I refused to stop a slave who was escaping. The slave's owner threw a metal weight at the slave, but it hit me on the head. It hurt a lot and this injury gave me headaches for the rest of my life.

*

In 1849, I was brave and tried to escape. I was married by then, but my marriage was very unhappy and I hated the thought of another year of slavery. Two of my brothers agreed to come with me. We wanted to reach the north of the USA, where slavery was illegal. I could live there as a free woman.

We made good progress towards the north, but then we heard some bad news. Our owner was offering $300 to anyone who caught us. My brothers became frightened and we decided to return to Maryland. We were punished when we returned, but I still wanted to escape.

A short time later, I escaped again. This time I went alone. I travelled at night along quiet roads and paths. Some kind people helped me on the way. They gave me food and a place to sleep. Finally, I arrived in the city of Philadelphia in the north. The journey was long and difficult, but it felt wonderful to be free at last.

*

In Philadelphia, I got a job and began to earn money. I missed my parents and my brothers and sisters. I was free and I wanted my family to be free, too. Maybe I could help them to escape?

In 1850, I received some bad news. My niece and her daughters were in danger. Their owner wanted to sell them and they didn't want to go to different families. I decided to return to Maryland to free them. I had to help them to escape. We travelled at night and used the stars to find our way to the north.

After helping my niece and her daughters, I helped many other slaves to escape. I offered to help my husband, John Tubman, too, but he didn't want to leave the south. He didn't want to be with me any more, so our marriage ended.

Soon, a new law made things a lot more difficult for me. It became illegal to help a slave to escape in the USA. I had to find a new route - to Canada, where slavery was illegal.

*

In 1857, I went on a very special journey to help my parents. They weren't slaves any more, but their life in the south was very difficult. They were very happy to see me again and wanted to go with me to Canada. Our journey was very slow and difficult because my parents were old. We had a big celebration when we finally arrived in Ontario, Canada.

In 1861, the American Civil War started. The Confederates from the south wanted slavery to continue. The Unionists from the north wanted slavery to become illegal. I joined the Union Army, which fought for the north. An army captain, James Montgomery, heard about me. He discovered that I helped slaves to escape before the war. And he wanted my help. He wanted slaves to fight for freedom in the Union Army. I took a team of spies to the south and found slaves who wanted to join us. It was dangerous work, but we were very successful. On one trip, 700 slaves agreed to escape and they became soldiers.

On 9th April 1865, the war ended. What could I do with my life now? I decided to fight for equal rights for black people and for women. I spoke at public meetings and I tried to help black people who were poor and old.

*

In 1896, I bought some land and, in 1903, I gave the land to my church. I wanted the church to start a home for black people who were poor and elderly. In 1908, the home opened for the first time.

As I looked back at my life, I was very proud. I was happy that I helped so many people to find freedom.

Chapter two

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858-1928

The woman who wanted women to be able to vote

I campaigned all my life for equal rights for women.

I started a political group which fought for the vote for women in Britain. After many years of protests, we finally won the right for British women to vote.

When I was born in 1858, women in Britain didn't have the same rights as men. Most women couldn't go to school or university. They were only allowed to work in certain jobs. And they didn't have the right to vote.

I grew up in Manchester in the north of England and I saw many problems every day. Mothers had to bring up children in small, dirty houses. Disease was everywhere because of the terrible conditions. And most women only lived until they were around 50 years old. I knew from a young age that I wanted to improve women's lives.

My parents believed in human rights. They believed that education was a right for women as well as men. In 1873, my parents sent me to school in Paris. They wanted me to get a wider view of the world.

*

In Paris, I was disappointed to discover that women were still not equal with men after the French Revolution. Action was needed and I returned to England to begin the fight.

In Britain, the political situation was quite unusual. Our ruler was a woman, Queen Victoria. She was a powerful leader, but she wasn't interested in women's rights. Our politicians were all men and they definitely weren't interested in political equality for women.

In 1879, I was surprised to discover a man who was campaigning for women's rights. His name was Richard Pankhurst and he was a lawyer. We shared many of the same beliefs and ideas. We got married and started a family.

*

For almost 20 years, Richard and I fought for political rights for women. Then, sadly, my dear husband died. My daughters and I were very sad, but we decided to continue our campaign. The two oldest daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, became activists. In 1903, we started the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). It was a group that fought for the right for women to vote. Christabel became one of our bravest leaders. Sylvia was an artist and she designed our posters and signs.

The WSPU organized many public meetings and protests. Sometimes the police arrested our members. Christabel was one of the first to go to prison. When our members were in prison, we protested. And when our members came out of prison, we celebrated in the streets. It was very important to get public attention.

Unfortunately, the government didn't agree with our campaign. We had to take more powerful action. Some of our members began to break the law. They lit fires in buildings and broke windows. Our campaign was a war for these women. For me, it was always a fight for equal rights.

Every time I was arrested, I told the judge. 'We don't want to break laws, we want to make new laws.' But the lawyers and politicians didn't want to listen.

In 1910, Prime Minister Asquith, the government leader, stopped a new law that gave women the vote. We were shocked and angry. On Friday, 18th November, I led a group of women to meet the Prime Minister, but he refused to see us. We started to protest in the street and 100 women were arrested. It was a terrible day. We called it 'Black Friday'.

*

In 1914 the First World War began and we agreed to stop our campaign. Women were now needed as nurses in hospitals and to work in factories and on farms. In 1917, we started a new group with a new name, The Women's Party. In 1918, the First World War ended. The government realized that women were an important part of the victory in the war.

At last, women were given the right to vote - but only women over 30 years old who owned a home could vote. Any man over 21 could vote. We still didn't have full equality!

After the war, I went to live in the USA, Canada and also Bermuda. In 1926, I returned to England. I wanted to become a politician, but my health wasn't good enough. In 1928, only three weeks before I died, a new law gave women the same right to vote as men. It took much longer than we hoped. But in the end our campaign was successful and at last we won political equality for women.

Chapter three

Maria Montessori

1870 - 1952

The doctor who discovered a new way to teach children

I was the first woman to get a medical degree in Italy.

I helped children with mental problems to learn. I then created a special method to teach all children. Many schools around the world still use my method.

When I was a little girl, my mother always told me, 'Be kind to others.' Every day, she asked me to make clothes for poor people. We lived in Chiaravalle in Italy and a lot of poor families lived near our home.

Fortunately, my parents had enough money to send me to school. My father had traditional ideas about women. He wanted me to get married and stay at home. So he didn't want me to continue my education after primary school. But my mother was very different and she encouraged me to study.

In 1883, I started at secondary school and after that I went to a technical college. I did well in maths and physics, but later I became very interested in biology. I decided to become a doctor. It wasn't an easy decision to make. Only men studied for medical degrees at that time. Would a medical school accept me?

*

In 1890, I began a course in science at the University of Rome. I did very well in this degree and at last the university's medical school accepted me. Some of the teachers and students didn't want me to study there. But I worked hard and in 1896, I was the first woman in Italy to become a doctor.

The university had a special hospital for children with mental problems. I wanted to help the children to communicate and to learn. I wanted to improve their lives. But how could I do this? I began to study and give talks about this question.

In 1898, I became a director of a school in Rome for children with mental problems. At that time, people called these children horrible things, such as 'crazy' or 'idiots'. But these children were just different. And they needed to learn in a different way. My teachers and I showed the children what to do. Slowly, we made progress with this practical method. We showed the children simple actions, such as how to eat or wash or play games. The children copied these actions and then we repeated them again and again.

*

In 1906, the government asked me to work in a different school for very young children from poor families. I changed the classrooms and took away the rows of desks. We used small tables and encouraged the children to play. We created educational toys that the children could touch and feel. They learned by playing.


Amazing Women by Helen Parker (1)

Chapter one

Harriet Tubman

c. 1820 - 1913

The slave who escaped and helped hundreds of other slaves to escape 逃げ出し、他の何百人もの奴隷が逃げるのを助けた奴隷

I escaped from slavery in the south of the USA. 私はアメリカ南部の奴隷制から脱出した。 I then helped hundreds of other slaves to escape to the north of the USA and Canada. それから私は他の何百人もの奴隷がアメリカとカナダの北に逃げるのを手伝いました。 I also freed hundreds of slaves who wanted to fight in the Civil War. 私はまた、南北戦争で戦いたいと思っていた何百人もの奴隷を解放しました。

My parents were slaves for the Brodess family in Maryland, USA. 私の両親は、米国メリーランド州のブロデス家の奴隷でした。 I was the fifth of nine children. 私は9人の子供の5番目でした。 At the age of 6, I started work as a nursemaid for another family. 6歳の時、私は別の家族のナースメイドとして働き始めました。 After that I had to work in the woods and fields. その後、私は森と野原で働かなければなりませんでした。 Our owners did not think of us as people. 私たちの所有者は私たちを人とは考えていませんでした。 For them, we were like animals or machines. 彼らにとって、私たちは動物や機械のようでした。 If we did something wrong, they hit us or punished us in horrible ways. 私たちが何か間違ったことをした場合、彼らは私たちを殴ったり、恐ろしい方法で私たちを罰したりしました。

In 1831, at the age of 11, I started to do the same work as the adult slaves. 1831年、11歳の時、私は大人の奴隷と同じ仕事をし始めました。 Every day we had to work for many hours in the fields. Around this time, I received an injury, which I never forgot. この頃、忘れられない怪我をしました。 I refused to stop a slave who was escaping. 私は逃げていた奴隷を止めることを拒否した。 The slave's owner threw a metal weight at the slave, but it hit me on the head. 奴隷の所有者は奴隷に金属の重りを投げましたが、それは私を頭にぶつけました。 It hurt a lot and this injury gave me headaches for the rest of my life. それはとても痛く、この怪我は私の人生の残りの間私に頭痛を与えました。

***

In 1849, I was brave and tried to escape. 1849年、私は勇敢で逃げようとしました。 I was married by then, but my marriage was very unhappy and I hated the thought of another year of slavery. 私はそれまでに結婚していましたが、結婚はとても不幸で、もう1年の奴隷制の考えが嫌いでした。 Two of my brothers agreed to come with me. 私の兄弟のうちの2人は私と一緒に来ることに同意しました。 We wanted to reach the north of the USA, where slavery was illegal. 私たちは奴隷制が違法であったアメリカの北部に行きたかったのです。 I could live there as a free woman. 私は自由な女性としてそこに住むことができました。

We made good progress towards the north, but then we heard some bad news. 北に向かって順調に進んでいましたが、悪い知らせがありました。 Our owner was offering $300 to anyone who caught us. 私たちの所有者は私たちを捕まえた人に300ドルを提供していました。 My brothers became frightened and we decided to return to Maryland. 私の兄弟はおびえたので、私たちはメリーランドに戻ることにしました。 We were punished when we returned, but I still wanted to escape. 戻ったときは罰せられましたが、それでも逃げたかったのです。

A short time later, I escaped again. しばらくして、私は再び逃げました。 This time I went alone. 今回は一人で行きました。 I travelled at night along quiet roads and paths. 私は夜、静かな道や小道を旅しました。 Some kind people helped me on the way. They gave me food and a place to sleep. Finally, I arrived in the city of Philadelphia in the north. The journey was long and difficult, but it felt wonderful to be free at last. 旅は長くて大変でしたが、ようやく自由になれたのは素晴らしい気分でした。

***

In Philadelphia, I got a job and began to earn money. I missed my parents and my brothers and sisters. I was free and I wanted my family to be free, too. Maybe I could help them to escape? 多分私は彼らが逃げるのを手伝うことができますか?

In 1850, I received some bad news. My niece and her daughters were in danger. Their owner wanted to sell them and they didn't want to go to different families. I decided to return to Maryland to free them. I had to help them to escape. We travelled at night and used the stars to find our way to the north. 私たちは夜に旅行し、星を使って北への道を見つけました。

After helping my niece and her daughters, I helped many other slaves to escape. I offered to help my husband, John Tubman, too, but he didn't want to leave the south. 私は夫のジョン・タブマンも助けることを申し出ましたが、彼は南部を離れたくありませんでした。 He didn't want to be with me any more, so our marriage ended.

Soon, a new law made things a lot more difficult for me. すぐに、新しい法律は私にとって物事をはるかに難しくしました。 It became illegal to help a slave to escape in the USA. アメリカで奴隷が逃げるのを手伝うことは違法になりました。 I had to find a new route - to Canada, where slavery was illegal. 奴隷制が違法だったカナダへの新しいルートを見つけなければなりませんでした。

***

In 1857, I went on a very special journey to help my parents. 1857 年、私は両親を助けるために非常に特別な旅に出ました。 They weren't slaves any more, but their life in the south was very difficult. They were very happy to see me again and wanted to go with me to Canada. Our journey was very slow and difficult because my parents were old. We had a big celebration when we finally arrived in Ontario, Canada.

In 1861, the American Civil War started. The Confederates from the south wanted slavery to continue. 南軍は奴隷制の継続を望んでいた。 The Unionists from the north wanted slavery to become illegal. 北のユニオニストは奴隷制が違法になることを望んでいた。 I joined the Union Army, which fought for the north. 北軍と戦った北軍に加わった。 An army captain, James Montgomery, heard about me. He discovered that I helped slaves to escape before the war. And he wanted my help. He wanted slaves to fight for freedom in the Union Army. I took a team of spies to the south and found slaves who wanted to join us. 私はスパイのチームを南に連れて行き、私たちに加わりたい奴隷を見つけました。 It was dangerous work, but we were very successful. On one trip, 700 slaves agreed to escape and they became soldiers. ある旅行で、700人の奴隷が逃げることに同意し、彼らは兵士になりました。

On 9th April 1865, the war ended. What could I do with my life now? 私は今私の人生で何ができるでしょうか? I decided to fight for equal rights for black people and for women. 私は黒人と女性の平等な権利のために戦うことにしました。 I spoke at public meetings and I tried to help black people who were poor and old.

***

In 1896, I bought some land and, in 1903, I gave the land to my church. 1896年に土地を購入し、1903年にその土地を教会に譲渡しました。 I wanted the church to start a home for black people who were poor and elderly. In 1908, the home opened for the first time.

As I looked back at my life, I was very proud. I was happy that I helped so many people to find freedom.

Chapter two

Emmeline Pankhurst

1858-1928

The woman who wanted women to be able to vote 女性が投票できるようにしたかった女性

I campaigned all my life for equal rights for women. 私は一生、女性の平等な権利のためにキャンペーンを行いました。

I started a political group which fought for the vote for women in Britain. 私はイギリスで女性の投票のために戦った政治グループを始めました。 After many years of protests, we finally won the right for British women to vote. 長年の抗議の末、私たちはついに英国の女性が投票する権利を獲得しました。

When I was born in 1858, women in Britain didn't have the same rights as men. 私が1858年に生まれたとき、英国の女性は男性と同じ権利を持っていませんでした。 Most women couldn't go to school or university. ほとんどの女性は学校や大学に行くことができませんでした。 They were only allowed to work in certain jobs. 彼らは特定の仕事でのみ働くことを許可されました。 And they didn't have the right to vote. そして彼らには投票する権利がありませんでした。

I grew up in Manchester in the north of England and I saw many problems every day. Mothers had to bring up children in small, dirty houses. 母親は小さな汚れた家で子供を育てなければなりませんでした。 Disease was everywhere because of the terrible conditions. ひどい状態のために病気はいたるところにありました。 And most women only lived until they were around 50 years old. そして、ほとんどの女性は、50歳くらいになるまでしか生きていませんでした。 I knew from a young age that I wanted to improve women's lives. 私は若い頃から女性の生活を向上させたいと思っていました。

My parents believed in human rights. They believed that education was a right for women as well as men. 彼らは、教育は男性だけでなく女性にとっても正しいと信じていました。 In 1873, my parents sent me to school in Paris. 1873年、両親は私をパリの学校に送りました。 They wanted me to get a wider view of the world. 彼らは私に世界のより広い視野を得ることを望んでいました。

***

In Paris, I was disappointed to discover that women were still not equal with men after the French Revolution. パリでは、フランス革命後も女性が男性と同等ではないことに気づき、がっかりしました。 Action was needed and I returned to England to begin the fight. 行動が必要でした、そして私は戦いを始めるためにイギリスに戻りました。

In Britain, the political situation was quite unusual. 英国では、政治情勢は非常に珍しいものでした。 Our ruler was a woman, Queen Victoria. She was a powerful leader, but she wasn't interested in women's rights. Our politicians were all men and they definitely weren't interested in political equality for women. 私たちの政治家はすべて男性であり、女性の政治的平等には絶対に興味がありませんでした。

In 1879, I was surprised to discover a man who was campaigning for women's rights. 1879年、私は女性の権利のために運動している男性を発見して驚いた。 His name was Richard Pankhurst and he was a lawyer. We shared many of the same beliefs and ideas. 私たちは同じ信念やアイデアの多くを共有しました。 We got married and started a family.

***

For almost 20 years, Richard and I fought for political rights for women. Then, sadly, my dear husband died. My daughters and I were very sad, but we decided to continue our campaign. The two oldest daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, became activists. 2人の長女、クリスタベルとシルビアが活動家になりました。 In 1903, we started the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU). 1903年、私たちはWomen's Social and Political Union(WSPU)を設立しました。 It was a group that fought for the right for women to vote. それは女性の投票権を求めて戦ったグループでした。 Christabel became one of our bravest leaders. Christabelは私たちの最も勇敢なリーダーの1人になりました。 Sylvia was an artist and she designed our posters and signs.

The WSPU organized many public meetings and protests. WSPUは、多くの公開会議と抗議を組織しました。 Sometimes the police arrested our members. Christabel was one of the first to go to prison. When our members were in prison, we protested. And when our members came out of prison, we celebrated in the streets. そして、私たちのメンバーが刑務所から出てきたとき、私たちは通りで祝いました。 It was very important to get public attention. 世間の注目を集めることは非常に重要でした。

Unfortunately, the government didn't agree with our campaign. 残念ながら、政府は私たちのキャンペーンに同意しませんでした。 We had to take more powerful action. もっと強力な行動をとらなければなりませんでした。 Some of our members began to break the law. 私たちのメンバーの何人かは法律を破り始めました。 They lit fires in buildings and broke windows. 彼らは建物に火をつけ、窓を壊した。 Our campaign was a war for these women. 私たちのキャンペーンはこれらの女性のための戦争でした。 For me, it was always a fight for equal rights. 私にとって、それは常に平等な権利のための戦いでした。

Every time I was arrested, I told the judge. 私は逮捕されるたびに裁判官に話しました。 'We don't want to break laws, we want to make new laws.' 「私たちは法律を破りたくはありません。私たちは新しい法律を作りたいのです。」 But the lawyers and politicians didn't want to listen.

In 1910, Prime Minister Asquith, the government leader, stopped a new law that gave women the vote. 1910年、政府の指導者であるアスキス首相は、女性に投票権を与える新しい法律を停止しました。 We were shocked and angry. On Friday, 18th November, I led a group of women to meet the Prime Minister, but he refused to see us. We started to protest in the street and 100 women were arrested. 私たちは通りで抗議し始め、100人の女性が逮捕されました。 It was a terrible day. We called it 'Black Friday'.

***

In 1914 the First World War began and we agreed to stop our campaign. Women were now needed as nurses in hospitals and to work in factories and on farms. 現在、女性は病院で看護師として、工場や農場で働く必要がありました。 In 1917, we started a new group with a new name, The Women's Party. 1917年に、私たちは新しい名前の新しいグループ、TheWomen'sPartyを開始しました。 In 1918, the First World War ended. The government realized that women were an important part of the victory in the war. 政府は、女性が戦争での勝利の重要な部分であることに気づきました。

At last, women were given the right to vote - but only women over 30 years old who owned a home could vote. ついに女性に投票権が与えられたが、家を所有していた30歳以上の女性だけが投票できた。 Any man over 21 could vote. We still didn't have full equality!

After the war, I went to live in the USA, Canada and also Bermuda. In 1926, I returned to England. I wanted to become a politician, but my health wasn't good enough. In 1928, only three weeks before I died, a new law gave women the same right to vote as men. 私が亡くなるわずか3週間前の1928年、新しい法律により、女性は男性と同じ選挙権を与えられました。 It took much longer than we hoped. 思ったよりずっと時間がかかりました。 But in the end our campaign was successful and at last we won political equality for women.

Chapter three

Maria Montessori

1870 - 1952

The doctor who discovered a new way to teach children

I was the first woman to get a medical degree in Italy.

I helped children with mental problems to learn. 私は精神的な問題を抱える子供たちが学ぶのを手伝いました。 I then created a special method to teach all children. 次に、すべての子供に教えるための特別な方法を作成しました。 Many schools around the world still use my method. 世界中の多くの学校が今でも私の方法を使用しています。

When I was a little girl, my mother always told me, 'Be kind to others.' Every day, she asked me to make clothes for poor people. 彼女は毎日、貧しい人々のために服を作るように私に頼みました。 We lived in Chiaravalle in Italy and a lot of poor families lived near our home.

Fortunately, my parents had enough money to send me to school. My father had traditional ideas about women. 私の父は女性についての伝統的な考えを持っていました。 He wanted me to get married and stay at home. So he didn't want me to continue my education after primary school. それで彼は私が小学校を卒業した後も私の教育を続けることを望んでいませんでした。 But my mother was very different and she encouraged me to study. しかし、私の母は非常に異なっていて、彼女は私に勉強するように勧めました。

In 1883, I started at secondary school and after that I went to a technical college. I did well in maths and physics, but later I became very interested in biology. 私は数学と物理学でうまくいきましたが、後で生物学に非常に興味を持つようになりました。 I decided to become a doctor. It wasn't an easy decision to make. 簡単な決断ではありませんでした。 Only men studied for medical degrees at that time. 当時、医学の学位を取得するために勉強したのは男性だけでした。 Would a medical school accept me? 医学部は私を受け入れますか?

***

In 1890, I began a course in science at the University of Rome. 1890年、私はローマ大学で科学のコースを始めました。 I did very well in this degree and at last the university's medical school accepted me. 私はこの学位で非常にうまくいき、ついに大学の医学部が私を受け入れました。 Some of the teachers and students didn't want me to study there. 先生や生徒の何人かは私がそこで勉強することを望んでいませんでした。 But I worked hard and in 1896, I was the first woman in Italy to become a doctor. しかし、私は一生懸命働き、1896年に私はイタリアで最初に医者になった女性でした。

The university had a special hospital for children with mental problems. I wanted to help the children to communicate and to learn. I wanted to improve their lives. 私は彼らの生活を改善したかった。 But how could I do this? しかし、どうすればこれを行うことができますか? I began to study and give talks about this question. 私はこの質問について勉強し、話し始めました。

In 1898, I became a director of a school in Rome for children with mental problems. 1898年、私はローマの精神障害児のための学校の校長になりました。 At that time, people called these children horrible things, such as 'crazy' or 'idiots'. 当時、人々はこれらの子供たちを「クレイジー」や「バカ」などの恐ろしいものと呼んでいました。 But these children were just different. しかし、これらの子供たちはただ異なっていました。 And they needed to learn in a different way. そして、彼らは別の方法で学ぶ必要がありました。 My teachers and I showed the children what to do. 先生と私は子供たちに何をすべきかを示しました。 Slowly, we made progress with this practical method. ゆっくりと、この実用的な方法で進歩しました。 We showed the children simple actions, such as how to eat or wash or play games. 食べたり、洗ったり、ゲームをしたりするなど、簡単な行動を子供たちに示しました。 The children copied these actions and then we repeated them again and again.

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In 1906, the government asked me to work in a different school for very young children from poor families. 1906年、政府は私に貧しい家庭の非常に幼い子供たちのために別の学校で働くように頼みました。 I changed the classrooms and took away the rows of desks. 私は教室を変えて、机の列を取り除いた。 We used small tables and encouraged the children to play. 私たちは小さなテーブルを使い、子供たちに遊ぶように勧めました。 We created educational toys that the children could touch and feel. 子どもたちが触れて感じることができる知育玩具を作りました。 They learned by playing. 彼らは遊ぶことによって学びました。