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Crash Course European History, The 17th Century Crisis: Crash Course European History #11 (1)

The 17th Century Crisis: Crash Course European History #11 (1)

Hi I'm John Green.

This is Crash Course European History and today we're going to look at what is sometimes

called the “seventeenth century crisis.”

Now I know what you're thinking: This whole history business is just one crisis after

another.

And yes, dear viewer, it's true.

Humankind careens from disaster to disaster, but still we press on, like boats against

the current, and sometimes we even learn from previous disasters.

And since the Seventeenth Century Crisis involves climate change and catastrophic war, we should

maybe pay attention to this one.

[Intro] Let's begin with the Little Ice Age.

The Little Ice Age began in 1300, but it really escalated beginning in 1570 and then the climate

continued to cool for over one hundred years after that.

It was a global phenomenon.

In some places, the temperature may have shifted two degrees Celsius or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit,

but the average was about half a degree Celsius.

That may not sound dramatic, but it was.

Intense rainfall, lack of sunshine, and lower temperatures decreased harvests or ruined

them entirely.

Europeans suffered hypothermia; the birthrate dropped; and famines became more common--as

did cannibalism.

In New England, the end of the 17th century was the worst part of the Little Ice Age.

1797 was especially brutal: Settler Samuel Sewell noted in his diary: “To Horses, Swine,

Nett-Cattell, Sheep, and Deer, Ninety and Seven prov'd a Mortal yeer.”

Now, unlike contemporary climate change, the Little Ice Age was not caused primarily by

human behavior--it may have been caused by volcanic activity or orbital cycles or cyclical

lows in solar radiation.

We like to think of the Earth's climate as entirely stable, but it never has been.

That said, contemporary climate change IS caused by humans--and even the most ambitious

goals to limit it would result in an average global temperature change of 1.5 degrees celsius,

far higher than the average shifts seen during the catastrophic Little Ice Age.

And something else was also happening in the 17th century that felt as mysterious and strange

as lower temperatures: Higher prices, sometimes called a “price revolution,” that increased

prices for food and other goods.

This was caused partly by the growing population we discussed in our last episode, and partly

by inflation--more precious metals were entering Europe, especially due to mining in the Americas,

which decreased the value of coinage.

But this was really baffling for people--I mean, imagine that you're living in Spain

in the 17th century, watching precious metals pour into your country via the New World,

and despite all this new wealth, you're finding it harder to pay for bread, and clothing,

and almost everything else.

Inflation, like climate, is extremely complex, and also a hugely important historical force.

And so as prices soared and harvests declined, it really did feel like the 17th century might

just be the end.

As one pamphleteer from Spain wrote in 1643: “Every nation is turned upside down, leading

some great minds to suspect that we are approaching the end of the world.”[i]

And then there was the 30 Years War, which unlike the 100 Years War, actually did last

for 30 years.

The war, which took place from 1618 to 1648, was tremendously destructive in Central Europe--millions

of people were killed, including many from starvation brought on by the war.

Many different states within the quickly fracturing Holy Roman Empire were involved,

as were France and Sweden and Denmark and England.

The war started in 1618 over, you guessed it, religion.

It began when Ferdinand II, the devotedly Catholic new Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sent

representatives to inform powerful Protestants that Prague and the rest of Bohemia would

be Catholic territory from now on.

Unsurprisingly, the Protestant lords in Prague weren't terribly happy with this news.

In fact, the were so unhappy that they threw Ferdinand's representatives out--literally,

out the window, in the so-called Defenestration of Prague.

Did the center of the world just open?

Is there a window in there?

Now, this is a famous moment in European history, in part because it's called the Defensetration

of Prague, which is just irresistible, but in part because it was the SECOND defenestration

of Prague.

The first one occured in 1419 and resulted in the deaths of seven people, the second

one, the one we're concerned with now, resulted in the deaths of no people, because all four

of the defenestrated landed in a pile of manure.

Ferdinand's people, of course, called this a divine miracle, while the Protestants were

like, “they landed in poop!”

Ah, god I love history.

Soon after the defenestration, Ferdinand II was elected Holy Roman Emperor, which led

the Protestant Czechs to reject him as king of Bohemia, and choose the protestant Frederick

V of the Palitanate to replace him, and then war truly erupted.

The Czechs would be initially defeated by Hapsburg forces in the Battle of White Mountain

in 1620, and the Hapsburg family would in fact rule the area until 1918.

But that didn't settle the war--nor, in fact, did Ferdinand's next victories.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

1.

So on the one hand you have the imperial forces,

2. led by the Catholic Hapsburg Ferdinand II,

3. and on the other hand you have protestant Frederick V

4. and his allies among the protestant aristocrats of central Europe.

5.

The Hapsburgs went on to crush Frederick's allies.

6.

In the 1620s, Ferdinand took the Palatinate from the defeated Frederick

7. and awarded it to his Catholic ally, Maximilian of Bavaria.

8.

Ferdinand then awarded other lands to Catholic allies

9.

that had belonged to defeated protestant princes,

10. and he decreed that in conquered territories those who had bought Catholic lands, like

monasteries, had to return them.

11.

Furthermore, all citizens needed to return to the Catholic Church or else leave their

homes.

12.

The Little Ice Age, inflation, and war had crashed the economies,

13.

making it difficult for people to dispose of their property before they moved.

14.

And we see this again--and again and again--in refugee crises throughout history.

15.

So it seemed the Catholics Hapsburgs were going to win,

16.

but then the Protestant king of Denmark, Christian IV, a hugely wealthy ruler,

17. decided to enter the war to block imperial expansion,

18.

protect Protestants,

19. and preserve the traditional rights of the many hundreds of independent kingdoms,

and duchies, and cities in the Holy Roman Empire.

20.

And that meant that the war, instead of being over, was just getting started.

Thanks, Thought Bubble.

So, Emperor Ferdinand hired the wealthy Albrecht von Wallenstein to confront the Danish menace

and to continue conquering the Protestant princes in the empire, thus restoring more

property to the Catholic Church.

Wallenstein was Czech- and he'd been born a Protestant, but he'd converted to Catholicism

as a teenager and then married a widow who died a few years after their marriage, leaving

him a lot of property.

But that was just the beginning of Wallenstein gaining property via death and/or marriage.

Wallenstein did his conquering with such gusto and success that Ferdinand constantly rewarded

him with more estates.

And when Wallenstein married again, he gained even more wealth and prestige.

He started out as hired help, but eventually grew to be powerful in his own right.

It's a real Holy Roman Empire Dream story.

You know, you start out in the war-making mailroom, and then eventually work your way

up to being the CEO of war.

He raised armies of tens of thousands of fighters who laid waste Protestant lands and slaughtered

hundreds of thousands of people.

He also had army officers go house-to-house, collecting regular contributions or “taxes”

to support the ever growing military forces.

And as he built his army, he justified raising taxes.

Wallenstein expanded the battlefield, in the 30 years war, by seeking out any nearby Protestants

whose lands could be captured and returned to the Catholic side, thereby bringing new

entrants into the war.

The Netherlands came to the Palatinate's rescue; Spain, Italian states, and France

also got involved, as did Sweden, a military powerhouse at the time.

Unlike today, when the Swedes are primarily a Flat Packed Home Goods powerhouse.

Then in 1626, Danish King Christian IV, a Protestant, lost half his army in the battle

of Lutter.

Ferdinand II's confidence soared, and with it his counter-reformation zeal; in 1629 he

issued the Edict of Restitution—a sweeping confiscation of formerly Catholic lands and

a harsh directive for non-Catholics to emigrate.

And Ferdinand was merciless.

When his armies would defeat the rebels, Ferdinand had those taken prisoner disemboweled after

their right hands were hacked off.

His German prince allies counseled moderation, but Ferdinand preferred the advice of his

Jesuit priest to push the Counter-Reformation ever further.

Ferdinand, his confessor announced, could “lose all his kingdoms and provinces and

whatever he has in this world, provided he save his soul.”[ii] So there would be no

compromise.

Then in 1631, Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus defeated the imperial army at the Battle of

Breitenfeld, the first major Protestant victory of the war, which was by then thirteen years

old.

Though Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle the next year, that Catholic defeat heartened

Protestant forces, who kept the war going.

Meanwhile, the war stopped being about JUST religion.

For instance, Louis XIII of France had allied himself with the Swedish king, even though

Louis was Catholic and the Swedes were Protestant, because Louis didn't want the Holy Roman

Empire to become too powerful.

Over time, the daily realities of the war became even more brutal, as armies simply

wandered across central Europe killing and scrounging for food.

Young and old peasants and townspeople were stabbed or captured and tortured to death

as waves of soldiers went from house to house.

The first waves took obvious treasure, and then each successive wave settled on smaller

objects like copper and other base metal coins or tiny silver trinkets.

Those were the minor offenses.

Roasting people alive, torturing people's genitals until victims died, and raping girls

to death now became standard behavior in the war.

Meanwhile, civilians were also dying of hunger, and cold, and disease.

The little ice age was taking its toll along with the armies, who fought in the name of

the Catholic, or Lutheran, or Calvinist cause or just merely to survive.

Desperate refugee families were forced to leave their homes to start over dozens of

times.

Just one example of the horror: in Protestant Magdeberg, city officials faced an imperial

army and its mercenaries at the city limits in the fall of 1630.

And over the course of seven months devastation unfolded.

Residents harassed the Catholic invaders, hurling rocks and other objects on them from

the city's ramparts.

And once the imperial armies breached the walls, they started to torch the city.

Magdeberg's citizens struggled to escape both the armies and the fire.

Of 25,000 citizens, only 5,000 were left at the end of the battle for the city--which

was in the end destroyed by fire.

In 1634, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II had his own general Wallenstein assassinated,

because it appeared that Wallenstein was plotting to make peace with Sweden and perhaps planning

a coup, although why anyone would want to be the Holy Roman Emperor at that point is

an absolute mystery to me.

But the war continued.

The 1640s brought more horrendous weather, and disorder reigned as social and political

systems completely fell apart.

There was often little in the way of a functioning government; economies completely collapsed;

and all manner of social norms broke down.

There were, for instance, many reports of cannibalism.

And public spaces became additionally dangerous when wolves and other wild animals arrived

in villages and private farms.

Finally, in 1648, the Peace of Westphalia finally brought the war to an end.

Even hard-headed theologians by that time allowed concessions to the other religion

in order to obtain peace.

And the fact that French Catholics uniting with Swedish and other Protestants led to

the conclusion that this maybe meant the end of religious war—at least in Europe, at



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The 17th Century Crisis: Crash Course European History #11 (1)

Hi I'm John Green. Merhaba, ben John Green.

This is Crash Course European History and today we're going to look at what is sometimes Crash Course- Avrupa tarihini izliyorsunuz ve bugün.

called the “seventeenth century crisis.” 17\. yüzyıl krizi diye anılan durumdan bahsedeceğiz.

Now I know what you're thinking: This whole history business is just one crisis after Aklınızdan geçeni biliyorum: Bu tarih de krizden krize ilerliyor.

another. Evet sayın izleyici, doğrudur.

And yes, dear viewer, it's true.

Humankind careens from disaster to disaster, but still we press on, like boats against

the current, and sometimes we even learn from previous disasters.

And since the Seventeenth Century Crisis involves climate change and catastrophic war, we should

maybe pay attention to this one.

[Intro] Let's begin with the Little Ice Age. Simdi, kucuk buz cagiyla baslayalim.

The Little Ice Age began in 1300, but it really escalated beginning in 1570 and then the climate Kucuk buz cagi 1300 de basladi, 1570 ten itibaren oldukca hiz kazandi,

continued to cool for over one hundred years after that. ve iklim bir yuzyil boyunca daha sogumaya devam etti.

It was a global phenomenon. Kuresel olcekte bir olaydi.

In some places, the temperature may have shifted two degrees Celsius or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, Bazi bolgelerde, sicakliklar 2 santigrat veya 3.6 Fahrenheit a kadar degisti,

but the average was about half a degree Celsius. fakat ortalama 0.5 santigrat dereceydi.

That may not sound dramatic, but it was. Kulaga cok buyuk gelmeyebilir ama oyleydi.

Intense rainfall, lack of sunshine, and lower temperatures decreased harvests or ruined Yogun yagislar, gunessiz gunler, dusuk sicakliklar ekin hasatlarini ya azaltti

them entirely. ya da tamamen bitirdi.

Europeans suffered hypothermia; the birthrate dropped; and famines became more common--as Avrupalilar hipotermiden muzdaripti, dogum oranlari dustu, ve kitliklar daha gorulur hala geldi

did cannibalism. hatta beraberinde yamyamlik.

In New England, the end of the 17th century was the worst part of the Little Ice Age. New England ta, 17. yuzyilin sonu Kucuk Buz Cagi'nin en kotu zamaniydi.

1797 was especially brutal: Settler Samuel Sewell noted in his diary: “To Horses, Swine, Ozellikle 1797 daha olumculdu: yerlesimci Samuel Sewell gunlugune soyle not etmisti: Atlara, domuzlara,

Nett-Cattell, Sheep, and Deer, Ninety and Seven prov'd a Mortal yeer.” Nett Catell, koyunlar ve geyiklere; gosterdi 97 olumcullugunu.

Now, unlike contemporary climate change, the Little Ice Age was not caused primarily by Gunumuz iklim degisikliginden farkli olarak, Kucuk Buz Cagi, aslinda insanlarin sebep oldugu

human behavior--it may have been caused by volcanic activity or orbital cycles or cyclical bir olay degildi-volkanik hareketlilik, yorungesel degisiklikler ve gunes radyasyonundaki

lows in solar radiation. dongusel azalmalardan kaynaklaniyordu.

We like to think of the Earth's climate as entirely stable, but it never has been. Dunyanin iklimini tamamen sabitmis gibi dusunebiliriz, ama aslinda hicbir zaman oyle olmadi.

That said, contemporary climate change IS caused by humans--and even the most ambitious Bununla birlikte, gunumuz iklim degisikligine insanlar sebep oluyor ve bunu onlemeye yonelik

goals to limit it would result in an average global temperature change of 1.5 degrees celsius, en iddiali hedefler bile ortalama kuresel sicaklikta 1.5 santigratlik bir degisimi ongoruyor

far higher than the average shifts seen during the catastrophic Little Ice Age. ki bu bile Kucuk Buz Cagi'ndaki degisimden kat be kat fazla.

And something else was also happening in the 17th century that felt as mysterious and strange Ayrica 17. yuzyilda bu ilginc ve bilinmeyen dusuk sicakliklarin yaninda birsey daha oluyordu:

as lower temperatures: Higher prices, sometimes called a “price revolution,” that increased bazen 'fiyat devrimi' olarak da adlandirilan yuksek enflasyon

prices for food and other goods. yiyecek ve diger mallarin fiyatlarini yukseltiyordu.

This was caused partly by the growing population we discussed in our last episode, and partly Bunun sebebi bir miktar son bolumde bahsettigimiz artan nufustan,

by inflation--more precious metals were entering Europe, especially due to mining in the Americas, bir miktar da Amerika cikarilan degerli metallerin Avrupa girmesinde kaynakli, metal paralarin

which decreased the value of coinage. deger kaybi yani enflasyondu.

But this was really baffling for people--I mean, imagine that you're living in Spain Bu insanlar icin oldukca anlamasi guctu. Dusunun ki 17. yuzyil Ispanya'sinda yasiyorsunuz,

in the 17th century, watching precious metals pour into your country via the New World, Yeni Dunya'dan ulkenize gelen degerli metalleri izliyorsunuz,

and despite all this new wealth, you're finding it harder to pay for bread, and clothing, ama tum bu yeni zenginlige ragmen ekmek, kiyafet ve nerdeyse diger herseyi

and almost everything else. alabilmek daha zor hale geliyor.

Inflation, like climate, is extremely complex, and also a hugely important historical force. Enflasyon da iklim gibi oldukca karmasik, ve bir o kadar da onemli tarihsel bir guc.

And so as prices soared and harvests declined, it really did feel like the 17th century might Boylece fiyatlar yukseldikce ve hastalar dustukce, 17 yuzyil belki de son yuzyil

just be the end. olabilecegini hissettirdi.

As one pamphleteer from Spain wrote in 1643: “Every nation is turned upside down, leading 1643 te Ispanya'daki bir yazr sunu yazacakti : "Tum uluslar alt ust oldular,

some great minds to suspect that we are approaching the end of the world.”[i] bazi buyuk dusunurler belki de dunyanin sonuna yaklasmakta oldugumuzu soyluyorlar.:

And then there was the 30 Years War, which unlike the 100 Years War, actually did last Dahasi 30 yil savaslari var- 100 yil savaslarini aksine,

for 30 years. gercekten 30 yil surdu.

The war, which took place from 1618 to 1648, was tremendously destructive in Central Europe--millions 1618 den 1648 e kadar suren savas, Orta Avrupa icin olaganustu derecede yikiciydi

of people were killed, including many from starvation brought on by the war. Savasin sebep oldugu kitlikla birlikte milyonlarca insan yasamini kaybetti.

Many different states within the quickly fracturing Holy Roman Empire were involved, Hizlica catirdayan Kutsal Roma Germen Imparatorlugu icindeki bircok devletlerin yaninda

as were France and Sweden and Denmark and England. Fransa, Ingiltere, Isvec ve Danimarka da savasa dahil oldu.

The war started in 1618 over, you guessed it, religion. Savas 1618'de basladi. Dogru tahmin: din uzerinden.

It began when Ferdinand II, the devotedly Catholic new Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sent Habsburg hanedanindan dindar bir Katolik olan 2. Ferdinand, Bohemya'nin yeni krali oldugunda,

representatives to inform powerful Protestants that Prague and the rest of Bohemia would guclu Protestanlara temsilciler yollayarak, Prag ve geri kalan Bohemya'nin

be Catholic territory from now on. artik Katolik oldugunun bilinmesini istedi.

Unsurprisingly, the Protestant lords in Prague weren't terribly happy with this news. Beklenildigi gibi, Protestan lordlar bu haber karsisinda cok da mutlu olmadilar.

In fact, the were so unhappy that they threw Ferdinand's representatives out--literally, Hatta, o kadar mutsuzlardi ki, `Defenestration of Prague' denilen hadiseler boyunca,

out the window, in the so-called Defenestration of Prague. Ferdinand'in temsilcilerini pencedelerden asagi attilar.

Did the center of the world just open? Dunyanin merkezi acildi mi?

Is there a window in there? Pencere mi var orada?

Now, this is a famous moment in European history, in part because it's called the Defensetration Bu olay dogal olarak 'Defenestration of Prag' olarak anilan Avrupa tarihindeki unlu olaylardan biri,

of Prague, which is just irresistible, but in part because it was the SECOND defenestration ancak aslinda bu olay ikinci kez yasaniyordu.

of Prague.

The first one occured in 1419 and resulted in the deaths of seven people, the second Ilk 'Prag pencereden atma' olayi 1419 da yasandi ve 7 kisinin yasamini olumuyle sonuclandi,

one, the one we're concerned with now, resulted in the deaths of no people, because all four suan ilgilendigimiz ikincisinde ise hickimse olmedi

of the defenestrated landed in a pile of manure. cunku olaydaki 4 kisi de gubre yiginlarinin uzerine dustu.

Ferdinand's people, of course, called this a divine miracle, while the Protestants were Ferdinand'in takipcileri tabi ki bu olayi bir mucize olarak gorurken,

like, “they landed in poop!” Protestanlar 'Diskiya dustuler' diye alay ediyorlardi.

Ah, god I love history. Ah Tanrim, tarihe bayiliyorum.

Soon after the defenestration, Ferdinand II was elected Holy Roman Emperor, which led Pencereden atmalardan kisa sure sonra, 2, Ferdinand Roma Germen Imparatoru secilmesi,

the Protestant Czechs to reject him as king of Bohemia, and choose the protestant Frederick Protestan Cek'lerin karsi cikmasina ve Bohemya krali olarak yerine protestan Ren Palatini 5. Frederick'i

V of the Palitanate to replace him, and then war truly erupted. onermeleriyle sonuclandi ve boylece savas baslamis oldu.

The Czechs would be initially defeated by Hapsburg forces in the Battle of White Mountain Cekler baslarda, 1620 White Mountain savasinda yenildiler,

in 1620, and the Hapsburg family would in fact rule the area until 1918. ve Habsburg ailesin bolgeyi 1918 e kadar kontrol altinda tuttu.

But that didn't settle the war--nor, in fact, did Ferdinand's next victories. Fakat ne bu ne de Ferdinand'in diger galibiyetleri savasi sonlandiramadi.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble. Hadi Dusunce Balonuna gidelim.

1.

So on the one hand you have the imperial forces, Bir elimizde Katolik Habsburg Ferdinand

2\. led by the Catholic Hapsburg Ferdinand II, tarafindan yonetilen imparatorluk gucleri var,

3\. and on the other hand you have protestant Frederick V diger elimizde ise protestan Frederick 5 ve

4\. and his allies among the protestant aristocrats of central Europe. orta avrupanin aristokratlarindan olusan muttefikleri var.

5.

The Hapsburgs went on to crush Frederick's allies. Habsburglar Frederick in muttefiklerini yok etmeye devam ettiler.

6.

In the 1620s, Ferdinand took the Palatinate from the defeated Frederick 1620 lerde, Ferdinand maglup ettigi Frederick;in elinden palatinligi aldi

7\. and awarded it to his Catholic ally, Maximilian of Bavaria. ve Katolik muttefigi Bavarya'li Maximilian'a hediye olarak verdi.

8.

Ferdinand then awarded other lands to Catholic allies Sonrasinda da maglup edilen diger protestan prenslere ait topraklari da

9.

that had belonged to defeated protestant princes, baska Katolik muttefiklerine verdi.

10\. and he decreed that in conquered territories those who had bought Catholic lands, like ve fethettigi bolgelerde Katolik kilisesinde satin alinmis topraklarin

monasteries, had to return them. geri verilmesine karar verdi.

11.

Furthermore, all citizens needed to return to the Catholic Church or else leave their Dahasi tum halkin Katolik kilisesine geri donmesi ya da evlerini terk etmesi

homes. istendi.

12.

The Little Ice Age, inflation, and war had crashed the economies, Kucuk Buz cagi, enflasyon ve savas ekonomiyi mahvetti,

13.

making it difficult for people to dispose of their property before they moved. ve evlerini terketmeden once insanlarin esyalarini satabilmesini guclestirdi.

14.

And we see this again--and again and again--in refugee crises throughout history. ve evet, tekrar,tekrar ve tekrar, tarihte bir multeci sorunu daha goruyoruz.

15.

So it seemed the Catholics Hapsburgs were going to win, Katolik Habsburglarin kazanacagi gorulmekteyken,

16.

but then the Protestant king of Denmark, Christian IV, a hugely wealthy ruler, Danimarka'nin varlikli krali Protestan 4. Christian,

17\. decided to enter the war to block imperial expansion, savasa dahil olarak ve imparatorluk guclerini engellemeye

18.

protect Protestants, protestanlari korumaya,

19\. and preserve the traditional rights of the many hundreds of independent kingdoms, ve Roma Germen imparatorlugunun birkac yuz adet bagimsiz krallik, dukalik ve

and duchies, and cities in the Holy Roman Empire. sehirlerinin geleneksel haklarini korumaya karar verdi.

20.

And that meant that the war, instead of being over, was just getting started. ve bu da demek oluyordu ki, savas bitmemis, yeni basliyordu.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. Tesekkurler Dusunce Balonu.

So, Emperor Ferdinand hired the wealthy Albrecht von Wallenstein to confront the Danish menace Boylece, Imparator Ferdinand, varlikli Albrecht von Wallenstein'i, Danimarkalilari karsi koymasi

and to continue conquering the Protestant princes in the empire, thus restoring more ve imparatorluk icindeki Protestan prenslikleri fethederek, Katolik kilisesinin

property to the Catholic Church. varliklarini geri toplamaya devam etmesi icin gorevlendirdi.

Wallenstein was Czech- and he'd been born a Protestant, but he'd converted to Catholicism Wallenstein aslinda bir Cek ti ve protestan olarak dogmustu. Ama genclik yillarinda Katolik oldu ve

as a teenager and then married a widow who died a few years after their marriage, leaving evliliklerinden birkac sene sonra olecek ve ona buyuk bir zenginlik birakacak olan

him a lot of property. bir dul ile evlendi.

But that was just the beginning of Wallenstein gaining property via death and/or marriage. Fakat bu Wallenstein in olum ve/veya evlilik uzerinden servet kazanmasinin daha baslangiciydi

Wallenstein did his conquering with such gusto and success that Ferdinand constantly rewarded Wallenstein fetihlerine keyifle ve basarili bir sekilde devam ederken Ferdinand surekli

him with more estates. onu daha fazla mulk ile odullendiriyordu.

And when Wallenstein married again, he gained even more wealth and prestige. Ve Wallenstein tekrar evlendi ve daha da fazla servet ve prestij kazandi.

He started out as hired help, but eventually grew to be powerful in his own right. Yardim icin gorevlendirilerek baslamisti ama sonunda kendisi buyuk bir guc haline geldi.

It's a real Holy Roman Empire Dream story. Bu tam da gercek bir Roma Germen Imparatorlugu dusuydu.

You know, you start out in the war-making mailroom, and then eventually work your way Bilirsiniz, savas halindeki bir posta odasinda ise baslarsiniz ve yolunuz

up to being the CEO of war. savas CEO su olmaya kadar varir.

He raised armies of tens of thousands of fighters who laid waste Protestant lands and slaughtered Protestan topraklarini yakip yikan ve yuzbinlerce insani katlemek icin

hundreds of thousands of people. onbinlerce kisilik ordular topladi.

He also had army officers go house-to-house, collecting regular contributions or “taxes” Ayrica kapi kapi dolasip surekli buyuyen askeri birlikleri icin duzenli katki yada 'vergi'

to support the ever growing military forces. toplayan subaylari da vardi.

And as he built his army, he justified raising taxes. Ordusu buyudukce, vergiyi artirmayi da hakli buluyordu.

Wallenstein expanded the battlefield, in the 30 years war, by seeking out any nearby Protestants Wallenstein topraklari ele gecirilip Katolik yapilabilecek yakin bolgelere dogru savas alanini daha da genisletti,

whose lands could be captured and returned to the Catholic side, thereby bringing new bu da savasa yeni katilimcilar olmasina

entrants into the war. sebep oldu.

The Netherlands came to the Palatinate's rescue; Spain, Italian states, and France Hollanda Palatinligin yardimina geldi, Ispanya ve Italyan devletler ve Fransa ,

also got involved, as did Sweden, a military powerhouse at the time. ve zamaninin askeri guc odagi olan Isvec de savasa dahil oldu.

Unlike today, when the Swedes are primarily a Flat Packed Home Goods powerhouse. Bugunku parcalari birlestirci ev mobilyalari gucunun aksine.

Then in 1626, Danish King Christian IV, a Protestant, lost half his army in the battle Sonrasinda,1626 da, Danimarka krali 4. Christian, Lutter savasinda ordusunun yarisini

of Lutter. kaybetti.

Ferdinand II's confidence soared, and with it his counter-reformation zeal; in 1629 he Ferdinand'in guveni ve reform karsiti hisleri o kadar yukseldi ki, 1629 da

issued the Edict of Restitution—a sweeping confiscation of formerly Catholic lands and Restorasyon bildirisi diye bilinen, eski Katolik topraklarinin zapti ve Katolik olmayanlarinilan tecritini

a harsh directive for non-Catholics to emigrate. dikte eden sert bildiriyi ilan etti.

And Ferdinand was merciless. Ferdinand acimasizdi.

When his armies would defeat the rebels, Ferdinand had those taken prisoner disemboweled after Ordulari isyancilari maglup ettiginde, Ferdinand esirlerin

their right hands were hacked off. sag ellerini kestirip karinlarini desiyordu

His German prince allies counseled moderation, but Ferdinand preferred the advice of his Alman muttefik prensleri ona ilimlilik tavsiyesinde bulunsalar da, Ferdinand

Jesuit priest to push the Counter-Reformation ever further. Jesuit papazlarin Karsi-Reformu daha da ileriye goturme tavsiyesini dinledi.

Ferdinand, his confessor announced, could “lose all his kingdoms and provinces and Gunah cikardigi bu papaz, Ferdinand'in elindeki tum krallik ve bolgeleri

whatever he has in this world, provided he save his soul.”[ii] So there would be no kaybedebilecegini ama ruhunu kurtardigini ilan etti. Ve bu da

compromise. odun verilmeyecegi anlamina geliyordu.

Then in 1631, Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus defeated the imperial army at the Battle of Sonrasinda 1631 de, Isvec krali Gustavus Adolphus imparatorluk guclerini

Breitenfeld, the first major Protestant victory of the war, which was by then thirteen years Bretenfield savasinda maglup etti, ki 30 yillik savasta ilk buyuk Protestan galibiyetiydi.

old.

Though Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle the next year, that Catholic defeat heartened Gustavus un ertesi yilki savasta olmesine ragmen, bu Katolik galibiyeti

Protestant forces, who kept the war going. Protestan guclerini savasa devam etmek icin yureklendirmisti.

Meanwhile, the war stopped being about JUST religion. Bu arada, savas artik sadece din ile ilgili olmaktan cikti.

For instance, Louis XIII of France had allied himself with the Swedish king, even though Ornegin, Fransa krali 13. Luis, Katolik olmasina ragmen Protestan Isvec kraliyla muttefik olmustu.

Louis was Catholic and the Swedes were Protestant, because Louis didn't want the Holy Roman Cunku Roma Germen Imparatorlugu'nun

Empire to become too powerful. cok guclu hale gelmesini istemiyordu

Over time, the daily realities of the war became even more brutal, as armies simply Zamanla, savasin gercekleri daha vahsi bir hale geldi,

wandered across central Europe killing and scrounging for food. ordular Avrupanin merkezinde basi bos sekilde oldurmeye ve yagmalara basladi.

Young and old peasants and townspeople were stabbed or captured and tortured to death Askerler kapi kapi gezerken genc/yasli koylu ve kasabalilar bicaklaniyor,

as waves of soldiers went from house to house. kaciriliyor, iskenceyle olduruluyordu.

The first waves took obvious treasure, and then each successive wave settled on smaller Ilk dalgalar gorunen hazineleri aldi ve takip eden her dalgada

objects like copper and other base metal coins or tiny silver trinkets. daha degersiz kucuk bakir ve metaller, gumuslere de el konuldu.

Those were the minor offenses. Bunlar ufak suclardi.

Roasting people alive, torturing people's genitals until victims died, and raping girls Insanlari canli canli yakmak, cinsel bolgelerine olume yolacan iskenceler yapmak,

to death now became standard behavior in the war. tecevuz ederek oldurmek savasta olagan olaylar haline geldi.

Meanwhile, civilians were also dying of hunger, and cold, and disease. Bu arada, halka acliktan, soguktan ve hastaliktan olmeye devam ediyordu.

The little ice age was taking its toll along with the armies, who fought in the name of Kucuk buzul cagi da Katolizm,Luteriyen, Kalvinistlik adina ya da sadece canli kalmak icin savasan

the Catholic, or Lutheran, or Calvinist cause or just merely to survive. ordularla birlikte zarar vermeye devam ediyordu.

Desperate refugee families were forced to leave their homes to start over dozens of Caresiz multeci aileler duzinelerce kez evlerini terk etmeye zorlaniyordu.

times.

Just one example of the horror: in Protestant Magdeberg, city officials faced an imperial Dehsetin sadece ufak bir ornegini vermek gerekirse: 1630 sonbaharinda, Protestan Magdeburg sehri, imparatorluk askerleri

army and its mercenaries at the city limits in the fall of 1630. ve parali askerlerden olusan bir orduyla karsilastilar.

And over the course of seven months devastation unfolded. Ve 7 ay boyunca talan gozler onune serildi.

Residents harassed the Catholic invaders, hurling rocks and other objects on them from Sehir sakinleri, surlar uzerinden taslar atarak Katolik istilacilari

the city's ramparts. taciz ettiler.

And once the imperial armies breached the walls, they started to torch the city. Ve nihayetinde imparatorluk gucleri kapilari astiginda sehri atese verdi.

Magdeberg's citizens struggled to escape both the armies and the fire. Magdeburg halki hem ordulardan hem atesten kacmaya cabaladi.

Of 25,000 citizens, only 5,000 were left at the end of the battle for the city--which 25000 lik nufustan sadece 5000 i yanginda yokedilmis sehirden canli cikabildi.

was in the end destroyed by fire.

In 1634, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II had his own general Wallenstein assassinated, 1634 yilinda, Roma Germen Imparatoru 2. Ferdinand kendi generali Wallenstein i oldurttu.

because it appeared that Wallenstein was plotting to make peace with Sweden and perhaps planning Cunku gorunen oydu ki Wallenstein Isvec ile barismak ve belki de imparatora karsi bir darbe hazirligi icin plan

a coup, although why anyone would want to be the Holy Roman Emperor at that point is yapiyordu - ki boyle bir durumda kim niye Imparator olmak ister

an absolute mystery to me. benim icin kesin bir gizem.

But the war continued. Fakat savas devam etti.

The 1640s brought more horrendous weather, and disorder reigned as social and political 1640lar daha kotu bir hava getirdi; politik ve sosyal duzen yerle bir olurken kargasa

systems completely fell apart. hukum surmeye devam etti.

There was often little in the way of a functioning government; economies completely collapsed; Nerdeyse tamamen islevsiz bir devletle, ekonomiler tamamen coktu;

and all manner of social norms broke down. tum sosyal degerler yerle bir oldu.

There were, for instance, many reports of cannibalism. Ornegin, bircok yerde yamyamlik haberleri geliyordu,

And public spaces became additionally dangerous when wolves and other wild animals arrived ve kurtlar ve diger vahsi hayvanlarin koylere ve ciftliklere gelmesiyle

in villages and private farms. kamusal alanlar da daha tehlikeli hale geldi.

Finally, in 1648, the Peace of Westphalia finally brought the war to an end. Sonunda 1648 de, Westphalia barisi savasi nihayetine erdirdi.

Even hard-headed theologians by that time allowed concessions to the other religion Barisin gelebilmesi icin zamanin dik-basli teologlari bile

in order to obtain peace. diger dinlere taviz verdiler.

And the fact that French Catholics uniting with Swedish and other Protestants led to Ve de Fransiz Katoliklerin Isvecli Protestanlarla birlikte hareket etmeleri

the conclusion that this maybe meant the end of religious war—at least in Europe, at din savaslarinin sona ermesi anlamina geliyor olabilirdi.-en azindan Avrupa'da,

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