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Learning Languages Like Children, How ALG works - Chapter 2 of Learning Languages Like Children

How ALG works - Chapter 2 of Learning Languages Like Children

Chapter 2 of

LEARNING LANGUAGES LIKE CHILDREN

By Dr. J. Marvin Brown

HOW ALG WORKS

Most language teachers throughout the world are constantly telling their students to try to speak as much as they can, and to think carefully before they say anything so they'll get it right. And now I'm saying that this kind of speaking and thinking is the very thing that keeps adults from learning languages well. But take careful note of the following point. And keep coming back to it every time you feel a strong opposition to the ALG position.

As opposite as our positions may seem, there is actually no disagreement. We're just doing different things. With ALG we're interested in natural language acquisition, while most of the world is settling for an artificial use of foreign languages by adults. They're teaching their students to ‘contrive' sentences. We're teaching ours to ‘improvise' them. And surely there's no argument as to which one is better It's just that most of the world believes that natural language acquisition is impossible for adults, or at least that it would take too long to be practicable. And the purpose of this article is to show that it is both possible and practicable.

This will become clearer in part Four. But first we'd better try to make our counter-intuitive position seem more intuitive, or we might not have any readers left by part Four. So we'll offer a little common sense theory here to show that we are simply following the natural working of the brain. Now we don't claim to have any privileged information about how the brain works, but our experience may have given us some fresh kinds of guesses. Having identified them as guesses here, we won't label them as such below. This will make for easier reading. But whenever the reader thinks it's necessary, he should add something like this to each sentence of part Two; ‘we think that...' or ‘It looks like...'. Memories are the brain's natural way of recording things. Vast scenarios can be recorded in an instant and stored away for life. We record so many memories every day that the brain has to sort them out and systematize them for more efficient storage. And this is what natural knowledge is: systematized memories. The word ‘dog' for example, (an example of knowledge, not a memory) has been abstracted from thousands of memories of dogs (most of which have since been erased in order to provide new space). So natural systematization of memories is one way to produce knowledge. But there is also another way. It uses memory instead of memories. Memory refers to the brain's way of storing facts and figures (as opposed to happenings). This isn't natural. It takes tricks or hard work to record something as simple as a phone number. So there are two different kinds of knowledge. Natural knowledge is the child‘s way; it is instantly available without thinking, and it can last a lifetime. Artificial knowledge is the adult's favorite; we have to think about it in order to use it, and it‘s easily forgotten.

Forgetting is an attribute of artificial knowledge and plays little or no part in natural language acquisition. But our students didn't know this, and when they returned after being away for some time they thought they would have forgotten a certain amount. But we were in for a surprise. They often reported that they were actually ahead of where they left off. (I myself experienced the same thing after a five-month break from my natural acquisition of Swatow Chinese).

How can we explain this? It looks like we don't learn language in class at all. We just store away memories of what happened there and subconsciously sift language out of these memories later. But memories consist of happenings' not words. Sure we can build knowledge out of happenings-but a language? Where do the sounds of new words come from? Well it looks like we've got a third kind of knowledge. A kind that grows out of repeated traces carried by memories. Every trace that eventually grows into a word is associated with a happening. We remember only the happenings' not the traces; but the brain records the traces as well. (Psychologists have detected these traces and refer to their recording as ‘priming‘) Now words have both meanings and sounds. And in natural language acquisition, the meanings are distilled from memories, while the sounds accumulate from the sound traces carried by these memories.

The brain can't use sound traces to speak with, but it can use them to build language with. It's the recognition of this fact that is the whole difference between ALG and other natural approaches.

Now the brain continues to build language out of memories of happenings and traces of sounds while the students are away. Class time can be compared with eating a meal. Digestion and growth take place later.

Earlier we spoke of ‘building language in the wrong place - - the place that thinks'. And from that point on we have been contrasting two different kinds of brain activity. Let's compare them by lists.

‘Try‘ ‘Let‘

conscious subconscious

memory memories and traces

facts and figures happenings

‘tricks and hard work' ‘recorded in an instant' teach and learn pick up

artificial knowledge natural knowledge

artificial language use natural language acquisition

have to think don't have to think

contrive improvise

easily forgotten stored for life

muscle control image control

the adult's way the child's way

But a theory built out of vague words like these isn't going to be very productive. We need concrete units in our theory - - things that we can point to in space and in time. And we want those parts to be the actual things that are involved in processes like understanding, learning, and speaking. In other words, we want a theory built out of neurons, or areas of the brain, or something like that.

Of course we don't know enough about the brain to actually do this, but we can at least try to place our vague words somewhere in the brain. Pictures of different parts of the brain in textbooks of neuroanatomy, for example, reveal different kinds of neurons stacked in different ways and affording different kinds of computing activity. We can visualize our two lists as being in two different rooms in the brain; one labeled ‘try' and the other one ‘let'. The important thing is not that these areas are in different places (in fact, it is possible that they are interspersed), but that they do different things; that is, they process information from the receptors in different ways. Now we're suggesting that the baby is born with the ‘let' room, while the ‘try room slowly develops to an operable stage by age 10-12. The adult, then, has both rooms, and he switches from one to the other as required by the task. But modern education seeks to increase the use of the ‘try' room, even when the ‘let' room would be more appropriate. And the adult language student is caught in a conflict: natural forces are trying to turn his switch to ‘let'; while the forces from years of schooling are trying to turn it to ‘try'. This distinction has long since been noticed by others. W. Timothy Gallwey calls it ‘Self 1' and ‘Self 2'. And Krashen calls it ‘conscious' and ‘subconscious'. We're just trying to make the same distinction more concrete by picturing it as different neural hardware in the brain.

We are assuming two points which are unproven and thus open to argument.

1. A theoretical assumption: The brain does indeed have the different capabilities described in this section.

2. A finding from practice: Natural language acquisition is indeed both possible and practicable for adults.

If we really want to know how language acquisition works, we need to understand how our receptors receive input from the outside and then process it into language. After observing this happen in our students for many years as well as experiencing it within ourselves, we've come up with a budding brain theory to explain it. But this is not the place for such a theory, and we will deal with it in later publications. For our present purposes, all we need is to give a feeling that when left to itself the language will inevitably form - and form perfectly. And we can do this a lot better with a simple comparison than with an abstruse and incomplete theory. Here's the comparison.

If we let rain fall on a given terrain, one and only one river system can result. And no engineer is needed. Nor could an engineer duplicate the system if he tried.

As long as we don't interfere (that is, as long as we just ‘let' it happen), the building of a given river system depends on only three things; the weather (wind and rain), the terrain (the composition and shape of the ground) , and gravity. An elaborate river system will inevitably be carved in one and only one way (with minor variations) from a given kind of weather acting on a given terrain. And if an engineer ‘tried' to influence the formation of this system, he could only upset it in an irreversible way. In like manner, as long as we don't interfere, the building of a given language in a given individual depends on only three things; the language input (like the weather), the nature of the language part of the brain (like the terrain), and the chemistry of neural transmission (like gravity). A person's native language is not the result of building the neural structures that we call language to match a pre-existing plan. It is the inevitable result of a given neural structure being buffeted by a given kind of input. And if we try in any way to influence this formation, we can only upset it in an irreversible way. The typical way that adults interfere with the process is to try to speak from a trace (before the full sound has been formed). But since the brain can't use traces to speak with, the only way they can do this is to build the complete sound themselves (either from sounds in their native language or from their knowledge of phonetics). And once they do this, there is no going back. Subsequent buffeting will act on what they‘ve already done to the terrain. Compare this with a man-made channel in the river system. Once it starts carrying water, the engineer can't restore the overall system to what it would have been no matter how hard he tries. And ‘what it would have been' (in the case of language) is precisely that language that native speakers speak.


How ALG works - Chapter 2 of Learning Languages Like Children How ALG works - Chapter 2 of Learning Languages Like Children

Chapter 2 of Chapter 2 of

LEARNING LANGUAGES LIKE CHILDREN APRENDENDO IDIOMAS COMO CRIANÇAS

By Dr. J. Marvin Brown

HOW ALG WORKS

Most language teachers throughout the world are constantly telling their students to try to speak as much as they can, and to think carefully before they say anything so they’ll get it right. 世界中の多くの語学教師は、常に生徒にできるだけ多くのことを話して、彼らが正しいことをするために何かを言う前に慎重に考えるように指示しています。 A maioria dos professores de línguas em todo o mundo está constantemente dizendo a seus alunos para tentarem falar o máximo que puderem e pensar com cuidado antes de dizer qualquer coisa para que eles acertem. And now I’m saying that this kind of speaking and thinking is the very thing that keeps adults from learning languages well. そして今、私は、この種の発言と思考は、大人が言語をうまく学ぶことができないということです。 E agora estou dizendo que esse tipo de falar e pensar é exatamente o que impede os adultos de aprenderem bem as línguas. И теперь я говорю, что такой разговор и мышление - это то, что заставляет взрослых хорошо изучать языки. But take careful note of the following point. しかし、次の点に注意してください。 Mas tome nota cuidadosa do seguinte ponto. Но обратите внимание на следующее. And keep coming back to it every time you feel a strong opposition to the ALG position. あなたがALGのポジションに強い反対を感じるたびに、それを元に戻ってください。 E continue voltando sempre que sentir uma forte oposição à posição ALG.

As opposite as our positions may seem, there is actually no disagreement. 私たちのポジションとは反対に、実際には意見の相違はありません。 Por mais opostas que nossas posições possam parecer, na verdade não há discordância. Напротив, как могут показаться наши позиции, на самом деле нет разногласий. We’re just doing different things. 私たちはいろいろなことをしています。 Estamos apenas fazendo coisas diferentes. With ALG we’re interested in natural language acquisition, while most of the world is settling for an artificial use of foreign languages by adults. ALGでは自然言語の取得に関心がありますが、世界のほとんどが大人による外国語の人工的な使用を求めています。 Com o ALG, estamos interessados na aquisição de idiomas naturais, enquanto a maior parte do mundo está optando por um uso artificial de idiomas estrangeiros por adultos. С ALG мы заинтересованы в приобретении естественного языка, в то время как большая часть мира поселяется для искусственного использования иностранных языков взрослыми. They’re teaching their students to ‘contrive' sentences. 彼らは生徒に文章を作成するよう教えています。 Eles estão ensinando seus alunos a criarem frases. We’re teaching ours to ‘improvise' them. 私たちは彼らに「即興」を教えています。 Estamos ensinando os nossos a 'improvisá-los'. And surely there’s no argument as to which one is better It’s just that most of the world believes that natural language acquisition is impossible for adults, or at least that it would take too long to be practicable. 確かにどちらが良いかについての議論はありません。自然言語の獲得は大人にとって不可能であると信じているか、少なくとも実行可能になるには時間がかかりすぎると世界の大部分が信じています。 E certamente não há discussão sobre qual é o melhor. Só que a maior parte do mundo acredita que a aquisição natural da linguagem é impossível para adultos, ou pelo menos que demoraria muito para ser praticável. И, конечно же, нет аргументов в пользу того, что лучше. Просто большинство людей считает, что приобретение естественного языка для взрослых невозможно, или, по крайней мере, это займет слишком много времени, чтобы быть практически осуществимым. And the purpose of this article is to show that it is both possible and practicable. そして、この記事の目的は、それが可能で実用的であることを示すことです。 E o objetivo deste artigo é mostrar que isso é possível e praticável.

This will become clearer in part Four. これは、部分的に4で明確になります。 Isso ficará mais claro na parte quatro. But first we’d better try to make our counter-intuitive position seem more intuitive, or we might not have any readers left by part Four. しかし、まずは直感的な立場を直感的に見せるようにしてください。そうしないと、パート4で読者が残っていない可能性があります。 Mas, primeiro, é melhor tentarmos fazer com que nossa posição contra-intuitiva pareça mais intuitiva, ou podemos não ter nenhum leitor restante na parte quatro. Но сначала мы постараемся сделать нашу контр-интуитивную позицию более интуитивной, или у нас могут не быть читателей, оставшихся частью четвертой. So we’ll offer a little common sense theory here to show that we are simply following the natural working of the brain. だから、私たちは単純に脳の自然な働きに従っていることを示すために、ここに少しの常識理論を提供します。 Поэтому мы предложим здесь немного здравого смысла, чтобы показать, что мы просто следим за естественной работой мозга. Now we don’t claim to have any privileged information about how the brain works, but our experience may have given us some fresh kinds of guesses. 今、私たちは脳の仕組みに関する特権的な情報を持っていると主張していませんが、私たちの経験は新しいタイプの推測を与えているかもしれません。 Теперь мы не утверждаем, что имеем какую-либо привилегированную информацию о том, как работает мозг, но наш опыт, возможно, дал нам несколько новых догадок. Having identified them as guesses here, we won’t label them as such below. ここでそれらを推測として特定したので、以下ではそれらのラベルを付けません。 Определив их как догадки здесь, мы не будем обозначать их как таковые ниже. This will make for easier reading. これにより、読みやすくなります。 Это упростит чтение. But whenever the reader thinks it’s necessary, he should add something like this to each sentence of part Two; ‘we think that...' or ‘It looks like...'. しかし、読者が必要と思うときはいつも、パート2の各文にこのようなものを加えるべきです。 '私たちはそれを...と思うか'それは...のように見える。 Но всякий раз, когда читатель думает, что это необходимо, он должен добавить что-то подобное к каждому предложению части второй; «мы думаем, что ...» или «Похоже ...». Memories are the brain’s natural way of recording things. 思い出は物事を記録する脳の自然な方法です。 Воспоминания - естественный способ записи мозга. Vast scenarios can be recorded in an instant and stored away for life. 膨大なシナリオを瞬時に記録し、人生のために保管することができます。 We record so many memories every day that the brain has to sort them out and systematize them for more efficient storage. 私たちは毎日たくさんの思い出を記録し、脳はそれらを整理してより効率的な保管のために体系化しなければなりません。 And this is what natural knowledge is: systematized memories. そして、これは自然の知識です。体系化された記憶。 И это то, что есть естественное знание; систематизированные воспоминания. The word ‘dog' for example, (an example of knowledge, not a memory) has been abstracted from thousands of memories of dogs (most of which have since been erased in order to provide new space). 何千もの犬の思い出から抽象化された(例えば、知識の例であり、記憶ではない)という言葉は、犬の記憶から抽象化されてきた(その大部分は新しい空間を提供するために消去されている)。 Например, слово «собака» (пример знания, а не память) было абстрагировано от тысяч воспоминаний о собаках (большинство из которых с тех пор были стерты, чтобы обеспечить новое пространство). So natural systematization of memories is one way to produce knowledge. 自然の記憶の体系化は、知識を生み出す一つの方法です。 But there is also another way. しかし、別の方法もあります。 It uses memory instead of memories. メモリの代わりにメモリを使用します。 Memory refers to the brain’s way of storing facts and figures (as opposed to happenings). 記憶とは、事実と数字を保存する脳の方法を指します(事象とは対照的に)。 Память относится к способу хранения мозга фактами и цифрами (в отличие от событий). This isn’t natural. これは自然ではありません。 It takes tricks or hard work to record something as simple as a phone number. 電話番号のような単純なものを録音するには、手間や労力がかかります。 Требуется трюки или тяжелая работа, чтобы записать что-то так же просто, как номер телефона. So there are two different kinds of knowledge. したがって、2つの異なる種類の知識があります。 Natural knowledge is the child‘s way; it is instantly available without thinking, and it can last a lifetime. 自然の知識は子供の道です。それは思考せずに即座に利用可能であり、生涯続くことができます。 Естественное знание - путь ребенка; он мгновенно доступен без размышлений, и он может длиться всю жизнь. Artificial knowledge is the adult’s favorite; we have to think about it in order to use it, and it‘s easily forgotten. 人工知能は大人の好みです。私たちはそれを使うためにそれについて考える必要があり、それは容易に忘れられます。

Forgetting is an attribute of artificial knowledge and plays little or no part in natural language acquisition. 忘れることは人工知識の属性であり、自然言語の獲得にはほとんどまたは全く関係しない。 Забывание - это атрибут искусственного знания и мало играет или не участвует в приобретении естественного языка. But our students didn’t know this, and when they returned after being away for some time they thought they would have forgotten a certain amount. しかし、私たちの生徒はこれを知らず、しばらく離れて帰ってきたとき、彼らは一定の量を忘れてしまったと思っていました。 Но наши ученики этого не знали, и когда они вернулись после того, как были в отъезде, они подумали, что они забыли бы определенную сумму. But we were in for a surprise. しかし、私たちは驚いていました。 Но мы были в неожиданности. They often reported that they were actually ahead of where they left off. 彼らはしばしば、彼らは実際に彼らが中断した場所よりも先行していると報告しました。 Они часто сообщали, что они были на самом деле впереди, где они остановились. (I myself experienced the same thing after a five-month break from my natural acquisition of Swatow Chinese). (私自身、スワトウ・チャイニーズを買収してから5ヶ月休憩して同じことを経験しました)。 (Я сам испытал то же самое после пятимесячного перерыва от моего естественного приобретения Swatow Chinese).

How can we explain this? これをどうすれば説明できますか? It looks like we don’t learn language in class at all. 私たちは授業中の言語を全く学ばないようです。 Похоже, мы вообще не изучаем язык в классе. We just store away memories of what happened there and subconsciously sift language out of these memories later. 私たちはそこで何が起こったのかを記憶しておき、後でこれらの記憶の中から無意識のうちに言語を選別します。 Мы просто храним воспоминания о том, что там произошло, и подсознательно просеивать язык из этих воспоминаний позже. But memories consist of happenings' not words. しかし、思い出は言葉ではなく出来事から成っています。 Но воспоминания состоят из несловных событий. Sure we can build knowledge out of happenings-but a language? 確かに、出来事から知識を作り出すことができます。 Конечно, мы можем строить знания из событий, но язык? Where do the sounds of new words come from? 新しい言葉の音はどこから来ますか? Откуда берутся звуки новых слов? Well it looks like we’ve got a third kind of knowledge. まあ、私たちは第三の知識を持っているようです。 A kind that grows out of repeated traces carried by memories. Un genre qui naît de traces répétées portées par des souvenirs. 記憶によって運ばれる繰り返しの痕跡の中から成長する種類。 Вид, который вырастает из повторяющихся следов, хранящихся в памяти. Every trace that eventually grows into a word is associated with a happening. Chaque trace qui finit par devenir un mot est associée à un événement. 最終的に単語に成長するすべてのトレースは、起こっていることに関連付けられています。 Все следы, которые в конечном итоге превращаются в одно слово, связаны с происходящим. We remember only the happenings' not the traces; but the brain records the traces as well. 我々は痕跡ではなく事件だけを覚えています。脳は痕跡も記録します。 Мы помним только события, а не следы; но мозг записывает следы. (Psychologists have detected these traces and refer to their recording as ‘priming‘) Now words have both meanings and sounds. (心理学者はこれらの痕跡を検出し、その記録を「プライミング」と呼んでいます)今や単語は意味と音の両方を持っています。 (Психологи обнаружили эти следы и ссылаются на их запись как «прайминг»). Теперь слова имеют как значения, так и звуки. And in natural language acquisition, the meanings are distilled from memories, while the sounds accumulate from the sound traces carried by these memories. Et dans l'acquisition du langage naturel, les significations sont distillées à partir des souvenirs, tandis que les sons s'accumulent à partir des traces sonores portées par ces souvenirs. そして自然言語の獲得では、記憶から意味が抽出され、これらの記憶によって運ばれる音の痕跡から音が蓄積されます。

The brain can’t use sound traces to speak with, but it can use them to build language with. Le cerveau ne peut pas utiliser de traces sonores pour parler, mais il peut les utiliser pour construire un langage avec. 脳は音の痕跡を使って話すことはできませんが、言語を構築するために使用することはできます。 Мозг не может использовать звуковые следы, чтобы говорить, но он может использовать их для создания языка. It’s the recognition of this fact that is the whole difference between ALG and other natural approaches. C'est la reconnaissance de ce fait qui fait toute la différence entre l'ALG et les autres approches naturelles.

Now the brain continues to build language out of memories of happenings and traces of sounds while the students are away. Maintenant, le cerveau continue de construire un langage à partir de souvenirs d'événements et de traces de sons pendant que les élèves sont absents. Теперь мозг продолжает строить язык из воспоминаний о событиях и следах звуков, пока учеников нет. Class time can be compared with eating a meal. Digestion and growth take place later. Пищеварение и рост происходят позже.

Earlier we spoke of ‘building language in the wrong place - - the place that thinks'. Plus tôt, nous avons parlé de «construire le langage au mauvais endroit - - le lieu qui pense». 先ほど、「言語を間違った場所、つまり考える場所に構築する」という話をしました。 Раньше мы говорили о «построении языка в неправильном месте - месте, которое думает». And from that point on we have been contrasting two different kinds of brain activity. И с этого момента мы противопоставляли два разных вида деятельности мозга. Let’s compare them by lists. Давайте сравним их по спискам.

‘Try‘                                                     ‘Let‘

conscious                                            subconscious

memory                                               memories and traces

facts and figures                                  happenings факты и цифры

‘tricks and hard work'                            ‘recorded in an instant' «трюки и тяжелая работа», записанные в одно мгновение » teach and learn                                    pick up

artificial knowledge                               natural knowledge

artificial language use                           natural language acquisition

have to think                                        don’t have to think

contrive                                               improvise

easily forgotten                                    stored for life

muscle control                                      image control

the adult’s way                                     the child’s way

But a theory built out of vague words like these isn’t going to be very productive. Mais une théorie construite à partir de mots vagues comme ceux-ci ne sera pas très productive. しかし、このようなあいまいな言葉から構築された理論は、あまり生産的ではありません。 Но теория, построенная из таких неопределенных слов, как это, не будет очень продуктивной. We need concrete units in our theory - - things that we can point to in space and in time. And we want those parts to be the actual things that are involved in processes like understanding, learning, and speaking. Et nous voulons que ces parties soient les choses réelles qui sont impliquées dans des processus tels que la compréhension, l'apprentissage et la parole. In other words, we want a theory built out of neurons, or areas of the brain, or something like that. Другими словами, нам нужна теория, построенная из нейронов или областей мозга, или что-то в этом роде.

Of course we don’t know enough about the brain to actually do this, but we can at least try to place our vague words somewhere in the brain. Конечно, мы не знаем достаточно о мозге, чтобы на самом деле это сделать, но мы можем хотя бы попытаться разместить наши неопределенные слова где-то в мозгу. Pictures of different parts of the brain in textbooks of neuroanatomy, for example, reveal different kinds of neurons stacked in different ways and affording different kinds of computing activity. We can visualize our two lists as being in two different rooms in the brain; one labeled ‘try' and the other one ‘let'. Nous pouvons visualiser nos deux listes comme étant dans deux pièces différentes du cerveau; l'un étiqueté «essayer» et l'autre «laisser». 2 つのリストが脳内の 2 つの異なる部屋にあるものとして視覚化できます。 1 つは「試してみる」、もう 1 つは「しよう」というラベルが付いています。 Мы можем представить наши два списка как находящиеся в двух разных комнатах в мозге; один помечен как «попытка», а другой - «пусть». The important thing is not that these areas are in different places (in fact, it is possible that they are interspersed), but that they do different things; that is, they process information from the receptors in different ways. L'important n'est pas que ces zones soient à des endroits différents (en fait, il est possible qu'elles soient intercalées), mais qu'elles fassent des choses différentes; c'est-à-dire qu'ils traitent les informations des récepteurs de différentes manières. Важно не то, что эти области находятся в разных местах (на самом деле, возможно, что они чередуются), но что они делают разные вещи; то есть они обрабатывают информацию от рецепторов по-разному. Now we’re suggesting that the baby is born with the ‘let' room, while the ‘try room slowly develops to an operable stage by age 10-12. 現在、赤ちゃんは「レット」ルームで生まれ、「トライルーム」は10歳から12歳までに動作可能な段階にゆっくりと発達することを提案しています. Теперь мы предполагаем, что ребенок рождается с комнатой «пустить», а «комната попыток медленно развивается до действующей стадии в возрасте 10-12 лет». The adult, then, has both rooms, and he switches from one to the other as required by the task. Тогда у взрослого есть обе комнаты, и он переключается с одного на другой, как того требует задача. But modern education seeks to increase the use of the ‘try' room, even when the ‘let' room would be more appropriate. And the adult language student is caught in a conflict: natural forces are trying to turn his switch to ‘let'; while the forces from years of schooling are trying to turn it to ‘try'. Et l'étudiant en langue adulte est pris dans un conflit: les forces naturelles essaient de faire passer son interrupteur à «laisser»; tandis que les forces des années de scolarité essaient de le transformer pour «essayer». This distinction has long since been noticed by others. Это различие уже давно замечено другими. W. Timothy Gallwey calls it ‘Self 1' and ‘Self 2'. And Krashen calls it ‘conscious' and ‘subconscious'. We’re just trying to make the same distinction more concrete by picturing it as different neural hardware in the brain. Nous essayons simplement de rendre la même distinction plus concrète en la représentant comme un matériel neuronal différent dans le cerveau. Мы просто пытаемся сделать такое же различие более конкретным, представляя его как другое нервное аппаратное обеспечение в мозге.

We are assuming two points which are unproven and thus open to argument.

1\\. A theoretical assumption: The brain does indeed have the different capabilities described in this section. Une hypothèse théorique: le cerveau possède en effet les différentes capacités décrites dans cette section. 理論上の仮定: 脳は実際に、このセクションで説明するさまざまな機能を備えています。

2\\. A finding from practice: Natural language acquisition is indeed both possible and practicable for adults. Находка из практики: приобретение естественного языка действительно возможно и практически возможно для взрослых.

If we really want to know how language acquisition works, we need to understand how our receptors receive input from the outside and then process it into language. 言語獲得がどのように機能するかを本当に知りたい場合は、受容器が外部からの入力をどのように受け取り、それを言語に処理するかを理解する必要があります。 After observing this happen in our students for many years as well as experiencing it within ourselves, we’ve come up with a budding brain theory to explain it. 学生の中でこれが起こるのを何年も観察し、自分自身の中で経験した後、私たちはそれを説明するための新進の脳理論を思いつきました。 Наблюдая, как это происходит у наших учеников в течение многих лет, а также переживая это в себе, мы придумали теорию теории почкования, чтобы объяснить ее. But this is not the place for such a theory, and we will deal with it in later publications. For our present purposes, all we need is to give a feeling that when left to itself the language will inevitably form - and form perfectly. Для наших нынешних целей все, что нам нужно, - это дать ощущение, что когда оставленный сам себе язык неизбежно сформируется - и сформируется идеально. And we can do this a lot better with a simple comparison than with an abstruse and incomplete theory. Here’s the comparison.

If we let rain fall on a given terrain, one and only one river system can result. Si nous laissons la pluie tomber sur un terrain donné, il peut en résulter un et un seul système fluvial. Если мы допустим, что дождь выпадет на данном ландшафте, может возникнуть одна и только одна речная система. And no engineer is needed. И инженер не нужен. Nor could an engineer duplicate the system if he tried. Un ingénieur ne pourrait pas non plus dupliquer le système s'il essayait. Также инженер не мог дублировать систему, если бы попытался.

As long as we don’t interfere (that is, as long as we just ‘let' it happen), the building of a given river system depends on only three things; the weather (wind and rain), the terrain (the composition and shape of the ground) , and gravity. An elaborate river system will inevitably be carved in one and only one way (with minor variations) from a given kind of weather acting on a given terrain. Разработанная система рек неизбежно будет вырезана одним и только одним способом (с небольшими вариациями) от определенного вида погоды, действующей на данном ландшафте. And if an engineer ‘tried' to influence the formation of this system, he could only upset it in an irreversible way. И если инженер «попытался» повлиять на формирование этой системы, он мог бы только расстроить ее необратимым образом. In like manner, as long as we don’t interfere, the building of a given language in a given individual depends on only three things; the language input (like the weather), the nature of the language part of the brain (like the terrain), and the chemistry of neural transmission (like gravity). A person’s native language is not the result of building the neural structures that we call language to match a pre-existing plan. La langue maternelle d'une personne n'est pas le résultat de la construction des structures neuronales que nous appelons le langage pour correspondre à un plan préexistant. Собственный язык человека не является результатом построения нейронных структур, которые мы называем языком, чтобы соответствовать ранее существовавшему плану. It is the inevitable result of a given neural structure being buffeted by a given kind of input. Es ist das unvermeidliche Ergebnis einer bestimmten neuronalen Struktur, die von einer bestimmten Art von Eingabe beeinflusst wird. C'est le résultat inévitable d'une structure neuronale donnée secouée par un type donné d'entrée. Это неизбежный результат того, что данная нервная структура подвергается воздействию определенного типа ввода. And if we try in any way to influence this formation, we can only upset it in an irreversible way. И если мы попытаемся каким-либо образом повлиять на это образование, мы можем только расстроить его необратимым образом. The typical way that adults interfere with the process is to try to speak from a trace (before the full sound has been formed). Типичный способ, которым взрослые мешают процессу, - попытаться говорить по следам (до того, как сформировался полный звук). But since the brain can’t use traces to speak with, the only way they can do this is to build the complete sound themselves (either from sounds in their native language or from their knowledge of phonetics). Но поскольку мозг не может использовать следы, чтобы говорить, единственный способ, которым они могут это сделать, - это построить сам звук (либо из звуков на их родном языке, либо из их знаний фонетики). And once they do this, there is no going back. И как только они это сделают, нет возврата. Subsequent buffeting will act on what they‘ve already done to the terrain. Последующее буферизация будет действовать на то, что они уже сделали на местности. Compare this with a man-made channel in the river system. Сравните это с искусственным каналом в речной системе. Once it starts carrying water, the engineer can’t restore the overall system to what it would have been no matter how hard he tries. Une fois qu'il commence à transporter de l'eau, l'ingénieur ne peut pas restaurer le système dans son ensemble à ce qu'il aurait été, peu importe les efforts qu'il déploie. Uma vez que começa a transportar água, o engenheiro não consegue restaurar o sistema geral ao que deveria ser, não importa o quanto ele tente. Как только он начнет переносить воду, инженер не сможет восстановить общую систему, каково бы это было, как бы он ни старался. And ‘what it would have been' (in the case of language) is precisely that language that native speakers speak. 그리고 '그랬을 것'(언어의 경우)은 정확히 원어민이 말하는 언어입니다. E 'o que teria sido' (no caso da linguagem) é precisamente aquela língua falada pelos falantes nativos.