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COURSERA: The Modern World, Part Two: Global History since 1910, W1.02 Schizophrenic Germany

W1.02 Schizophrenic Germany

Hi, welcome back. Make yourself comfortable. Let's take a few minutes to understand one particular country on the eve of World War I: Imperial Germany. I call it Schizophrenic Germany because it seems to have at least two different personalities. Why focus on Germany? If you were going to look at the empires whose insecurities and fears are at the root of what happened in 1914, you wouldn't just look at Germany. You'd be very interested in looking, for example, at Austria-Hungary. The Austro-Hungarian Empire, ruled by the Habsburg Dynasty. You'd be very interested in looking at the Russian Empire; they play a key role too. So, why Germany? It's because, I think more than any other single country, Germany controlled the strategic initiative in this crisis. What do I mean by that term? Strategic. Initiative. What I mean: the country that has a strategic initiative, or even the company or the individual that has a strategic initiative in an engagement, whether it's a football game or a war, is the country or the side that's really able to set the time, place, and manner of engagement. They control the setting in which this happens. And I think when you look closely at the crisis in 1914, the German Empire, more than any other single country, controlled the time, place, and manner of the decision to risk general war that year. These other empires certainly have a really important role and, if you want, give them a large share of the blame. But the German Empire's role, I think, is unique as we'll see when we get into that in more detail. When you look at the German Empire on a map, it often just says Germany; that's misleading. When you dig into, what is the German Empire, it's actually a deeply split government. Here's a map of the German Empire in these years. What you see is a really big kingdom. That's in blue. That kingdom in blue, that's the Kingdom of Prussia, but you see a lot of other countries inside the German Empire. For instance, down here at the bottom, you see the Kingdom of Bavaria; or right here, that's the Kingdom of Württemberg. Here's the Grand Duchy of Baden. Here's the kingdom of Saxony with its capital in Dresden, and so on. In other words, Germany actually is the German Empire, and the German Empire consists of a number of different states ruled by kings, princes, and dukes of their own. These different states have their own governments. They're responsible for providing many of their own social services, and they also create and command their own smaller armies, which are harmonized, standard uniforms, equipment, and so on, in the larger imperial army. So, on the top you have this guy the Kaiser, a German word derived from the Latin Caesar. The Kaiser is the head of the German Empire, but as head of the German Empire all he really controls is the army, the navy, foreign affairs. He doesn't really run many of the ordinary functions of government as the head of the German Empire. The Kaiser is also a king. He's the King of Prussia, so he wears two Hats: King of Prussia and Kaiser of the Empire. As King of Prussia, he's the king of a very large state that has all these services: its own parliament, civil service, everything else. When you wears his hat as Kaiser of the Empire, he answers to a parliament: the Imperial Parliament, the Reichstag. The Reichstag basically doesn't have very many powers, except it does have a lot of control over the budget. Over how much money the emperor gets for the army and the navy in his Imperial role. So, in addition to the Kaiser really wearing two hats as the king of one state of the empire, but who's answerable to some degree to this Imperial Parliament, you've also got politics in Germany that are deeply divided, as in so many of these modern nation-states. In Germany, the Kaiser is the representative of an old nobility. He and his large land-owning, entitled friends are a tiny minority of the German population and feel alienated by a lot of modern culture and some of the modern political parties. And then in turn, the parties are divided up among the lines we've talked about before. The National Tradition, they're a very small faction. The National Conservatives, Liberals, Democratic Socialists, there are some Revolutionary Socialists but they don't take part in politics. Here's the Kaiser in 1914, his name is Wilhelm II. He's not really the guy you want by your side in a crunch. He's an intelligent man, a grandson of Queen Victoria of England, but he always resented his English mother. He was born with a kind of defect because of the circumstances of his birth that withered one of his arms and always made him a little extra anxious to prove his masculinity and athletic or hunting skill. Who's really running the government of the empire? The day-to-day running of the imperial government was entrusted to this man, Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg. Bethmann Hollweg though, is not like a prime minister or a chancellor would be today. You'd think of a prime minister as the politician whose party has the most votes in the Imperial Parliament. No. Bethmann-Hollweg, he's just a Prussian career civil servant. He's appointed to his job as the chancellor by the Kaiser. He's not a politician, and he has no political base in the Imperial Parliament. He serves at the whim of his crowned master. In foreign affairs, Germany is beginning to feel a bit encircled. Here they are in the center of Europe. Here's large Russia over here. It was really weakened by the revolutions of 1905, but it's recovering its military power and now has the most numerous army in Europe. And here's France over here, still eager for revenge from its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. The Germans feel hemmed in in their search for colonies. And so here are the Germans, they feel like they've become the most powerful country on the continent of Europe, but nonetheless feel defensive, encircled, and worried that their enemies are going to get stronger than they are. The Germans are encouraged to find their place in the sun by being a dominant power in middle Europe, in middle Europa, in central Europe. They're partly encouraged in this hope by this man, Sir Edward Grey. He's the British Foreign Minister trying to manage the balance of power, trying to diffuse crises, trying to keep the British from having to get involved in some military conflict on the continent. By 1912, the Kaiser and some of the nobles around him increasingly feel like the world is moving in the wrong direction. Their reasons for feelings that are partly domestic and partly international. Let's take a look here at what's happening to them in domestic politics. The Germans have a national election in 1912. In an earlier presentation, we talked about the basic kinds of political parties you'd find in the modern world in this period. Armed with that knowledge, you too can interpret the German election results of 1912. Let's take a look. So, on the very far left, you'd have the Revolutionary Socialists. Well, they're not participating in the election because they believe in the violent overthrow of the government. So, they're not represented here. Next, on the left, you'd have the Democratic Socialists, these are the Marxists who are willing to participate in government. In Germany, that's the Social Democratic Party, right here. So, those are your Democratic Socialists. Then, you have your Liberals. The Liberals really group into those who are more pro-imperial and those who are a little more anti-militaristic. The more leftist Liberals are here. The more right-wing Liberals are here. But the Liberal parties taken together win this many seats. Here's the Catholic Center Party. The Catholic Center Party is not easy to categorize. A lot of their views are really Liberal. They're in favor of religious tolerance, because the Catholics feel like they've been battling against the German State for the last 40 years. But, on the other hand, they do believe in traditional values and they definitely do not like the anti-Catholic Marxists. So, I would classify the centrum, the Catholic Center, as being a little more on the Liberal side of the spectrum, literally kind of in the center. On the more conservative side, what I'd call the National Conservatives, that would really be these two parties right here: the German Conservative Party and the German Imperial Party. But between them, that's only 57 seats. Here's some other national minority parties, including a party that called itself the Anti-Semitic Party, because it was so proud that it was anti-Jewish. The Farmer's Party and some of other motley groups. But if you look at this as a whole, this is a very discouraging election result for the Kaiser. If you break it down, you'll see that what they regard as the far left is 30% of the Parliament. The Liberals make up another 24%, so the majority of the parliament are either Marxists or Liberals. The Catholic Center is another 25%, and the National Conservatives are definitely in the minority. So, you have one Germany, the Germany of the Liberals, the Germany of the universities, the Germany of the businessmen. And the working class, represented by a Marxist political party, is the largest political party in the German Parliament. So, that's one face of Germany. From the point of view of the Kaiser, the 1912 election results are telling him that the trend lines are not going in the right direction for the future of him and his kindred. Now let's talk about the international side of what's happening in 1912. But to do that we have to spend a little time on understanding the Balkans and that's worth the presentation in itself. See you next time.


W1.02 Schizophrenic Germany

Hi, welcome back. Make yourself comfortable. Let's take a few minutes to understand one particular country on the eve of World War I: Imperial Germany. Vzemimo si nekaj minut časa, da razumemo eno posebno državo na predvečer prve svetovne vojne: cesarsko Nemčijo. I call it Schizophrenic Germany because it seems to have at least two different personalities. Imenujem jo shizofrena Nemčija, ker ima vsaj dve različni osebnosti. Why focus on Germany? If you were going to look at the empires whose insecurities and fears are at the root of what happened in 1914, you wouldn't just look at Germany. Če bi pogledali cesarstva, katerih negotovost in strah so v središču dogajanja leta 1914, ne bi pogledali samo Nemčije. You'd be very interested in looking, for example, at Austria-Hungary. The Austro-Hungarian Empire, ruled by the Habsburg Dynasty. You'd be very interested in looking at the Russian Empire; they play a key role too. Zelo bi vas zanimalo pogled na Rusko cesarstvo; igrajo tudi ključno vlogo. So, why Germany? It's because, I think more than any other single country, Germany controlled the strategic initiative in this crisis. Это потому, что, я думаю, Германия больше, чем какая-либо другая страна, контролировала стратегическую инициативу в этом кризисе. Mislim, da je Nemčija bolj kot katera koli druga država v tej krizi nadzorovala strateško pobudo. What do I mean by that term? Strategic. Initiative. What I mean: the country that has a strategic initiative, or even the company or the individual that has a strategic initiative in an engagement, whether it's a football game or a war, is the country or the side that's really able to set the time, place, and manner of engagement. Что я имею в виду: страна, у которой есть стратегическая инициатива, или даже компания или отдельное лицо, у которых есть стратегическая инициатива в взаимодействии, будь то футбольный матч или война, - это страна или сторона, которые действительно могут установить время , место и способ участия. Kaj mislim: država, ki ima strateško pobudo, ali celo podjetje ali posameznik, ki ima strateško pobudo pri angažmaju, pa naj bo to nogometna tekma ali vojna, je država ali stran, ki si resnično lahko določi čas , kraj in način angažiranja. They control the setting in which this happens. Nadzirajo nastavitev, v kateri se to zgodi. And I think when you look closely at the crisis in 1914, the German Empire, more than any other single country, controlled the time, place, and manner of the decision to risk general war that year. In mislim, da je nemški imperij, ko natančno pogledate krizo leta 1914, bolj kot katera koli druga država nadzoroval čas, kraj in način odločitve o tveganju splošne vojne tistega leta. These other empires certainly have a really important role and, if you want, give them a large share of the blame. But the German Empire's role, I think, is unique as we'll see when we get into that in more detail. Toda mislim, da je vloga nemškega cesarstva edinstvena, kar bomo videli, ko se bomo o tem podrobneje pogovorili. When you look at the German Empire on a map, it often just says Germany; that's misleading. Ko pogledate Nemško cesarstvo na zemljevidu, pogosto piše samo Nemčija; to je zavajajoče. When you dig into, what is the German Empire, it's actually a deeply split government. Ko se poglobite v nemško cesarstvo, je to dejansko globoko razcepljena vlada. Here's a map of the German Empire in these years. What you see is a really big kingdom. Kar vidite, je res veliko kraljestvo. That's in blue. That kingdom in blue, that's the Kingdom of Prussia, but you see a lot of other countries inside the German Empire. For instance, down here at the bottom, you see the Kingdom of Bavaria; or right here, that's the Kingdom of Württemberg. Here's the Grand Duchy of Baden. Tukaj je Veliko vojvodstvo Baden. Here's the kingdom of Saxony with its capital in Dresden, and so on. In other words, Germany actually is the German Empire, and the German Empire consists of a number of different states ruled by kings, princes, and dukes of their own. These different states have their own governments. They're responsible for providing many of their own social services, and they also create and command their own smaller armies, which are harmonized, standard uniforms, equipment, and so on, in the larger imperial army. Odgovorni so za zagotavljanje številnih svojih socialnih storitev, poleg tega pa v večji cesarski vojski ustvarjajo in poveljujejo svoji manjši vojski, ki je usklajena, standardne uniforme, oprema itd. So, on the top you have this guy the Kaiser, a German word derived from the Latin Caesar. Torej, na vrhu imate tega tipa Kaiserja, nemško besedo, ki izhaja iz latinskega Caesar. The Kaiser is the head of the German Empire, but as head of the German Empire all he really controls is the army, the navy, foreign affairs. Kaiser je vodja nemškega cesarstva, a kot vodja nemškega cesarstva v resnici nadzoruje le vojsko, mornarico in zunanje zadeve. He doesn't really run many of the ordinary functions of government as the head of the German Empire. Pravzaprav ne opravlja veliko običajnih vladnih funkcij kot vodja nemškega cesarstva. The Kaiser is also a king. He's the King of Prussia, so he wears two Hats: King of Prussia and Kaiser of the Empire. As King of Prussia, he's the king of a very large state that has all these services: its own parliament, civil service, everything else. When you wears his hat as Kaiser of the Empire, he answers to a parliament: the Imperial Parliament, the Reichstag. Ko nosiš njegov klobuk kot Kaiser Imperija, odgovori parlamentu: Cesarski parlament, Reichstag. The Reichstag basically doesn't have very many powers, except it does have a lot of control over the budget. Over how much money the emperor gets for the army and the navy in his Imperial role. Koliko denarja cesar dobi za vojsko in mornarico v svoji cesarski vlogi. So, in addition to the Kaiser really wearing two hats as the king of one state of the empire, but who's answerable to some degree to this Imperial Parliament, you've also got politics in Germany that are deeply divided, as in so many of these modern nation-states. Torej, poleg tega, da je Kaiser res nosil dva klobuka kot kralj ene države cesarstva, vendar je do neke mere odgovoren temu cesarskemu parlamentu, imate v Nemčiji tudi močno razdeljeno politiko, tako kot v mnogih teh sodobnih nacionalnih držav. In Germany, the Kaiser is the representative of an old nobility. He and his large land-owning, entitled friends are a tiny minority of the German population and feel alienated by a lot of modern culture and some of the modern political parties. Он и его крупные землевладельцы, имеющие титулы друзей, составляют крошечное меньшинство немецкого населения и чувствуют себя отчужденными от современной культуры и некоторых современных политических партий. On in njegovi veliki lastniki zemljišč, upravičeni prijatelji, so majhna manjšina nemškega prebivalstva in se zaradi sodobne kulture in nekaterih sodobnih političnih strank počutijo odtujene. And then in turn, the parties are divided up among the lines we've talked about before. In potem so stranke razdeljene med vrstice, o katerih smo že govorili. The National Tradition, they're a very small faction. The National Conservatives, Liberals, Democratic Socialists, there are some Revolutionary Socialists but they don't take part in politics. Nacionalni konzervativci, liberalci, demokratični socialisti, obstaja nekaj revolucionarnih socialistov, ki pa ne sodelujejo v politiki. Here's the Kaiser in 1914, his name is Wilhelm II. He's not really the guy you want by your side in a crunch. На самом деле он не тот парень, который вам нужен в кризисной ситуации. V resnici ni tisti človek, ki si ga želiš ob sebi. He's an intelligent man, a grandson of Queen Victoria of England, but he always resented his English mother. Je inteligenten človek, vnuk angleške kraljice Viktorije, vendar se je svoji angleški materi vedno zameril. He was born with a kind of defect because of the circumstances of his birth that withered one of his arms and always made him a little extra anxious to prove his masculinity and athletic or hunting skill. Он родился с каким-то дефектом из-за обстоятельств его рождения, которые иссушили одну из его рук и всегда заставляли его немного беспокоиться о том, чтобы доказать свою мужественность и спортивные или охотничьи навыки. Rodil se je z nekakšno okvaro zaradi rojstnih okoliščin, ki so mu posušile eno roko in so ga vedno nekoliko bolj vznemirjale, da bi dokazal svojo moškost in športno ali lovsko spretnost. Who's really running the government of the empire? The day-to-day running of the imperial government was entrusted to this man, Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg. Vsakodnevno vodenje cesarske vlade je bilo zaupano temu človeku, Theobaldu von Bethmannu Hollwegu. Bethmann Hollweg though, is not like a prime minister or a chancellor would be today. You'd think of a prime minister as the politician whose party has the most votes in the Imperial Parliament. O premierju bi mislili kot o politiku, katerega stranka ima največ glasov v cesarskem parlamentu. No. Bethmann-Hollweg, he's just a Prussian career civil servant. He's appointed to his job as the chancellor by the Kaiser. Na mesto kanclerja ga je imenoval Kaiser. He's not a politician, and he has no political base in the Imperial Parliament. Ni politik in nima politične baze v cesarskem parlamentu. He serves at the whim of his crowned master. Он служит по прихоти своего коронованного хозяина. Služi po muhi svojega kronanega gospodarja. In foreign affairs, Germany is beginning to feel a bit encircled. V zunanjih zadevah se Nemčija počuti nekoliko obkroženo. Here they are in the center of Europe. Here's large Russia over here. It was really weakened by the revolutions of 1905, but it's recovering its military power and now has the most numerous army in Europe. And here's France over here, still eager for revenge from its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. In tukaj je Francija, ki se še vedno želi maščevati za poraz v francosko-pruski vojni. The Germans feel hemmed in in their search for colonies. Nemci se počutijo vpleteni v iskanje kolonij. And so here are the Germans, they feel like they've become the most powerful country on the continent of Europe, but nonetheless feel defensive, encircled, and worried that their enemies are going to get stronger than they are. The Germans are encouraged to find their place in the sun by being a dominant power in middle Europe, in middle Europa, in central Europe. They're partly encouraged in this hope by this man, Sir Edward Grey. V tem upanju jih deloma spodbuja ta mož, Sir Edward Gray. He's the British Foreign Minister trying to manage the balance of power, trying to diffuse crises, trying to keep the British from having to get involved in some military conflict on the continent. By 1912, the Kaiser and some of the nobles around him increasingly feel like the world is moving in the wrong direction. Their reasons for feelings that are partly domestic and partly international. Let's take a look here at what's happening to them in domestic politics. The Germans have a national election in 1912. In an earlier presentation, we talked about the basic kinds of political parties you'd find in the modern world in this period. Armed with that knowledge, you too can interpret the German election results of 1912. Let's take a look. So, on the very far left, you'd have the Revolutionary Socialists. Well, they're not participating in the election because they believe in the violent overthrow of the government. So, they're not represented here. Next, on the left, you'd have the Democratic Socialists, these are the Marxists who are willing to participate in government. In Germany, that's the Social Democratic Party, right here. So, those are your Democratic Socialists. Then, you have your Liberals. The Liberals really group into those who are more pro-imperial and those who are a little more anti-militaristic. The more leftist Liberals are here. The more right-wing Liberals are here. But the Liberal parties taken together win this many seats. Here's the Catholic Center Party. The Catholic Center Party is not easy to categorize. A lot of their views are really Liberal. They're in favor of religious tolerance, because the Catholics feel like they've been battling against the German State for the last 40 years. But, on the other hand, they do believe in traditional values and they definitely do not like the anti-Catholic Marxists. So, I would classify the centrum, the Catholic Center, as being a little more on the Liberal side of the spectrum, literally kind of in the center. On the more conservative side, what I'd call the National Conservatives, that would really be these two parties right here: the German Conservative Party and the German Imperial Party. But between them, that's only 57 seats. Here's some other national minority parties, including a party that called itself the Anti-Semitic Party, because it was so proud that it was anti-Jewish. The Farmer's Party and some of other motley groups. But if you look at this as a whole, this is a very discouraging election result for the Kaiser. If you break it down, you'll see that what they regard as the far left is 30% of the Parliament. The Liberals make up another 24%, so the majority of the parliament are either Marxists or Liberals. The Catholic Center is another 25%, and the National Conservatives are definitely in the minority. So, you have one Germany, the Germany of the Liberals, the Germany of the universities, the Germany of the businessmen. And the working class, represented by a Marxist political party, is the largest political party in the German Parliament. So, that's one face of Germany. From the point of view of the Kaiser, the 1912 election results are telling him that the trend lines are not going in the right direction for the future of him and his kindred. Now let's talk about the international side of what's happening in 1912. But to do that we have to spend a little time on understanding the Balkans and that's worth the presentation in itself. See you next time.