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FILE_20210827_155952_collin-graar-pdf, Part (1)

Part (1)

Graham King Collins Good Grammar «HarperCollins»

King G. Collins Good Grammar / G. King — «HarperCollins», An invaluable guide to the world of good grammar which breaks down the barriers that prevent so many articulate, intelligent people from communicating effectively.Picking up a book on grammar takes courage, but the learner can take heart from the fact that many of the great writers, including Charlotte Bronte, were hopeless at grammar at school. Her teachers complained that she ‘knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. Yet though learning and obeying the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow the grace and excellence of a Bronte on your writing, learning how written language works will certainly improve your communication skills, step by practical step. The guide features:- the thirteen gremlins of grammar, from apostrophes to verbs- the point of sentence construction- the writing of good English- witty cartoons by Hunt Emerson © King G. © HarperCollins

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Contents 7 The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 8 Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! 9 What is Grammar? Why use it? 10 You know more about grammar than you think 12 Answers to the Grammar Test 17 Let's Look at Sentences 21 The long-winded sentence 23 When a sentence isn't a sentence 24 The inner workings of the classic sentence 25 Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences 27 Types of Regular Sentences 28 The ‘Voice' of a Sentence 29 The Mood of a Sentence 30 Ellipsis: Trimming away ‘Sentence Fat' 31 Harmony in the Sentence 32 Starting a Sentence with ‘And' and ‘But' 35 The Building Blocks of Sentences: Parts of Speech 36 Nouns 39 Verbs 40 Adjectives 41 Adverbs 42 Pronouns 43 Determiners 44 Conjunctions 45 Prepositions 46 Interjections 47 Phrases and Clauses 48 Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. 50 4

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 5

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 6

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Contents Cover Title Page The Thirteen Gremlins of Grammar Introduction What is Grammar? Why use it? You know more about grammar than you think: Test Grammar Test Answers and Scorecard Let's look at Sentences The building blocks of sentences: Parts of Speech Naming things: Nouns You, me and other Pronouns It's a plane! It's a bird! No! It's Superverb! Describing things: Adjectives and Adverbs Grammatical glue: Determiners, Conjunctions, Prepositions Punctuation: What's the point? Punctuation: Devices for separating and joining Punctuation: Symbols of meaning Writing good English: The Elements of Style Index Keep Reading About the Author Writing Guides by Graham King Copyright About the Publisher 7

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 1 Correct speling is essential. 2 Don't use no double negatives. 3 Verbs has got to agree with their subjects. 4 Don't write run-on sentences they are hard to read. 5 About them sentence fragments. 6 Don't use commas, that aren't necessary. 7 A preposition is not a good word to end a sentence with. 8 Remember to not ever split infinitives. 9 Writing carefully, dangling participles must be avoided. 10 Alway's use apostrophe's correctly. 11 Make each singular pronoun agree with their antecedents. 12 Join clauses good, like a conjunction should. 13 Proofread your writing to make sure you don't words out. And, above all, avoid clichés like the plague. “The greatest and most necessary task remains, to attain a habit of expression, without which knowledge is of little use.” – Dr Samuel Johnson, LLD 8

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! It takes courage to pick up a book on grammar when schooldays are over. Real courage, if only distant (and probably unpleasant) memories survive of what the subject was all about. But you have picked this one up. And take heart. Charlotte Bronte, author of Jane Eyre and one of the greatest exponents of the language, was hopeless in English at school. Her teachers complained that ‘she knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. More recently, millions of young people have been denied even basic instruction in how to write good English – victims of the quarter-century blackout when the fashionable view of the education establishment was that a knowledge of how the parts of speech work was unnecessary. The acquisition of language skills happened naturally, they preached. And so it does, to a point. Learning and obeying all the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow excellence on your speech and writing; but completely ignoring them will almost certainly consign you to inarticulate semi-literacy. Does being good at grammar help you in life? Thousands of people who hold down highly- paid top jobs can hardly spell or compose a coherent letter without help. Even The Times, regarded as a paragon of grammatical certitude, slips up with comforting regularity: ‘According to the Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit,' it reported recently, ‘one in four 16- to 20-year-olds have reading problems and more than one third have trouble with spelling.' (the first have should be has, to agree with its antecedent one in four). Embarrassingly, the slip-up occurred in an editorial on the need for the rigorous teaching of grammar. Are we being picky, or what? The danger is, if we allow seemingly minor transgressions to go unnoticed, we could find ourselves grappling with a leaky language system reeking of confusion and ambiguity. Surely computer technology can help us with grammar. It can go some of the way, yes, but over-reliance on corrective software can be dangerous. An English student, writing a character study of Bottom from A Midsummer Night's Dream for a drama exam, ran the essay through the word processor's grammatical check tool. Her sentence, ‘Puck thought it would be fun to place an asses's head on Bottom' was highlighted with the instruction: Avoid this offensive term. Consider revising. Just as it's considered necessary to accept some basic instruction before driving a car, pretty much the same applies to writing. Before driving a car you learn to recognise some of its more important parts: the ignition and lights, the steering wheel, clutch, gears, brake, petrol tank, windscreen wipers and so forth. It's also necessary to know just what each part does, and what happens when you press it, turn it, pull it or push it. You also need to learn some rules – about speed, signalling, red and green lights, traffic and road signs. When you do all this, you can drive. When you do it all well, you might even drive well. Of course many people learn to drive a car without professional instruction, but, insufficiently equipped, they are often a danger to themselves and others. It's not too different with reading, speaking and writing. Yes, we get by. But learning or relearning the rules and principles that govern the use of the language can only improve our communication skills. And more than ever, effective communicating is vital to our lives, our success, our enjoyment. By picking up this book you've recognised that to improve your communication skills you probably need to return to basics. You've picked up the right book. Collins Good Grammar is designed to explain, step by practical step, authoritatively but entertainingly, the workings of our language, and to help you wrestle with its grammar – and win! 9 G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» What is Grammar? Why use it? This won‘t take long. A language requires two elements to fulfil man's need to communicate effectively: a vocabulary and a grammar. The vocabulary is the language's stock of words: combinations of symbols, signs or letters that have evolved to identify things and ideas. But words by themselves can never constitute a language. Imagine someone possessing all the words required to express the message in the first three sentences, but no method of putting them together to make sense. An attempt might look like this: Grammar about what duration of the clock will not take much duration not take small duration reasons to tell. It would be like trying to build a solid wall with tennis balls. What's needed is some cement or glue to stick them together, to create a structure that others will recognise. In the case of a language this glue is a system of rules called grammar. Languages aren't created in a day; some have evolved over hundreds, even thousands of years, and are still evolving. The users of any language must constantly invent to adapt to fresh circumstances, and when invention flags they must borrow. Not only words, but rules, too. English grammar contains rules that can be traced back to the Greeks and Romans: rules that helped the early users of our language to string their words together to create increasingly clearer and more complex messages. They enabled that meaningless jumble of words to take shape as a recognisable sentence: To tell what grammar is and that grammar should be used will need not little time not long time but some little long time. A big improvement, but still clumsy and vague. Obviously the language still required some more words and rules. The speaker needed a word more precise than tell, such as explain. Also needed was a system for building phrases with their own meanings, and another system for adding inflections to basic words to indicate time and sequence: explain, explaining, explained. With such improvements the sentence not only becomes shorter but also expresses the speaker's intentions with greater accuracy: Explaining what grammar is and why you should use grammar will not take a long time. Then users began to get clever by inventing idioms such as not too long to say in three words what it took nearly a dozen to say in an earlier version. They also learned about ellipsis. To avoid repetition they created pronouns to substitute for nouns, phrases and whole sentences. Here, this stands for the two questions: What is Grammar? Why use it? This will not take long. And then, finally, in the quest for even greater economy, the newly-invented apostrophe was brought into play, saving yet one more word: What is Grammar? Why use it? This won't take long. And, having recognised that the promise following the original question is now history – in the past – our grasp of grammar's immense potential allows us to write: It hasn't taken long, has it? None of this should really surprise you, because if you are a native user of English you are also an intuitive user of its grammar. Although you may have either never known or have forgotten the difference between a common noun and a proper noun; are a little uncertain about using semi-colons and possessive apostrophes; are sublimely unconscious of piling on clichés and couldn't recognise a split infinitive even if you were offered a fortune, you have always managed to be understood, to get your point across, to enjoy reading newspapers and magazines, to write letters and cards to your family and friends, to deal adequately with the demands of the workplace. 10

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» But ask yourself: am I cringing along in the slow lane, grammatically speaking, aware of the ever-increasing traffic in the faster lanes? More than at any time in history, you are judged on your communication skills, whether in speech or in writing. The successful development of your personal life, your relationships and your career is now more and more dependent upon the way in which you express your thoughts, your insights, knowledge and desires into language. How well you accomplish this is just as dependent upon your understanding of grammar. In so many ways you are only as good as your grammar. Few would dispute that this is the Age of Communication. Its message is that the media are expanding exponentially. You can respond to the challenges and demands, or you can allow it to pass you by. By reading this far, you appear to have chosen the former course. That's courageous, and you should feel encouraged. If, however, you remain unsure or sceptical, proceed to the next section which should demonstrate to you that you probably know quite a bit more about grammar than you ever imagined.


Part (1) Part (1) Частина 1)

Graham King Collins Good Grammar «HarperCollins» Грэм Кинг Коллинз Хорошая грамматика «HarperCollins»

King G. Collins Good Grammar / G. King — «HarperCollins», An invaluable guide to the world of good grammar which breaks down the barriers that prevent so many articulate, intelligent people from communicating effectively.Picking up a book on grammar takes courage, but the learner can take heart from the fact that many of the great writers, including Charlotte Bronte, were hopeless at grammar at school. Кинг Г. Коллинз Хорошая грамматика / Г. Кинг — «HarperCollins», бесценный путеводитель по миру хорошей грамматики, который разрушает барьеры, мешающие эффективному общению многих красноречивых и умных людей. но учащийся может воодушевиться тем фактом, что многие из великих писателей, включая Шарлотту Бронте, безнадежно учились грамматике в школе. Her teachers complained that she ‘knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. Ее учителя жаловались, что она «ничего не знала о грамматике», могла читать только «сносно» и писать «безразлично». Yet though learning and obeying the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow the grace and excellence of a Bronte on your writing, learning how written language works will certainly improve your communication skills, step by practical step. Тем не менее, хотя изучение и соблюдение правил грамматики не придаст автоматически изящества и совершенства Бронте вашему письму, изучение того, как работает письменная речь, безусловно, шаг за шагом улучшит ваши навыки общения. The guide features:- the thirteen gremlins of grammar, from apostrophes to verbs- the point of sentence construction- the writing of good English- witty cartoons by Hunt Emerson © King G. В руководстве представлены: - тринадцать гремлинов грамматики, от апострофов до глаголов - смысл построения предложений - написание хорошего английского языка - остроумные карикатуры Ханта Эмерсона © King G. © HarperCollins

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Contents 7 The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 8 Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Contents 7 Тринадцать гремлимов грамматики 8 Введение: Как бороться с грамматикой – и побеждать! 9 What is Grammar? Why use it? 10 You know more about grammar than you think 12 Answers to the Grammar Test 17 Let's Look at Sentences 21 The long-winded sentence 23 When a sentence isn't a sentence 24 The inner workings of the classic sentence 25 Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences 27 Types of Regular Sentences 28 The ‘Voice' of a Sentence 29 The Mood of a Sentence 30 Ellipsis: Trimming away ‘Sentence Fat' 31 Harmony in the Sentence 32 Starting a Sentence with ‘And' and ‘But' 35 The Building Blocks of Sentences: Parts of Speech 36 Nouns 39 Verbs 40 Adjectives 41 Adverbs 42 Pronouns 43 Determiners 44 Conjunctions 45 Prepositions 46 Interjections 47 Phrases and Clauses 48 Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. 10 Вы знаете о грамматике больше, чем думаете 12 Ответы на тест по грамматике 17 Давайте посмотрим на предложения 21 Многословное предложение 23 Когда предложение не является предложением 24 Внутреннее устройство классического предложения 25 Простые, сложные и сложные предложения 27 Типы правильных предложений 28 «Голос» предложения 29 Настроение предложения 30 Многоточие: удаление «жира в предложении» 31 Гармония в предложении 32 Начало предложения с «И» и «Но» 35 Строительные блоки Предложения: Части речи 36 Существительные 39 Глаголы 40 Прилагательные 41 Наречия 42 Местоимения 43 Определители 44 Союзы 45 Предлоги 46 Междометия 47 Фразы и предложения 48 Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. 50 4

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 5

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 6

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Contents Cover Title Page The Thirteen Gremlins of Grammar Introduction What is Grammar? «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Обложка Титульный лист Тринадцать гремлинов грамматики Введение Что такое грамматика? Why use it? You know more about grammar than you think: Test Grammar Test Answers and Scorecard Let's look at Sentences The building blocks of sentences: Parts of Speech Naming things: Nouns You, me and other Pronouns It's a plane! It's a bird! Это птица! No! It's Superverb! Это суперверб! Describing things: Adjectives and Adverbs Grammatical glue: Determiners, Conjunctions, Prepositions Punctuation: What's the point? Описание вещей: прилагательные и наречия. Грамматический клей: определители, союзы, предлоги. Пунктуация: в чем смысл? Punctuation: Devices for separating and joining Punctuation: Symbols of meaning Writing good English: The Elements of Style Index Keep Reading About the Author Writing Guides by Graham King Copyright About the Publisher 7 Пунктуация: Способы разделения и соединения Пунктуация: Символы значения Письмо на хорошем английском языке: Индекс элементов стиля Продолжайте читать Об авторе Руководства по написанию Грэма Кинга Авторские права Об издателе 7

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 1 Correct speling is essential. 2 Don't use no double negatives. 2 Не используйте двойное отрицание. 3 Verbs has got to agree with their subjects. 3 Глагола должны согласовываться со своими субъектами. 4 Don't write run-on sentences they are hard to read. 4 Не пишите длинные предложения, их трудно читать. 5 About them sentence fragments. 6 Don't use commas, that aren't necessary. 6 Не используйте запятые, они не нужны. 7 A preposition is not a good word to end a sentence with. 7 Предлог не подходит для окончания предложения. 8 Remember to not ever split infinitives. 8 Не забывайте никогда не разделять инфинитивы. 9 Writing carefully, dangling participles must be avoided. 10 Alway's use apostrophe's correctly. 11 Make each singular pronoun agree with their antecedents. 12 Join clauses good, like a conjunction should. 13 Proofread your writing to make sure you don't words out. And, above all, avoid clichés like the plague. И, прежде всего, избегайте клише, как чумы. “The greatest and most necessary task remains, to attain a habit of expression, without which knowledge is of little use.” – Dr Samuel Johnson, LLD 8 «Остается величайшая и самая необходимая задача — выработать привычку к выражению, без которой знание бесполезно». – Д-р Сэмюэл Джонсон, доктор юридических наук 8

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! «Collins Good Grammar» Введение: Как бороться с грамматикой — и побеждать! It takes courage to pick up a book on grammar when schooldays are over. Требуется мужество, чтобы взять книгу по грамматике, когда школьные годы закончились. Real courage, if only distant (and probably unpleasant) memories survive of what the subject was all about. But you have picked this one up. And take heart. Charlotte Bronte, author of Jane Eyre and one of the greatest exponents of the language, was hopeless in English at school. Шарлотта Бронте, автор книги «Джейн Эйр» и одна из величайших знатоков языка, в школе не знала английского. Her teachers complained that ‘she knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. Ее учителя жаловались, что «она ничего не знала о грамматике», могла читать только «сносно» и писать «безразлично». More recently, millions of young people have been denied even basic instruction in how to write good English – victims of the quarter-century blackout when the fashionable view of the education establishment was that a knowledge of how the parts of speech work was unnecessary. The acquisition of language skills happened naturally, they preached. And so it does, to a point. Learning and obeying all the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow excellence on your speech and writing; but completely ignoring them will almost certainly consign you to inarticulate semi-literacy. Does being good at grammar help you in life? Thousands of people who hold down highly- paid top jobs can hardly spell or compose a coherent letter without help. Even The Times, regarded as a paragon of grammatical certitude, slips up with comforting regularity: ‘According to the Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit,' it reported recently, ‘one in four 16- to 20-year-olds have reading problems and more than one third have trouble with spelling.' (the first have should be has, to agree with its antecedent one in four). Embarrassingly, the slip-up occurred in an editorial on the need for the rigorous teaching of grammar. Are we being picky, or what? The danger is, if we allow seemingly minor transgressions to go unnoticed, we could find ourselves grappling with a leaky language system reeking of confusion and ambiguity. Surely computer technology can help us with grammar. It can go some of the way, yes, but over-reliance on corrective software can be dangerous. An English student, writing a character study of Bottom from A Midsummer Night's Dream for a drama exam, ran the essay through the word processor's grammatical check tool. Her sentence, ‘Puck thought it would be fun to place an asses's head on Bottom' was highlighted with the instruction: Avoid this offensive term. Consider revising. Just as it's considered necessary to accept some basic instruction before driving a car, pretty much the same applies to writing. Before driving a car you learn to recognise some of its more important parts: the ignition and lights, the steering wheel, clutch, gears, brake, petrol tank, windscreen wipers and so forth. It's also necessary to know just what each part does, and what happens when you press it, turn it, pull it or push it. You also need to learn some rules – about speed, signalling, red and green lights, traffic and road signs. When you do all this, you can drive. When you do it all well, you might even drive well. Of course many people learn to drive a car without professional instruction, but, insufficiently equipped, they are often a danger to themselves and others. It's not too different with reading, speaking and writing. Yes, we get by. But learning or relearning the rules and principles that govern the use of the language can only improve our communication skills. And more than ever, effective communicating is vital to our lives, our success, our enjoyment. By picking up this book you've recognised that to improve your communication skills you probably need to return to basics. You've picked up the right book. Collins Good Grammar is designed to explain, step by practical step, authoritatively but entertainingly, the workings of our language, and to help you wrestle with its grammar – and win! 9 G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» What is Grammar? Why use it? This won‘t take long. A language requires two elements to fulfil man's need to communicate effectively: a vocabulary and a grammar. The vocabulary is the language's stock of words: combinations of symbols, signs or letters that have evolved to identify things and ideas. But words by themselves can never constitute a language. Imagine someone possessing all the words required to express the message in the first three sentences, but no method of putting them together to make sense. An attempt might look like this: Grammar about what duration of the clock will not take much duration not take small duration reasons to tell. It would be like trying to build a solid wall with tennis balls. What's needed is some cement or glue to stick them together, to create a structure that others will recognise. In the case of a language this glue is a system of rules called grammar. Languages aren't created in a day; some have evolved over hundreds, even thousands of years, and are still evolving. The users of any language must constantly invent to adapt to fresh circumstances, and when invention flags they must borrow. Not only words, but rules, too. English grammar contains rules that can be traced back to the Greeks and Romans: rules that helped the early users of our language to string their words together to create increasingly clearer and more complex messages. They enabled that meaningless jumble of words to take shape as a recognisable sentence: To tell what grammar is and that grammar should be used will need not little time not long time but some little long time. A big improvement, but still clumsy and vague. Obviously the language still required some more words and rules. The speaker needed a word more precise than tell, such as explain. Also needed was a system for building phrases with their own meanings, and another system for adding inflections to basic words to indicate time and sequence: explain, explaining, explained. With such improvements the sentence not only becomes shorter but also expresses the speaker's intentions with greater accuracy: Explaining what grammar is and why you should use grammar will not take a long time. Then users began to get clever by inventing idioms such as not too long to say in three words what it took nearly a dozen to say in an earlier version. They also learned about ellipsis. To avoid repetition they created pronouns to substitute for nouns, phrases and whole sentences. Here, this stands for the two questions: What is Grammar? Why use it? This will not take long. And then, finally, in the quest for even greater economy, the newly-invented apostrophe was brought into play, saving yet one more word: What is Grammar? Why use it? This won't take long. And, having recognised that the promise following the original question is now history – in the past – our grasp of grammar's immense potential allows us to write: It hasn't taken long, has it? None of this should really surprise you, because if you are a native user of English you are also an intuitive user of its grammar. Although you may have either never known or have forgotten the difference between a common noun and a proper noun; are a little uncertain about using semi-colons and possessive apostrophes; are sublimely unconscious of piling on clichés and couldn't recognise a split infinitive even if you were offered a fortune, you have always managed to be understood, to get your point across, to enjoy reading newspapers and magazines, to write letters and cards to your family and friends, to deal adequately with the demands of the workplace. 10

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» But ask yourself: am I cringing along in the slow lane, grammatically speaking, aware of the ever-increasing traffic in the faster lanes? More than at any time in history, you are judged on your communication skills, whether in speech or in writing. The successful development of your personal life, your relationships and your career is now more and more dependent upon the way in which you express your thoughts, your insights, knowledge and desires into language. How well you accomplish this is just as dependent upon your understanding of grammar. In so many ways you are only as good as your grammar. Few would dispute that this is the Age of Communication. Its message is that the media are expanding exponentially. You can respond to the challenges and demands, or you can allow it to pass you by. By reading this far, you appear to have chosen the former course. That's courageous, and you should feel encouraged. If, however, you remain unsure or sceptical, proceed to the next section which should demonstrate to you that you probably know quite a bit more about grammar than you ever imagined.