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Collin Good Grammar, Part (1)

Part (1)

Graham King Collins Good Grammar «HarperCollins»

King G. Collins Good Grammar / G. King — «HarperCollins», An invaluable guide to the world of good grammar which breaks down the barriers that prevent so many articulate, intelligent people from communicating effectively.Picking up a book on grammar takes courage, but the learner can take heart from the fact that many of the great writers, including Charlotte Bronte, were hopeless at grammar at school. Her teachers complained that she ‘knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. Yet though learning and obeying the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow the grace and excellence of a Bronte on your writing, learning how written language works will certainly improve your communication skills, step by practical step. The guide features:- the thirteen gremlins of grammar, from apostrophes to verbs- the point of sentence construction- the writing of good English- witty cartoons by Hunt Emerson © King G. © HarperCollins

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Contents 7 The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 8 Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! 9 What is Grammar? Why use it? 10 You know more about grammar than you think 12 Answers to the Grammar Test 17 Let's Look at Sentences 21 The long-winded sentence 23 When a sentence isn't a sentence 24 The inner workings of the classic sentence 25 Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences 27 Types of Regular Sentences 28 The ‘Voice' of a Sentence 29 The Mood of a Sentence 30 Ellipsis: Trimming away ‘Sentence Fat' 31 Harmony in the Sentence 32 Starting a Sentence with ‘And' and ‘But' 35 The Building Blocks of Sentences: Parts of Speech 36 Nouns 39 Verbs 40 Adjectives 41 Adverbs 42 Pronouns 43 Determiners 44 Conjunctions 45 Prepositions 46 Interjections 47 Phrases and Clauses 48 Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. 50 4

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 5

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 6

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Contents Cover Title Page The Thirteen Gremlins of Grammar Introduction What is Grammar? Why use it? You know more about grammar than you think: Test Grammar Test Answers and Scorecard Let's look at Sentences The building blocks of sentences: Parts of Speech Naming things: Nouns You, me and other Pronouns It's a plane! It's a bird! No! It's Superverb! Describing things: Adjectives and Adverbs Grammatical glue: Determiners, Conjunctions, Prepositions Punctuation: What's the point? Punctuation: Devices for separating and joining Punctuation: Symbols of meaning Writing good English: The Elements of Style Index Keep Reading About the Author Writing Guides by Graham King Copyright About the Publisher 7

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 1 Correct spelling is essential. 2 Don't use no double negatives. 3 Verbs has got to agree with their subjects. 4 Don't write run-on sentences they are hard to read. 5 About them sentence fragments. 6 Don't use commas, that aren't necessary. 7 A preposition is not a good word to end a sentence with. 8 Remember to not ever split infinitives. 9 Writing carefully, dangling participles must be avoided. 10 Alway's use apostrophe's correctly. 11 Make each singular pronoun agree with their antecedents. 12 Join clauses good, like a conjunction should. 13 Proofread your writing to make sure you don't words out. And, above all, avoid clichés like the plague. “The greatest and most necessary task remains, to attain a habit of expression, without which knowledge is of little use.” – Dr Samuel Johnson, LLD 8

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! It takes courage to pick up a book on grammar when schooldays are over. Real courage, if only distant (and probably unpleasant) memories survive of what the subject was all about. But you have picked this one up. And take heart. Charlotte Bronte, author of Jane Eyre and one of the greatest exponents of the language, was hopeless in English at school. Her teachers complained that ‘she knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. More recently, millions of young people have been denied even basic instruction in how to write good English – victims of the quarter-century blackout when the fashionable view of the education establishment was that a knowledge of how the parts of speech work was unnecessary. The acquisition of language skills happened naturally, they preached. And so it does, to a point. Learning and obeying all the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow excellence on your speech and writing; but completely ignoring them will almost certainly consign you to inarticulate semi-literacy. Does being good at grammar help you in life? Thousands of people who hold down highly- paid top jobs can hardly spell or compose a coherent letter without help. Even The Times, regarded as a paragon of grammatical certitude, slips up with comforting regularity: ‘According to the Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit,' it reported recently, ‘one in four 16- to 20-year-olds have reading problems and more than one third have trouble with spelling.' (the first have should be has, to agree with its antecedent one in four). Embarrassingly, the slip-up occurred in an editorial on the need for the rigorous teaching of grammar. Are we being picky, or what? The danger is, if we allow seemingly minor transgressions to go unnoticed, we could find ourselves grappling with a leaky language system reeking of confusion and ambiguity. Surely computer technology can help us with grammar. It can go some of the way, yes, but over-reliance on corrective software can be dangerous. An English student, writing a character study of Bottom from A Midsummer Night's Dream for a drama exam, ran the essay through the word processor's grammatical check tool. Her sentence, ‘Puck thought it would be fun to place an asses's head on Bottom' was highlighted with the instruction: Avoid this offensive term. Consider revising. Just as it's considered necessary to accept some basic instruction before driving a car, pretty much the same applies to writing. Before driving a car you learn to recognise some of its more important parts: the ignition and lights, the steering wheel, clutch, gears, brake, petrol tank, windscreen wipers and so forth. It's also necessary to know just what each part does, and what happens when you press it, turn it, pull it or push it. You also need to learn some rules – about speed, signalling, red and green lights, traffic and road signs. When you do all this, you can drive. When you do it all well, you might even drive well. Of course many people learn to drive a car without professional instruction, but, insufficiently equipped, they are often a danger to themselves and others. It's not too different with reading, speaking and writing. Yes, we get by. But learning or relearning the rules and principles that govern the use of the language can only improve our communication skills. And more than ever, effective communicating is vital to our lives, our success, our enjoyment. By picking up this book you've recognised that to improve your communication skills you probably need to return to basics. You've picked up the right book. Collins Good Grammar is designed to explain, step by practical step, authoritatively but entertainingly, the workings of our language, and to help you wrestle with its grammar – and win! 9 G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» What is Grammar? Why use it? This won‘t take long. A language requires two elements to fulfil man's need to communicate effectively: a vocabulary and a grammar. The vocabulary is the language's stock of words: combinations of symbols, signs or letters that have evolved to identify things and ideas. But words by themselves can never constitute a language. Imagine someone possessing all the words required to express the message in the first three sentences, but no method of putting them together to make sense. An attempt might look like this: Grammar about what duration of the clock will not take much duration not take small duration reasons to tell. It would be like trying to build a solid wall with tennis balls. What's needed is some cement or glue to stick them together, to create a structure that others will recognise. In the case of a language this glue is a system of rules called grammar. Languages aren't created in a day; some have evolved over hundreds, even thousands of years, and are still evolving. The users of any language must constantly invent to adapt to fresh circumstances, and when invention flags they must borrow. Not only words, but rules, too. English grammar contains rules that can be traced back to the Greeks and Romans: rules that helped the early users of our language to string their words together to create increasingly clearer and more complex messages. They enabled that meaningless jumble of words to take shape as a recognisable sentence: To tell what grammar is and that grammar should be used will need not little time not long time but some little long time. A big improvement, but still clumsy and vague. Obviously the language still required some more words and rules. The speaker needed a word more precise than tell, such as explain. Also needed was a system for building phrases with their own meanings, and another system for adding inflections to basic words to indicate time and sequence: explain, explaining, explained. With such improvements the sentence not only becomes shorter but also expresses the speaker's intentions with greater accuracy: Explaining what grammar is and why you should use grammar will not take a long time. Then users began to get clever by inventing idioms such as not too long to say in three words what it took nearly a dozen to say in an earlier version. They also learned about ellipsis. To avoid repetition they created pronouns to substitute for nouns, phrases and whole sentences. Here, this stands for the two questions: What is Grammar? Why use it? This will not take long. And then, finally, in the quest for even greater economy, the newly-invented apostrophe was brought into play, saving yet one more word: What is Grammar? Why use it? This won't take long. And, having recognised that the promise following the original question is now history – in the past – our grasp of grammar's immense potential allows us to write: It hasn't taken long, has it? None of this should really surprise you, because if you are a native user of English you are also an intuitive user of its grammar. Although you may have either never known or have forgotten the difference between a common noun and a proper noun; are a little uncertain about using semi-colons and possessive apostrophes; are sublimely unconscious of piling on clichés and couldn't recognise a split infinitive even if you were offered a fortune, you have always managed to be understood, to get your point across, to enjoy reading newspapers and magazines, to write letters and cards to your family and friends, to deal adequately with the demands of the workplace. 10

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» But ask yourself: am I cringing along in the slow lane, grammatically speaking, aware of the ever-increasing traffic in the faster lanes? More than at any time in history, you are judged on your communication skills, whether in speech or in writing. The successful development of your personal life, your relationships and your career is now more and more dependent upon the way in which you express your thoughts, your insights, knowledge and desires into language. How well you accomplish this is just as dependent upon your understanding of grammar. In so many ways you are only as good as your grammar. Few would dispute that this is the Age of Communication. Its message is that the media are expanding exponentially. You can respond to the challenges and demands, or you can allow it to pass you by. By reading this far, you appear to have chosen the former course. That's courageous, and you should feel encouraged. If, however, you remain unsure or sceptical, proceed to the next section which should demonstrate to you that you probably know quite a bit more about grammar than you ever imagined.


Part (1) Teil 1) Part (1)

Graham King Collins Good Grammar «HarperCollins» Graham King Collins Dobrá gramatika «HarperCollins» Graham King Collins Gute Grammatik «HarperCollins» Graham King Collins Good Grammar «HarperCollins» Грэм Кинг Коллинз Хорошая грамматика «HarperCollins»

King G. Collins Good Grammar / G. King — «HarperCollins», An invaluable guide to the world of good grammar which breaks down the barriers that prevent so many articulate, intelligent people from communicating effectively.Picking up a book on grammar takes courage, but the learner can take heart from the fact that many of the great writers, including Charlotte Bronte, were hopeless at grammar at school. King G. Collins Good Grammar / G. King — «HarperCollins», Neocenitelný průvodce světem dobré gramatiky, který boří bariéry, které tolika výmluvným a inteligentním lidem brání v efektivní komunikaci. Vzít do ruky knihu o gramatice vyžaduje odvahu, ale student si může vzít srdce ze skutečnosti, že mnoho velkých spisovatelů, včetně Charlotte Bronteové, bylo ve škole beznadějné. King G. Collins Good Grammar / G. King – «HarperCollins», Ein unschätzbarer Leitfaden für die Welt der guten Grammatik, der die Barrieren niederreißt, die so viele artikulierte, intelligente Menschen daran hindern, effektiv zu kommunizieren. Ein Buch über Grammatik in die Hand zu nehmen, erfordert Mut, aber der Lernende kann Mut aus der Tatsache schöpfen, dass viele der großen Schriftsteller, einschließlich Charlotte Bronte, in der Schule hoffnungslos in der Grammatik waren. Her teachers complained that she ‘knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. Její učitelé si stěžovali, že ‚neumí nic z gramatiky‘ a že umí číst jen ‚snesitelně‘ a psát ‚lhostejně‘. Ihre Lehrer beklagten, dass sie „keine Grammatik verstand“, nur „leider“ lesen und „uninteressant“ schreiben konnte. Ее учителя жаловались, что она «ничего не знала о грамматике», могла читать только «сносно» и писать «безразлично». Yet though learning and obeying the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow the grace and excellence of a Bronte on your writing, learning how written language works will certainly improve your communication skills, step by practical step. Obwohl das Erlernen und Befolgen der Grammatikregeln Ihrem Schreiben nicht automatisch die Anmut und Exzellenz einer Bronte verleiht, wird das Erlernen der Funktionsweise der geschriebenen Sprache sicherlich Ihre Kommunikationsfähigkeiten Schritt für Schritt verbessern. Тем не менее, хотя изучение и соблюдение правил грамматики не придаст автоматически изящества и совершенства Бронте вашему письму, изучение того, как работает письменная речь, безусловно, шаг за шагом улучшит ваши коммуникативные навыки. The guide features:- the thirteen gremlins of grammar, from apostrophes to verbs- the point of sentence construction- the writing of good English- witty cartoons by Hunt Emerson © King G. Der Leitfaden enthält: - die dreizehn Gremlins der Grammatik, von Apostrophen bis zu Verben - den Punkt der Satzkonstruktion - das Schreiben von gutem Englisch - witzige Cartoons von Hunt Emerson © King G. © HarperCollins

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. G. König, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Contents 7 The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 8 Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! «Collins Good Grammar» Содержание Inhalt 7 Die dreizehn Gremlims der Grammatik 8 Einleitung: Wie man mit der Grammatik ringt – und gewinnt! 9 What is Grammar? 9 Was ist Grammatik? Why use it? Warum verwenden? 10 You know more about grammar than you think 12 Answers to the Grammar Test 17 Let's Look at Sentences 21 The long-winded sentence 23 When a sentence isn't a sentence 24 The inner workings of the classic sentence 25 Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences 27 Types of Regular Sentences 28 The ‘Voice' of a Sentence 29 The Mood of a Sentence 30 Ellipsis: Trimming away ‘Sentence Fat' 31 Harmony in the Sentence 32 Starting a Sentence with ‘And' and ‘But' 35 The Building Blocks of Sentences: Parts of Speech 36 Nouns 39 Verbs 40 Adjectives 41 Adverbs 42 Pronouns 43 Determiners 44 Conjunctions 45 Prepositions 46 Interjections 47 Phrases and Clauses 48 Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. 10 Du weißt mehr über Grammatik, als du denkst 12 Antworten zum Grammatiktest 17 Schauen wir uns Sätze an 21 Der langatmige Satz 23 Wenn ein Satz kein Satz ist 24 Das Innenleben des klassischen Satzes 25 Einfache, zusammengesetzte und komplexe Sätze 27 Arten regelmäßiger Sätze 28 Die „Stimme“ eines Satzes 29 Die Stimmung eines Satzes 30 Auslassungspunkte: „Satzfett“ wegschneiden 31 Harmonie im Satz 32 Einen Satz mit „Und“ und „Aber“ beginnen 35 Die Bausteine von Sätze: Wortarten 36 Substantive 39 Verben 40 Adjektive 41 Adverbien 42 Pronomen 43 Bestimmungswörter 44 Konjunktionen 45 Präpositionen 46 Interjektionen 47 Sätze und Sätze 48 Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. 50 4 50 4

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 5

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» 6

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Contents Cover Title Page The Thirteen Gremlins of Grammar Introduction What is Grammar? «Collins Good Grammar» Inhalt Umschlag Titelseite Die dreizehn Gremlins der Grammatik Einführung Was ist Grammatik? Why use it? Warum verwenden? You know more about grammar than you think: Test Grammar Test Answers and Scorecard Let's look at Sentences The building blocks of sentences: Parts of Speech Naming things: Nouns You, me and other Pronouns It's a plane! It's a bird! Es ist ein Vogel! No! Nein! It's Superverb! Es ist Superverb! Describing things: Adjectives and Adverbs Grammatical glue: Determiners, Conjunctions, Prepositions Punctuation: What's the point? Dinge beschreiben: Adjektive und Adverbien Grammatikalischer Kleber: Determinatoren, Konjunktionen, Präpositionen Satzzeichen: Was ist der Sinn? Punctuation: Devices for separating and joining Punctuation: Symbols of meaning Writing good English: The Elements of Style Index Keep Reading About the Author Writing Guides by Graham King Copyright About the Publisher 7 Interpunktion: Mittel zum Trennen und Verbinden Interpunktion: Bedeutungssymbole Gutes Englisch schreiben: The Elements of Style Index Lesen Sie weiter Über den Autor Schreibanleitungen von Graham King Copyright Über den Herausgeber 7

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» The Thirteen Gremlims of Grammar 1 Correct spelling is essential. «Collins Good Grammar» Die dreizehn Gremlims der Grammatik 1 Korrekte Rechtschreibung ist unerlässlich. 2 Don't use no double negatives. 2 Verwenden Sie keine doppelten Verneinungen. 3 Verbs has got to agree with their subjects. 3 Verben müssen mit ihren Subjekten übereinstimmen. 4 Don't write run-on sentences they are hard to read. 4 Schreiben Sie keine fortlaufenden Sätze, die schwer zu lesen sind. 5 About them sentence fragments. 5 Über sie Satzfragmente. 6 Don't use commas, that aren't necessary. 6 Verwenden Sie keine Kommas, das ist nicht notwendig. 7 A preposition is not a good word to end a sentence with. 7 Eine Präposition ist kein gutes Wort, um einen Satz zu beenden. 8 Remember to not ever split infinitives. 8 Denken Sie daran, niemals Infinitive zu teilen. 9 Writing carefully, dangling participles must be avoided. 9 Schreiben Sie sorgfältig, baumelnde Partizipien müssen vermieden werden. 10 Alway's use apostrophe's correctly. 10 Apostrophe immer richtig verwenden. 11 Make each singular pronoun agree with their antecedents. 11 Lassen Sie jedes Pronomen im Singular mit seinen Vorgängern übereinstimmen. 12 Join clauses good, like a conjunction should. 12 Join-Klauseln gut, wie es eine Konjunktion tun sollte. 13 Proofread your writing to make sure you don't words out. 13 Lies dein Geschriebenes Korrektur, um sicherzustellen, dass du es nicht aussprichst. And, above all, avoid clichés like the plague. Und vor allem vermeiden Sie Klischees wie die Pest. “The greatest and most necessary task remains, to attain a habit of expression, without which knowledge is of little use.” – Dr Samuel Johnson, LLD 8 „Die größte und notwendigste Aufgabe bleibt, eine Ausdrucksgewohnheit zu erlangen, ohne die Wissen wenig nützt.“ – Dr. Samuel Johnson, LLD 8

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» Introduction: How to wrestle with grammar – and win! «Collins Good Grammar» Einführung: Wie man mit der Grammatik ringt – und gewinnt! It takes courage to pick up a book on grammar when schooldays are over. Es braucht Mut, nach der Schulzeit ein Grammatikbuch zur Hand zu nehmen. Real courage, if only distant (and probably unpleasant) memories survive of what the subject was all about. Echter Mut, wenn auch nur entfernte (und wahrscheinlich unangenehme) Erinnerungen an das Thema überleben. But you have picked this one up. Aber Sie haben dieses hier aufgegriffen. And take heart. Und nimm dir ein Herz. Charlotte Bronte, author of Jane Eyre and one of the greatest exponents of the language, was hopeless in English at school. Charlotte Bronte, Autorin von Jane Eyre und eine der größten Vertreterinnen der Sprache, war in der Schule hoffnungslos in Englisch. Her teachers complained that ‘she knew nothing of grammar', and could read only ‘tolerably' and write ‘indifferently'. Ihre Lehrer beklagten, dass „sie nichts von Grammatik verstand“, nur „leider“ lesen und „uninteressant“ schreiben konnte. More recently, millions of young people have been denied even basic instruction in how to write good English – victims of the quarter-century blackout when the fashionable view of the education establishment was that a knowledge of how the parts of speech work was unnecessary. In jüngerer Zeit wurde Millionen junger Menschen sogar der grundlegende Unterricht im Schreiben von gutem Englisch verweigert – Opfer des Blackouts vor einem Vierteljahrhundert, als die Modeerscheinung der Bildungseinrichtung die Kenntnis der Wortarten für unnötig hielt. The acquisition of language skills happened naturally, they preached. Der Erwerb von Sprachkenntnissen sei selbstverständlich, predigten sie. And so it does, to a point. Und das tut es bis zu einem gewissen Punkt. Learning and obeying all the rules of grammar won't automatically bestow excellence on your speech and writing; but completely ignoring them will almost certainly consign you to inarticulate semi-literacy. Das Erlernen und Befolgen aller Regeln der Grammatik verleiht Ihrem Sprechen und Schreiben nicht automatisch Exzellenz; aber wenn Sie sie vollständig ignorieren, werden Sie mit ziemlicher Sicherheit zu unartikulierter Halbalphabetisierung. Does being good at grammar help you in life? Hilft Ihnen eine gute Grammatik im Leben? Thousands of people who hold down highly- paid top jobs can hardly spell or compose a coherent letter without help. Tausende von hochbezahlten Spitzenjobs können ohne Hilfe kaum buchstabieren oder einen zusammenhängenden Brief verfassen. Even The Times, regarded as a paragon of grammatical certitude, slips up with comforting regularity: ‘According to the Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit,' it reported recently, ‘one in four 16- to 20-year-olds have reading problems and more than one third have trouble with spelling.' Selbst The Times, die als Inbegriff grammatikalischer Sicherheit gilt, rutscht mit beruhigender Regelmäßigkeit ab: „Laut der Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit“, berichtete sie kürzlich, „hat jeder vierte 16- bis 20-Jährige Leseprobleme und mehr als ein Drittel hat Probleme mit der Rechtschreibung.' (the first have should be has, to agree with its antecedent one in four). (das erste have sollte has sein, um mit seinem Vorgänger eins von vier übereinzustimmen). Embarrassingly, the slip-up occurred in an editorial on the need for the rigorous teaching of grammar. Peinlicherweise ereignete sich der Ausrutscher in einem Leitartikel über die Notwendigkeit strengen Grammatikunterrichts. Are we being picky, or what? Sind wir wählerisch, oder was? The danger is, if we allow seemingly minor transgressions to go unnoticed, we could find ourselves grappling with a leaky language system reeking of confusion and ambiguity. Die Gefahr besteht darin, wenn wir zulassen, dass scheinbar geringfügige Übertretungen unbemerkt bleiben, könnten wir uns mit einem undichten Sprachsystem auseinandersetzen, das nach Verwirrung und Mehrdeutigkeit riecht. Surely computer technology can help us with grammar. Sicherlich kann uns die Computertechnologie bei der Grammatik helfen. It can go some of the way, yes, but over-reliance on corrective software can be dangerous. Es kann einen Teil des Weges gehen, ja, aber sich zu sehr auf korrigierende Software zu verlassen, kann gefährlich sein. An English student, writing a character study of Bottom from A Midsummer Night's Dream for a drama exam, ran the essay through the word processor's grammatical check tool. Ein Englischstudent, der eine Charakterstudie von Bottom aus A Midsummer Night's Dream für eine Schauspielprüfung schrieb, ließ den Aufsatz durch das Grammatikprüfungstool des Textverarbeitungsprogramms laufen. Her sentence, ‘Puck thought it would be fun to place an asses's head on Bottom' was highlighted with the instruction: Avoid this offensive term. Ihr Satz „Puck dachte, es würde Spaß machen, einen Eselskopf auf Bottom zu legen“ wurde mit der Anweisung hervorgehoben: Vermeiden Sie diesen anstößigen Begriff. Consider revising. Eine Überarbeitung in Erwägung ziehen. Just as it's considered necessary to accept some basic instruction before driving a car, pretty much the same applies to writing. So wie es als notwendig erachtet wird, vor dem Autofahren einige grundlegende Anweisungen zu erhalten, gilt so ziemlich dasselbe für das Schreiben. Before driving a car you learn to recognise some of its more important parts: the ignition and lights, the steering wheel, clutch, gears, brake, petrol tank, windscreen wipers and so forth. Bevor Sie ein Auto fahren, lernen Sie, einige seiner wichtigeren Teile zu erkennen: Zündung und Licht, Lenkrad, Kupplung, Schaltung, Bremse, Benzintank, Scheibenwischer und so weiter. It's also necessary to know just what each part does, and what happens when you press it, turn it, pull it or push it. Außerdem muss man wissen, was jedes Teil genau macht und was passiert, wenn man es drückt, dreht, zieht oder drückt. You also need to learn some rules – about speed, signalling, red and green lights, traffic and road signs. Sie müssen auch einige Regeln lernen – über Geschwindigkeit, Signalisierung, rote und grüne Ampeln, Verkehr und Verkehrszeichen. When you do all this, you can drive. Wenn Sie das alles tun, können Sie fahren. When you do it all well, you might even drive well. Wenn Sie alles gut machen, fahren Sie vielleicht sogar gut. Of course many people learn to drive a car without professional instruction, but, insufficiently equipped, they are often a danger to themselves and others. Natürlich lernen viele Menschen das Autofahren ohne professionelle Anleitung, aber unzureichend ausgerüstet sind sie oft eine Gefahr für sich und andere. It's not too different with reading, speaking and writing. Beim Lesen, Sprechen und Schreiben ist es nicht viel anders. Yes, we get by. Ja, wir kommen durch. Yes, we get by. But learning or relearning the rules and principles that govern the use of the language can only improve our communication skills. Aber das Erlernen oder Wiedererlernen der Regeln und Prinzipien, die den Gebrauch der Sprache regeln, kann unsere Kommunikationsfähigkeiten nur verbessern. And more than ever, effective communicating is vital to our lives, our success, our enjoyment. Effektive Kommunikation ist mehr denn je entscheidend für unser Leben, unseren Erfolg und unsere Freude. By picking up this book you've recognised that to improve your communication skills you probably need to return to basics. Indem Sie dieses Buch zur Hand genommen haben, haben Sie erkannt, dass Sie wahrscheinlich zu den Grundlagen zurückkehren müssen, um Ihre Kommunikationsfähigkeiten zu verbessern. You've picked up the right book. Sie haben das richtige Buch erwischt. Collins Good Grammar is designed to explain, step by practical step, authoritatively but entertainingly, the workings of our language, and to help you wrestle with its grammar – and win! Collins Good Grammar wurde entwickelt, um die Funktionsweise unserer Sprache Schritt für Schritt auf verbindliche, aber unterhaltsame Weise zu erklären und Ihnen dabei zu helfen, mit ihrer Grammatik zu ringen – und zu gewinnen! 9 G. King, Л. HarperCollins. 9 G. König, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» What is Grammar? «Collins Good Grammar» Was ist Grammatik? Why use it? Warum verwenden? This won‘t take long. Das wird nicht lange dauern. A language requires two elements to fulfil man's need to communicate effectively: a vocabulary and a grammar. Eine Sprache erfordert zwei Elemente, um das Bedürfnis des Menschen nach effektiver Kommunikation zu erfüllen: ein Vokabular und eine Grammatik. The vocabulary is the language's stock of words: combinations of symbols, signs or letters that have evolved to identify things and ideas. Der Wortschatz ist der Wortschatz der Sprache: Kombinationen von Symbolen, Zeichen oder Buchstaben, die sich entwickelt haben, um Dinge und Ideen zu identifizieren. But words by themselves can never constitute a language. Aber Worte allein können niemals eine Sprache ausmachen. Imagine someone possessing all the words required to express the message in the first three sentences, but no method of putting them together to make sense. Stellen Sie sich vor, jemand besitzt alle Wörter, die erforderlich sind, um die Botschaft in den ersten drei Sätzen auszudrücken, aber keine Methode, sie sinnvoll zusammenzusetzen. An attempt might look like this: Grammar about what duration of the clock will not take much duration not take small duration reasons to tell. Ein Versuch könnte so aussehen: Grammatik darüber, welche Dauer die Uhr braucht, braucht nicht viel Dauer, nicht wenig Dauer, Gründe zu sagen. It would be like trying to build a solid wall with tennis balls. Es wäre, als würde man versuchen, mit Tennisbällen eine solide Mauer zu bauen. What's needed is some cement or glue to stick them together, to create a structure that others will recognise. Was benötigt wird, ist etwas Zement oder Klebstoff, um sie zusammenzukleben, um eine Struktur zu schaffen, die andere erkennen werden. In the case of a language this glue is a system of rules called grammar. Im Fall einer Sprache ist dieser Klebstoff ein System von Regeln, die Grammatik genannt werden. Languages aren't created in a day; some have evolved over hundreds, even thousands of years, and are still evolving. Sprachen werden nicht an einem Tag erstellt; Einige haben sich über Hunderte, sogar Tausende von Jahren entwickelt und entwickeln sich immer noch weiter. The users of any language must constantly invent to adapt to fresh circumstances, and when invention flags they must borrow. Die Benutzer jeder Sprache müssen ständig erfinden, um sich an neue Umstände anzupassen, und wenn die Erfindung aufhört, müssen sie ausleihen. Not only words, but rules, too. Nicht nur Worte, sondern auch Regeln. English grammar contains rules that can be traced back to the Greeks and Romans: rules that helped the early users of our language to string their words together to create increasingly clearer and more complex messages. Die englische Grammatik enthält Regeln, die bis zu den Griechen und Römern zurückverfolgt werden können: Regeln, die den frühen Benutzern unserer Sprache halfen, ihre Wörter aneinander zu reihen, um immer klarere und komplexere Botschaften zu erzeugen. They enabled that meaningless jumble of words to take shape as a recognisable sentence: To tell what grammar is and that grammar should be used will need not little time not long time but some little long time. Sie ermöglichten, dass dieses sinnlose Durcheinander von Wörtern als erkennbarer Satz Gestalt annahm: Um zu sagen, was Grammatik ist und dass Grammatik verwendet werden sollte, wird nicht wenig Zeit, nicht lange Zeit, sondern etwas lange Zeit benötigt. A big improvement, but still clumsy and vague. Eine große Verbesserung, aber immer noch ungeschickt und vage. Obviously the language still required some more words and rules. Offensichtlich erforderte die Sprache noch einige Wörter und Regeln. The speaker needed a word more precise than tell, such as explain. Der Sprecher brauchte ein Wort, das präziser war als sagen, wie zum Beispiel erklären. Also needed was a system for building phrases with their own meanings, and another system for adding inflections to basic words to indicate time and sequence: explain, explaining, explained. Außerdem wurde ein System zum Bilden von Phrasen mit ihrer eigenen Bedeutung benötigt, und ein weiteres System zum Hinzufügen von Beugungen zu Grundwörtern, um Zeit und Reihenfolge anzuzeigen: erklären, erklären, erklären. With such improvements the sentence not only becomes shorter but also expresses the speaker's intentions with greater accuracy: Explaining what grammar is and why you should use grammar will not take a long time. Mit solchen Verbesserungen wird der Satz nicht nur kürzer, sondern drückt auch die Absicht des Sprechers genauer aus: Es dauert nicht lange, zu erklären, was Grammatik ist und warum Sie Grammatik verwenden sollten. Then users began to get clever by inventing idioms such as not too long to say in three words what it took nearly a dozen to say in an earlier version. Dann fingen die Benutzer an, schlau zu werden, indem sie Redewendungen erfanden, wie z. B. nicht zu lang, um in drei Worten zu sagen, was in einer früheren Version fast ein Dutzend brauchte, um es zu sagen. They also learned about ellipsis. Sie lernten auch Ellipsen kennen. To avoid repetition they created pronouns to substitute for nouns, phrases and whole sentences. Um Wiederholungen zu vermeiden, schufen sie Pronomen als Ersatz für Substantive, Phrasen und ganze Sätze. Here, this stands for the two questions: What is Grammar? Hier steht dies für die beiden Fragen: Was ist Grammatik? Why use it? Warum verwenden? This will not take long. Das wird nicht lange dauern. And then, finally, in the quest for even greater economy, the newly-invented apostrophe was brought into play, saving yet one more word: What is Grammar? Und schließlich, im Streben nach noch größerer Sparsamkeit, wurde der neu erfundene Apostroph ins Spiel gebracht, wodurch noch ein weiteres Wort gespart wurde: Was ist Grammatik? Why use it? Warum verwenden? This won't take long. Das wird nicht lange dauern. And, having recognised that the promise following the original question is now history – in the past – our grasp of grammar's immense potential allows us to write: It hasn't taken long, has it? Und nachdem wir erkannt haben, dass das Versprechen nach der ursprünglichen Frage nun Geschichte ist – in der Vergangenheit – erlaubt uns unser Verständnis des immensen Potenzials der Grammatik zu schreiben: Es hat nicht lange gedauert, oder? None of this should really surprise you, because if you are a native user of English you are also an intuitive user of its grammar. Nichts davon sollte Sie wirklich überraschen, denn wenn Sie ein Muttersprachler des Englischen sind, sind Sie auch ein intuitiver Benutzer seiner Grammatik. Although you may have either never known or have forgotten the difference between a common noun and a proper noun; are a little uncertain about using semi-colons and possessive apostrophes; are sublimely unconscious of piling on clichés and couldn't recognise a split infinitive even if you were offered a fortune, you have always managed to be understood, to get your point across, to enjoy reading newspapers and magazines, to write letters and cards to your family and friends, to deal adequately with the demands of the workplace. Obwohl Sie vielleicht den Unterschied zwischen einem Gattungsnamen und einem Eigennamen entweder nie gekannt oder vergessen haben; sind etwas unsicher im Umgang mit Semikolons und Possessiv-Apostrophen; klischeehaft unbewußt sind und einen gespaltenen Infinitiv selbst bei einem hohen Angebot nicht erkennen konnten, immer verstanden wurden, sich durchsetzen, gerne Zeitungen und Zeitschriften lesen, Briefe und Karten schreiben Ihre Familie und Freunde, um mit den Anforderungen am Arbeitsplatz angemessen umgehen zu können. 10 10

G. King, Л. HarperCollins. G. König, Л. HarperCollins. «Collins Good Grammar» But ask yourself: am I cringing along in the slow lane, grammatically speaking, aware of the ever-increasing traffic in the faster lanes? «Collins Good Grammar» Aber fragen Sie sich: Krieche ich grammatikalisch auf der langsamen Spur, bin ich mir des immer stärker werdenden Verkehrs auf den schnelleren Spuren bewusst? More than at any time in history, you are judged on your communication skills, whether in speech or in writing. The successful development of your personal life, your relationships and your career is now more and more dependent upon the way in which you express your thoughts, your insights, knowledge and desires into language. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung Ihres persönlichen Lebens, Ihrer Beziehungen und Ihrer Karriere hängt heute immer mehr davon ab, wie Sie Ihre Gedanken, Ihre Einsichten, Ihr Wissen und Ihre Wünsche in Sprache ausdrücken. How well you accomplish this is just as dependent upon your understanding of grammar. In so many ways you are only as good as your grammar. Few would dispute that this is the Age of Communication. Its message is that the media are expanding exponentially. You can respond to the challenges and demands, or you can allow it to pass you by. By reading this far, you appear to have chosen the former course. That's courageous, and you should feel encouraged. If, however, you remain unsure or sceptical, proceed to the next section which should demonstrate to you that you probably know quite a bit more about grammar than you ever imagined.