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HARVES LISTENING Section, TOFXV

TOFXV

This is a recording for a complete test.

If you are having difficulty hearing the audio make any necessary adjustments in the volume. Now read the directions in your textbook as you listen to the directions on this recording.

Section one: Listening comprehension

In this section of the test, you will have an opportunity to demonstrate your ability to understand conversations and talks in English. There are three parts to this section with special directions for each part. Answer all the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied by the speakers you hear. Do not take notes or write in your test book at any time. Do not turn the pages until you are told to do so.

Part A: directions

In Part A you will hear short conversations between two people. After each conversation, you will hear a question about the conversation. The conversations and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Listen to an example.

On the recording, you will hear:

(man) : That exam was just awful

(woman): Oh it could have been worse

What does the woman mean?

in your test book you will read :

A: The exam was really awful

B: It was the worst exam she had ever seen

C: It couldn't have been more difficult

D: It wasn't that hard

You learned from the conversation that the man thought the exam was very difficult and that the woman disagreed with the man. The best answer to the question, "what does the woman mean?" is (D) "It wasn't that hard." Therefore the correct choice is (D)

Now we will begin part A with the first conversation.

Number one:

(Wom) : Why did the class move to a different room?

(Man) : We couldn't get into our regular classroom. Someone lost the key to it

What does the man mean?

Number two:

(Man) : Do you have the book that you borrowed from Jim? I need to use it.

(Wom) : no, sorry I don't. I already returned it to Jim.

What does the woman mean?

Number three:

(Wom) : are you still writing checks

(Man) : I've written the checks for rent and electricity but I still have a few more to take care of.

What is the man most likely doing?

Number four:

(man) : Should we leave for class now?

(Wom) : but it's not time for class yet.

What does the woman mean?

Number five:

Is the physiology class as difficult as I've heard?

It's not terribly difficult but it is time-consuming.

What does the man mean?

Number six:

(Man) : These dorm rooms could certainly use a new coat of paint

(Wom) : I'll say.

What does the woman mean?

Number seven:

(Wom) : are you ready to work on the history paper?

(Man) : I will be in a couple of minutes I have to finish the math problems before I start on history

What does the man mean?

Number eight:

(Man) : Do you know where the file folders are?

(Wom) : Sorry I don't. They were moved and now I don't know where they are.

What does the woman imply about the folders?

Number nine:

(Wom) : We seem to have a difficult problem to solve

(Man): The problem is not unrepairable

What does the man mean?

Number ten:

(Wom) : I hope we don't have a quiz today. I'm not really very prepared on the material for today.

(Man) : I don't think we will. This professor rarely if ever gives quizzes.

What does the man mean?

Number 11:

(Man) : Have you looked at the chemistry problem yet

(Wom) : Yes, and the problem was impossible to comprehend.

What does the woman mean?

Number 12:

(Man)Do you know if we have to pay a fee to see the exhibit at the Museum

not as far as I know.

What does the man mean?

Number 13:

(Wom) : I can't take the biology course I wanted to take this semester. It's at the same time as the chemistry course I have to take.

(Man) : Why not wait to take the biology course next semester.

What does the man suggest about the biology course?

Number 14:

(Man) : Where are you going now?

(Wom) : I'm heading to a talk by dr. Barton. There's going to be a solar eclipse later this month. dr. Barton's giving a talk on what to expect during the Eclipse.

Who is dr. Barton most likely to be?

Number 15:

(man) : Were you expecting such a nice gift?

(Wom) : it couldn't have surprised me more

What does the woman mean?

Number 16:

(Man): Have you been studying for long?

(Wom) : For hours, and I'm all worn out

What does the woman mean?

Number 17:

(Wom) : Do you think that Tom's the one who should be selected for the team?

(Man) : Oh he's head and shoulders above the rest

What does the man say about Tom?

Go on to the next page.

Number 18:

(Wom) : Do you understand what we're supposed to do for tomorrow?

(Man) : Not really, the professor barely talked about the assignment.

What does the man mean?

Number 19:

(Won) : Did you go to the party last night?

(Man) : If I had known about it, I would have

What does the man say about the party?

Number 20:

(Man) : Do you know what time it is?

(Wom) : I just heard the clock strike noon

What does the woman mean?

Number 21:

(Wom) : I'll be staying at the beach with my family during spring break.

(Man) : So you did decide to take the trip after all.

What did the man believe about the woman?

Number 22:

(Wom) : Did your nieces and nephews like the gifts you got for them?

(Man) : They couldn't have been more excited when they saw what I got them.

What does the man say about his nieces and nephews?

Number 23:

(Man) : Are you worried about having to give such a long speech in front of such a large audience?

(Wom) : I think I can pull it off.

What does the woman mean?

Number 24:

(Man) : There's a problem with your scholarship?

unfortunately, I forgot to sign and date the documents before I return them to the scholarship office. S o the scholarship has been held up I need to go into the scholarship office to resolve the problem

What does the woman mean?

Number 25:

(Wom) : Were the bills paid on time this month?

(Man) : I wish they had been.

What does the man imply?

Number 26:

(Wom) : The lecture on the realities of entrepreneurship in the 21st century was really fascinating, wasn't it?

(Man) : I'm not sure if it was or not. I didn't understand a word.

What does the man mean?

Number 27:

(man) : I forgot to send the scholarship application in on time.

(Wom) : You really missed the boat.

What does the woman say to the man?

Number 28:

(Wom) : I don't think you heard what I said.

(Man) It wasn't that I didn't hear what you said. It was that I didn't agree with it.

What does the man mean?

Number 29:

(Man) : John will pick us up at 7:30 for the concert. That should give us

plenty of time to get there.

(Wom) : So John is going after all.

What had the woman expected?

Number 30:

(Wom) : Did you enjoy the trip?

(Man) : Not really if the water hadn't been so rough and the boat hadn't rolled around so much. I would have enjoyed it more.

What does the man mean?

This is the end of part A.

Go on to the next page

==================

Now read along with me as I read the directions for Part B. Remember, you should not read ahead or turn the pages while the directions for this part are being read.

Part B: directions

In this part of the test, you will hear longer conversations. After each conversation, you will hear several questions. The conversations and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Remember! you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.

Now we will begin Part B with the first conversation.

Questions 31 through 34

Listen to a conversation about a college course.

(Wom) :

Hi Mike! I've been trying to get in touch with you, I wanted to ask you about the introduction to sociology course you took last semester with Professor Patterson.

(Man) : Why did you want to know about that course?

(Wom) : Well, professor Patterson is teaching it again next semester and I think I might take it.

(Man) : I wouldn't do that if I were you.

(Wom) : Why not? was it a terrible course.

(Man) : All the professor did was lecture day after day after day. He's a good enough lecturer but I prefer courses where the students can participate more I found it quite boring

(Wom) That course doesn't sound so bad to me. In fact, I like that kind of course. You can listen to the professor's ideas and not feel any pressure to come up with something to say

(Man) : Well, then maybe this course is for you.

Number 31:

Who is taking part in this conversation?

Number 32:

Why does the woman want to talk with Mike?

Number 33:

What kind of course does the man prefer?

Number 34:

How does the woman feel about professor Patterson's course?

Questions 35 through 38

Listen to a conversation about a new solar energy plant.

(Man) : I was reading in last night's paper that the utility company wants to build a solar energy plant in the desert, not far from here.

(Wom) : Do you think that's a good idea?

(Man) : A good idea? It's a great idea. Solar energy is the energy of the future. It's clean it's safe and it's abundant. What could be better?

(Wom) : Won't the utility company just raise our rates to pay for this new plant?

(Man) : The newspaper said that the utility company would need extra money to get the plant going. But in the long run, rates would be lower, and to have a constant supply of energy, that's a small price to pay.

(Wom) : I'm not convinced that the price will be small

Number 35:

How did the man learn about the new solar energy plant?

Number 36:

Where will the solar energy plant be constructed?

Number 37:

According to the man, what is the benefit of solar energy?

Number 38:

How does the woman feel about the proposed solar energy plant?

This is the end of Part B.

Go on to the next page.

Now read along with me as I read the directions for Part C. Remember! You should not read ahead or turn the pages while the directions for this part are being read.

Part C directions

In this part of the test you will hear several talks. After each talk, you will hear some questions. The talks and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Here is an example.

On the recording, you will hear:

(Narrator) : Listen to an instructor talked to his class about painting.

(Man) : Artist Grant Wood was a guiding force in the school of painting known as American regionalist, a style reflecting the distinctive characteristics of art from rural areas of the United States. Wood began drawing animals on the family farm at the age of three, and when he was thirty-eight, one of his paintings received a remarkable amount of public notice and acclaim. This painting called "American Gothic," is a starkly simple depiction of a serious couple staring directly out at the viewer.

Now listen to a sample question.

What style of painting is known as American regionalist?

In your test book, you will read:

(A) art from America's inner cities.

(B) art from the central region of the u.s.

(C) art from various urban areas in the u.s.

(D) art from rural sections of America

The best answer to the question, "what style of painting is known as American regionalist?" is (D), "art from rural sections of America." Therefore the correct choice is (D).

Now listen to another sample question.

What is the name of Wood's most successful painting?

In your test book, you will read:

(A) "American regionalist."

(B) "The family farm in Iowa."

(C) "American Gothic."

(D) "A serious Couple."

The best answer to the question, "what is the name of wood's most successful painting?" is (C), "American Gothic." Therefore, the correct choice is (C). Remember, you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.

Now we will begin Part C with the first talk questions 39 through 40

Listen to a man talking to a group of students

"Hello I'm John Rogers the manager of the student bookstore. All of you have been selected to work part-time in the bookstore while you are completing your university studies. One of the first things I need to do is prepare a work schedule and I need two pieces of information from each of you in order to make up the schedule. First of all, I need to know the hours you are free to work. Each of you will be assigned 20 hours of work per week and those hours could be any time that the bookstore is open on weekdays in the evenings or on weekends. I would like each of you to write down for me the hours when you have classes. So that I will know when you are free to work the second piece of information that I need is your job preference. Most of the jobs that are available are working as a cashier or stocking shelves with books. There are also a few positions working in the business office. Please write down which jobs you would prefer. I cannot promise that everyone will get the first choice when I make the schedule but I will do what I can."

Number 39:

Who is John Rogers?

Number 40:

What does John Rogers need to do now?

Number 41:

What does John Rogers need to know her?

Number 42:

Which is not mentioned as a possible job open to the students?

Questions 43 through 46

Listen to a talk given by a woman.

"Did you know that those large plastic soda bottles, that are so common today? Can actually get recycled into soft warm cuddly jackets and blankets with the feel of fleece. These bottles have generally been dumped into landfill rather than recycled. But now that's beginning to change. In this recycling process, the bottles are gathered at a plant cleaned, and then crushed into tiny chips. The chips are melted and then shaped into long threads. These threads are spun into yarn and knit and cloth. It can then be dyed and made into fabric. The outcome of this process is a soft and warm cloth that can be made into items of clothing or blankets. It seems rather incredible that plastic soda bottles can be turned into something so soft and warm. I think that all of you should look for some of these products in stores and purchase them. They are great products and they are great for the environment at the same time."

Number 43:

What is the topic of the talk?

Number 44:

In the past, what commonly happened to the soda bottles?

Number 45:

What can be made out of the soda bottles?

Number 46:

What does the speaker recommend?

Questions 47 through 50

Listen to a talk on the first transcontinental railroad.

"The importance to the United States of the first transcontinental railroad cannot be overrated. This railroad had a profound effect on many aspects of American life on communication, on transportation of agricultural products and livestock to market, and the settlement of the west to name a few but it was no easy feat to build such a railroad. The first transcontinental railroad was undertaken in 1862 by two competing railroad companies. The Union Pacific started in Omaha Nebraska and moved westward. The Central Pacific began in Sacramento California and moved eastward of the to. The Central Pacific had the more difficult task because it was faced with traversing the Sierra Nevadas to lay tracks across these mountains. Workers had to carve out footpaths on steep mountain faces and then use dynamite to blast out access for the railroad tracks. After years of dangerous and exhausting labor, the workers from the Central Pacific met up with the workers from the Union Pacific near Ogden Utah. On May 10th, 1869 in an exuberant ceremony, the last of the tracks was nailed to the ground with a Golden Spike. The completion of the railroad marked the beginning of a new era in transportation."

Number 47:

Who built the First Transcontinental Railroad?

Number 48:

What was difficult about the job the Central Pacific workers had to complete?

Number 49:

How long did it take to complete the First Transcontinental Railroad?

Number 50:

What happened at the ceremony marking the completion of the railroad?

This is the end of section one. Stop working on section one. Turn off the recording


TOFXV

This is a recording for a complete test.

If you are having difficulty hearing the audio make any necessary adjustments in the volume. Now read the directions in your textbook as you listen to the directions on this recording.

Section one: Listening comprehension

In this section of the test, you will have an opportunity to demonstrate your ability to understand conversations and talks in English. There are three parts to this section with special directions for each part. Answer all the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied by the speakers you hear. Do not take notes or write in your test book at any time. Do not turn the pages until you are told to do so.

Part A: directions

In Part A you will hear short conversations between two people. After each conversation, you will hear a question about the conversation. The conversations and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Listen to an example.

On the recording, you will hear:

(man) : That exam was just awful

(woman): Oh it could have been worse

What does the woman mean?

in your test book you will read :

A: The exam was really awful

B: It was the worst exam she had ever seen

C: It couldn't have been more difficult

D: It wasn't that hard

You learned from the conversation that the man thought the exam was very difficult and that the woman disagreed with the man. The best answer to the question, "what does the woman mean?" is (D) "It wasn't that hard." Therefore the correct choice is (D)

Now we will begin part A with the first conversation.

Number one:

(Wom) : Why did the class move to a different room?

(Man) : We couldn't get into our regular classroom. Someone lost the key to it

What does the man mean?

Number two:

(Man) : Do you have the book that you borrowed from Jim? I need to use it.

(Wom) : no, sorry I don't. I already returned it to Jim.

What does the woman mean?

Number three:

(Wom) : are you still writing checks

(Man) : I've written the checks for rent and electricity but I still have a few more to take care of.

What is the man most likely doing?

Number four:

(man) : Should we leave for class now?

(Wom) : but it's not time for class yet.

What does the woman mean?

Number five:

Is the physiology class as difficult as I've heard?

It's not terribly difficult but it is time-consuming.

What does the man mean?

Number six:

(Man) : These dorm rooms could certainly use a new coat of paint

(Wom) : I'll say.

What does the woman mean?

Number seven:

(Wom) : are you ready to work on the history paper?

(Man) : I will be in a couple of minutes I have to finish the math problems before I start on history

What does the man mean?

Number eight:

(Man) : Do you know where the file folders are?

(Wom) : Sorry I don't. They were moved and now I don't know where they are.

What does the woman imply about the folders?

Number nine:

(Wom) : We seem to have a difficult problem to solve

(Man): The problem is not unrepairable

What does the man mean?

Number ten:

(Wom) : I hope we don't have a quiz today. I'm not really very prepared on the material for today.

(Man) : I don't think we will. This professor rarely if ever gives quizzes.

What does the man mean?

Number 11:

(Man) : Have you looked at the chemistry problem yet

(Wom) : Yes, and the problem was impossible to comprehend.

What does the woman mean?

Number 12:

(Man)Do you know if we have to pay a fee to see the exhibit at the Museum

not as far as I know.

What does the man mean?

Number 13:

(Wom) : I can't take the biology course I wanted to take this semester. It's at the same time as the chemistry course I have to take.

(Man) : Why not wait to take the biology course next semester.

What does the man suggest about the biology course?

Number 14:

(Man) : Where are you going now?

(Wom) : I'm heading to a talk by dr. Barton. There's going to be a solar eclipse later this month. dr. Barton's giving a talk on what to expect during the Eclipse.

Who is dr. Barton most likely to be?

Number 15:

(man) : Were you expecting such a nice gift?

(Wom) : it couldn't have surprised me more

What does the woman mean?

Number 16:

(Man): Have you been studying for long?

(Wom) : For hours, and I'm all worn out

What does the woman mean?

Number 17:

(Wom) : Do you think that Tom's the one who should be selected for the team?

(Man) : Oh he's head and shoulders above the rest

What does the man say about Tom?

Go on to the next page.

Number 18:

(Wom) : Do you understand what we're supposed to do for tomorrow?

(Man) : Not really, the professor barely talked about the assignment.

What does the man mean?

Number 19:

(Won) : Did you go to the party last night?

(Man) : If I had known about it, I would have

What does the man say about the party?

Number 20:

(Man) : Do you know what time it is?

(Wom) : I just heard the clock strike noon

What does the woman mean?

Number 21:

(Wom) : I'll be staying at the beach with my family during spring break.

(Man) : So you did decide to take the trip after all.

What did the man believe about the woman?

Number 22:

(Wom) : Did your nieces and nephews like the gifts you got for them?

(Man) : They couldn't have been more excited when they saw what I got them.

What does the man say about his nieces and nephews?

Number 23:

(Man) : Are you worried about having to give such a long speech in front of such a large audience?

(Wom) : I think I can pull it off.

What does the woman mean?

Number 24:

(Man) : There's a problem with your scholarship?

unfortunately, I forgot to sign and date the documents before I return them to the scholarship office. S o the scholarship has been held up I need  to go into the scholarship office to resolve the problem

What does the woman mean?

Number 25:

(Wom) : Were the bills paid on time this month?

(Man) : I wish they had been.

What does the man imply?

Number 26:

(Wom) : The lecture on the realities of entrepreneurship in the 21st century was really fascinating, wasn't it?

(Man) : I'm not sure if it was or not. I didn't understand a word.

What does the man mean?

Number 27:

(man) : I forgot to send the scholarship application in on time.

(Wom) : You really missed the boat.

What does the woman say to the man?

Number 28:

(Wom) : I don't think you heard what I said.

(Man) It wasn't that I didn't hear what you said. It was that I didn't agree with it.

What does the man mean?

Number 29:

(Man) : John will pick us up at 7:30 for the concert. That should give us

plenty of time to get there.

(Wom) : So John is going after all.

What had the woman expected?

Number 30:

(Wom) : Did you enjoy the trip?

(Man) : Not really if the water hadn't been so rough and the boat hadn't rolled around so much. I would have enjoyed it more.

What does the man mean?

This is the end of part A.

Go on to the next page

==================

Now read along with me as I read the directions for Part B. Remember, you should not read ahead or turn the pages while the directions for this part are being read.

Part B: directions

In this part of the test, you will hear longer conversations. After each conversation, you will hear several questions. The conversations and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Remember! you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.

Now we will begin Part B with the first conversation.

Questions 31 through 34

Listen to a conversation about a college course.

(Wom) :

Hi Mike! I've been trying to get in touch with you, I wanted to ask you about the introduction to sociology course you took last semester with Professor Patterson.

(Man) : Why did you want to know about that course?

(Wom) : Well, professor Patterson is teaching it again next semester and I think I might take it.

(Man) : I wouldn't do that if I were you.

(Wom) : Why not? was it a terrible course.

(Man) : All the professor did was lecture day after day after day. He's a good enough lecturer but I prefer courses where the students can participate more I found it quite boring

(Wom) That course doesn't sound so bad to me. In fact, I like that kind of course. You can listen to the professor's ideas and not feel any pressure to come up with something to say

(Man) : Well, then maybe this course is for you.

Number 31:

Who is taking part in this conversation?

Number 32:

Why does the woman want to talk with Mike?

Number 33:

What kind of course does the man prefer?

Number 34:

How does the woman feel about professor Patterson's course?

Questions 35 through 38

Listen to a conversation about a new solar energy plant.

(Man) : I was reading in last night's paper that the utility company wants to build a solar energy plant in the desert, not far from here.

(Wom) : Do you think that's a good idea?

(Man) : A good idea? It's a great idea. Solar energy is the energy of the future. It's clean it's safe and it's abundant. What could be better?

(Wom) : Won't the utility company just raise our rates to pay for this new plant?

(Man) : The newspaper said that the utility company would need extra money to get the plant going. But in the long run, rates would be lower, and to have a constant supply of energy, that's a small price to pay.

(Wom) : I'm not convinced that the price will be small

Number 35:

How did the man learn about the new solar energy plant?

Number 36:

Where will the solar energy plant be constructed?

Number 37:

According to the man, what is the benefit of solar energy?

Number 38:

How does the woman feel about the proposed solar energy plant?

This is the end of Part B.

Go on to the next page.

Now read along with me as I read the directions for Part C. Remember! You should not read ahead or turn the pages while the directions for this part are being read.

Part C directions

In this part of the test you will hear several talks. After each talk, you will hear some questions. The talks and questions will not be repeated. After you hear a question read the four possible answers in your test book and choose the best answer. Then on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Here is an example.

On the recording, you will hear:

(Narrator) : Listen to an instructor talked to his class about painting.

(Man) : Artist Grant Wood was a guiding force in the school of painting known as American regionalist, a style reflecting the distinctive characteristics of art from rural areas of the United States. Wood began drawing animals on the family farm at the age of three, and when he was thirty-eight, one of his paintings received a remarkable amount of public notice and acclaim. This painting called "American Gothic," is a starkly simple depiction of a serious couple staring directly out at the viewer.

Now listen to a sample question.

What style of painting is known as American regionalist?

In your test book, you will read:

(A) art from America's inner cities.

(B) art from the central region of the u.s.

(C) art from various urban areas in the u.s.

(D) art from rural sections of America

The best answer to the question, "what style of painting is known as American regionalist?" is (D), "art from rural sections of America." Therefore the correct choice is (D).

Now listen to another sample question.

What is the name of Wood's most successful painting?

In your test book, you will read:

(A) "American regionalist."

(B) "The family farm in Iowa."

(C) "American Gothic."

(D) "A serious Couple."

The best answer to the question, "what is the name of wood's most successful painting?" is (C), "American Gothic." Therefore, the correct choice is (C). Remember, you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.

Now we will begin Part C with the first talk questions 39 through 40

Listen to a man talking to a group of students

"Hello I'm John Rogers the manager of the student bookstore. All of you have been selected to work part-time in the bookstore while you are completing your university studies. One of the first things I need to do is prepare a work schedule and I need two pieces of information from each of you in order to make up the schedule. First of all,  I need to know the hours you are free to work. Each of you will be assigned 20 hours of work per week and those hours could be any time that the bookstore is open on weekdays in the evenings or on weekends. I would like each of you to write down for me the hours when you have classes. So that I will know when you are free to work the second piece of information that I need is your job preference. Most of the jobs that are available are working as a cashier or stocking shelves with books. There are also a few positions working in the business office. Please write down which jobs you would prefer. I cannot promise that everyone will get the first choice when I make the schedule but I will do what I can."

Number 39:

Who is John Rogers?

Number 40:

What does John Rogers need to do now?

Number 41:

What does John Rogers need to know her?

Number 42:

Which is not mentioned as a possible job open to the students?

Questions 43 through 46

Listen to a talk given by a woman.

"Did you know that those large plastic soda bottles, that are so common today? Can actually get recycled into soft warm cuddly jackets and blankets with the feel of fleece. These bottles have generally been dumped into landfill rather than recycled. But now that's beginning to change. In this recycling process, the bottles are gathered at a plant cleaned, and then crushed into tiny chips. The chips are melted and then shaped into long threads. These threads are spun into yarn and knit and cloth. It can then be dyed and made into fabric. The outcome of this process is a soft and warm cloth that can be made into items of clothing or blankets. It seems rather incredible that plastic soda bottles can be turned into something so soft and warm. I think that all of you should look for some of these products in stores and purchase them. They are great products and they are great for the environment at the same time."

Number 43:

What is the topic of the talk?

Number 44:

In the past, what commonly happened to the soda bottles?

Number 45:

What can be made out of the soda bottles?

Number 46:

What does the speaker recommend?

Questions 47 through 50

Listen to a talk on the first transcontinental railroad.

"The importance to the United States of the first transcontinental railroad cannot be overrated. This railroad had a profound effect on many aspects of American life on communication, on transportation of agricultural products and livestock to market, and the settlement of the west to name a few but it was no easy feat to build such a railroad. The first transcontinental railroad was undertaken in 1862 by two competing railroad companies. The Union Pacific started in Omaha Nebraska and moved westward. The Central Pacific began in Sacramento California and moved eastward of the to. The Central Pacific had the more difficult task because it was faced with traversing the Sierra Nevadas to lay tracks across these mountains. Workers had to carve out footpaths on steep mountain faces and then use dynamite to blast out access for the railroad tracks. After years of dangerous and exhausting labor, the workers from the Central Pacific met up with the workers from the Union Pacific near Ogden Utah. On May 10th, 1869 in an exuberant ceremony, the last of the tracks was nailed to the ground with a Golden Spike. The completion of the railroad marked the beginning of a new era in transportation."

Number 47:

Who built the First Transcontinental Railroad?

Number 48:

What was difficult about the job the Central Pacific workers had to complete?

Number 49:

How long did it take to complete the First Transcontinental Railroad?

Number 50:

What happened at the ceremony marking the completion of the railroad?

This is the end of section one. Stop working on section one. Turn off the recording