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Healthcare Org 1, 1.14 (R) [INFO] Topic 2. Healthcare Organization and Health System

Topic 2. What is the relationship between a healthcare organization and a health system? Note [FUN]: Links within this section lead to external [FUN] readings not needed for the certificate work. You do not have to visit these external links. Do so only if you have the interest and the time. Note [CERT]: Pay attention to the text in bold. It just may be included on the [CERT] Lesson One Quiz. A healthcare organization is part of a health system. However, the term “health system” can have many meanings. There is no one universal definition or common usage for the term “health system”. When reading about health systems, it is important to understand the author's definition of the term. Generally speaking, however, the meanings fall into two broad categories: A health system focuses on the delivery of health care. It contains more than one healthcare organization, healthcare activity, and/or healthcare resource with a focus on the delivery of health care. For this definition of a “health system”, the term “health system” is often used interchangeably with the term “health care system” or “healthcare system”. A health system focuses on health. It contains more than one health-related organization, health-related activity, and/or health-related resource with a health focus. Category 1. A health system focuses on the delivery of health care An example of the first broad category (a health system focuses on the delivery of health care) is the definition used by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for its Comparative Health System Performance (CHSP) Initiative. A health system is: “an organization that includes at least one hospital and at least one group of physicians that provides comprehensive care (including primary and specialty care) who are connected with each other and with the hospital through common ownership or joint management.” (Website Source of Quote) Examples of such a health system are the: Mayo Clinic Health System New York-Presbyterian Kaiser Permanente The CHSP Initiative publishes many articles and reports. You may find three of them interesting and relevant to this question. Each is optional; you do not have to read it. They are: Snapshot of U.S. Health Systems, 2016 U.S. Health System Characteristics, 2016 Variation in Health System Characteristics Across States, 2016 Category 2. A health system focuses on health (First Example - CDC) An example of the second broad category (a health system focuses on health) is the definition used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for its discussion of the CDC and the US Public Health System. “Public health systems are commonly defined as “all public, private, and voluntary entities that contribute to the delivery of essential public health services within a jurisdiction.” This concept ensures that all entities' contributions to the health and well-being of the community or state are recognized in assessing the provision of public health services.” (Website Source of Quote) An interesting and important part of this public health system is the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service which: “is an essential component of the largest public health program in the world. Corps officers may apply to a variety of positions throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and certain non-HHS Federal agencies and programs that offer exciting professional opportunities in the areas of disease control and prevention; biomedical research; regulation of food, drugs, and medical devices; mental health and drug abuse; and health care delivery.” (Website Source of Quote) Note [FUN]: The video for Topic 2 - U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Overview - is a YouTube video produced by the USPHS. Many consider the USPHS to be an essential health system component in the United States. The video provides an overview of the USPHS history, structure, and function. The CDC publishes many articles and reports. You may find two of them interesting and relevant to this question. Each is optional; you do not have to read it. They are: Public Health 101 The Ten Essential Public Health Services: An Overview Category 2. A health system focuses on health (Second Example - WHO) Another example of the second broad category (a health system focuses on health) is the definition used by the World Health Organization (WHO) for discussion of its framework for action to strengthen health systems: “A health system consists of all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health. This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services. It includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home; private providers; behaviour change programmes; vector-control campaigns; health insurance organizations; occupational health and safety legislation. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health.” (Website Source of Quote) WHO publishes many articles and reports. You may find two of them interesting and relevant to this question. Each is optional; you do not have to read it. They are: Health Services Development, The WHO Health Systems Framework (just the webpage, not the links from the webpage) Chapter One: Why Do Health Systems Matter in the WHO publication entitled The World Health Report 2000 – Health Systems: Improving Performance



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Topic 2. What is the relationship between a healthcare organization and a health system? Note [FUN]: Links within this section lead to external [FUN] readings not needed for the certificate work. You do not have to visit these external links. Do so only if you have the interest and the time. Note [CERT]: Pay attention to the text in bold. It just may be included on the [CERT] Lesson One Quiz. A healthcare organization is part of a health system. However, the term “health system” can have many meanings. There is no one universal definition or common usage for the term “health system”. When reading about health systems, it is important to understand the author's definition of the term. Generally speaking, however, the meanings fall into two broad categories: A health system focuses on the delivery of health care. It contains more than one healthcare organization, healthcare activity, and/or healthcare resource with a focus on the delivery of health care. For this definition of a “health system”, the term “health system” is often used interchangeably with the term “health care system” or “healthcare system”. A health system focuses on health. It contains more than one health-related organization, health-related activity, and/or health-related resource with a health focus. Category 1. A health system focuses on the delivery of health care An example of the first broad category (a health system focuses on the delivery of health care) is the definition used by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for its Comparative Health System Performance (CHSP) Initiative. A health system is: “an organization that includes at least one hospital and at least one group of physicians that provides comprehensive care (including primary and specialty care) who are connected with each other and with the hospital through common ownership or joint management.” (Website Source of Quote) Examples of such a health system are the: Mayo Clinic Health System New York-Presbyterian Kaiser Permanente The CHSP Initiative publishes many articles and reports. You may find three of them interesting and relevant to this question. Each is optional; you do not have to read it. They are: Snapshot of U.S. Health Systems, 2016 U.S. Health System Characteristics, 2016 Variation in Health System Characteristics Across States, 2016 Category 2. A health system focuses on health (First Example - CDC) An example of the second broad category (a health system focuses on health) is the definition used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for its discussion of the CDC and the US Public Health System. “Public health systems are commonly defined as “all public, private, and voluntary entities that contribute to the delivery of essential public health services within a jurisdiction.” This concept ensures that all entities' contributions to the health and well-being of the community or state are recognized in assessing the provision of public health services.” (Website Source of Quote) An interesting and important part of this public health system is the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service which: “is an essential component of the largest public health program in the world. Corps officers may apply to a variety of positions throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and certain non-HHS Federal agencies and programs that offer exciting professional opportunities in the areas of disease control and prevention; biomedical research; regulation of food, drugs, and medical devices; mental health and drug abuse; and health care delivery.” (Website Source of Quote) Note [FUN]: The video for Topic 2 - U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Overview - is a YouTube video produced by the USPHS. Many consider the USPHS to be an essential health system component in the United States. The video provides an overview of the USPHS history, structure, and function. The CDC publishes many articles and reports. You may find two of them interesting and relevant to this question. Each is optional; you do not have to read it. They are: Public Health 101 The Ten Essential Public Health Services: An Overview Category 2. A health system focuses on health (Second Example - WHO) Another example of the second broad category (a health system focuses on health) is the definition used by the World Health Organization (WHO) for discussion of its framework for action to strengthen health systems: “A health system consists of all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health. This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services. It includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home; private providers; behaviour change programmes; vector-control campaigns; health insurance organizations; occupational health and safety legislation. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health.” (Website Source of Quote) WHO publishes many articles and reports. You may find two of them interesting and relevant to this question. Each is optional; you do not have to read it. They are: Health Services Development, The WHO Health Systems Framework (just the webpage, not the links from the webpage) Chapter One: Why Do Health Systems Matter in the WHO publication entitled The World Health Report 2000 – Health Systems: Improving Performance


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