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Autism, 1.03 (V) What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

In this lesson we will define the core characteristics used to identify autism spectrum disorders. In addition to learning about the core features you will observe video examples of one behavioral characteristic, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. What are autism spectrum disorders? Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities that impact development in two core domains, social communication and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. In the area of social communication, individuals impacted by autism have deficits in social and emotional reciprocity, deficits in non-verbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and deficits in developing and maintaining developmentally appropriate relationships. There is a range of expression of these social communication deficits. In the area of social and emotional reciprocity, you might see abnormal social approach and failure of normal back and forth conversations. There may be a reduced sharing of interests, emotion, affect, and response. There may be a failure to initiate or respond to social interactions. In the area of non-verbal communication, there may be poor integrated verbal and non-verbal communication, abnormalities with eye contact and body language, or deficits in understanding the use of non-verbal communication. There may be a total lack of facial expression or the use of gestures. In the area of developing and maintaining appropriate relationships with others, there may be difficulty adjusting behavior to suit different social situations. There may be difficulties in sharing, in imaginative play and in making friends. And for some, there may be an absence of interest in other people. In the area of restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior and interest, the individual must express at least two of the following, stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech, insistence on sameness with inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of behavior, highly restricted fixated interests, abnormal in either intensity or focus, or a hypo or hyper reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment. Just like in the area of social communication there's a range of expression of these differences in repetitive patterns of behavior and interest. Repetitive motor movements could include, motor stereotypies, such as rocking or hand flapping, lining up or flipping objects. There could be the present of echolalia or repetitive speech or the present of idiosyncratic speech. In the area of inflexibility and adherence to routines, you might see extreme distress at small changes, difficulty with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, rituals related to greetings, and the insistence on same route or the same food choices at each meal. In the area of restricted or fixated interests, there may be a strong attachment to, or preoccupation with unusual objects. There may be excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests that the individual may spend a great deal of time talking about or investigating. In the area of sensory, there may be indifference to pain or temperature. There may be an adverse response to certain sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, or visual fascination with things like lights or the movement of objects. In this video segment, you will see examples of some of the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior often seen in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. These include, spinning, preoccupation with a specific object, in this case the letter I, and an unwillingness to shift from the preoccupation, even with encouragement. You should also note the general lack of join attention and sharing of enjoyment. » Dancer. » Yeah, push another button. Wow! Push one of these. » Ethan, are you playing the computer with daddy? » Playing the computer. » Ethan. » He's playing the computer with dad? Push this one. Oh, you like the I? That's the letter I. » Ethan. » Push this one, push this one. » Push the s for snake! » Push this one. Oh you like the I? » [LAUGH]



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In this lesson we will define the core characteristics used to identify autism spectrum disorders. In addition to learning about the core features you will observe video examples of one behavioral characteristic, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. What are autism spectrum disorders? Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities that impact development in two core domains, social communication and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. In the area of social communication, individuals impacted by autism have deficits in social and emotional reciprocity, deficits in non-verbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, and deficits in developing and maintaining developmentally appropriate relationships. There is a range of expression of these social communication deficits. In the area of social and emotional reciprocity, you might see abnormal social approach and failure of normal back and forth conversations. There may be a reduced sharing of interests, emotion, affect, and response. There may be a failure to initiate or respond to social interactions. In the area of non-verbal communication, there may be poor integrated verbal and non-verbal communication, abnormalities with eye contact and body language, or deficits in understanding the use of non-verbal communication. There may be a total lack of facial expression or the use of gestures. In the area of developing and maintaining appropriate relationships with others, there may be difficulty adjusting behavior to suit different social situations. There may be difficulties in sharing, in imaginative play and in making friends. And for some, there may be an absence of interest in other people. In the area of restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior and interest, the individual must express at least two of the following, stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech, insistence on sameness with inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of behavior, highly restricted fixated interests, abnormal in either intensity or focus, or a hypo or hyper reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment. Just like in the area of social communication there's a range of expression of these differences in repetitive patterns of behavior and interest. Repetitive motor movements could include, motor stereotypies, such as rocking or hand flapping, lining up or flipping objects. There could be the present of echolalia or repetitive speech or the present of idiosyncratic speech. In the area of inflexibility and adherence to routines, you might see extreme distress at small changes, difficulty with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, rituals related to greetings, and the insistence on same route or the same food choices at each meal. In the area of restricted or fixated interests, there may be a strong attachment to, or preoccupation with unusual objects. There may be excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests that the individual may spend a great deal of time talking about or investigating. In the area of sensory, there may be indifference to pain or temperature. There may be an adverse response to certain sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, or visual fascination with things like lights or the movement of objects. In this video segment, you will see examples of some of the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior often seen in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. These include, spinning, preoccupation with a specific object, in this case the letter I, and an unwillingness to shift from the preoccupation, even with encouragement. You should also note the general lack of join attention and sharing of enjoyment. » Dancer. » Yeah, push another button. Wow! Push one of these. » Ethan, are you playing the computer with daddy? » Playing the computer. » Ethan. » He's playing the computer with dad? Push this one. Oh, you like the I? That's the letter I. » Ethan. » Push this one, push this one. » Push the s for snake! » Push this one. Oh you like the I? » [LAUGH]


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