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Voice of America, Musical Training Found Important for Communications Skills

Musical Training Found Important for Communications Skills

VOICE ONE:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English.

I'm Bob Doughty.

VOICE TWO:

Researchers believe cello music can help improve communications skills Researchers believe cello music can help improve communications skills And I'm Pat Bodnar. This week, we will tell about a new finding about the value of musical training. We will also tell how a short rest during the day can help your heart. And, we tell about an American law that protects all kinds of plants and wildlife.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

American scientists say musical training seems to improve communication skills. They found that developing musical skills involves the same process in the brain as learning how to speak. The scientists say that could help children with learning disabilities.

Nina Kraus is a neurobiologist at Northwestern University in Illinois. She says musical training involves putting together different kinds of information. She says the process involves hearing music, looking at musical notes, touching an instrument and watching other musicians. She says the process is not much different from learning how to speak. Both involve different senses.

VOICE TWO:

Professor Krauss says musical training and learning to speak each make us think about what we are doing. She says speech and music pass through a structure of the nervous system called the brain stem. The brain stem controls our ability to hear.

Until recently, experts have thought the brain stem could not be developed or changed. But Professor Krauss and her team found that musical training can improve a person's brain stem activity. Their study was reported in the Proceedings in the National Academy of Sciences.

VOICE ONE:

The study involved individuals with different levels of musical ability. They were asked to wear an electrical device that measures brain activity. The Individuals wore the electrode while they watched a video of someone speaking and a person playing a musical instrument -- the cello. Professor Krauss says cellos have sound qualities similar to some of the sounds that are important with speech.

The study found that the more years of training people had, the more sensitive they were to the sound and beat of the music. Those who were involved in musical activities were the same people in whom the improvement of sensory events was the strongest.

Professor Kraus says the study shows the importance of musical training to children with learning disabilities. She says using music to improve listening skills could mean they hear sentences and better understand facial expressions.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Medical experts say most Americans do not get enough sleep. They say more Americans need to rest for a short period in the middle of the day. They are advising people to sleep lightly before continuing with other activities.

One study earlier this year found that persons who sleep for a few minutes during the day were less likely to die of heart disease. The study followed more than twenty-three thousand Greek adults for about six years. Adults who rested for half an hour at least three times a week had a thirty-seven percent lower risk of dying from heart disease than those who did not nap.

Study organizers said the strongest evidence was in working men. The organizers said naps might improve health by reducing tension caused by work.

VOICE ONE:

Some European and Latin American businesses have supported the idea of napping for many years. They urge people to leave work, go home and have a nap before returning. In the United States, some companies let workers rest briefly in their offices. They believe this reduces mistakes and accidents, and also increases the amount of work a person can do.

Sleep experts say it is likely that people make more mistakes at work than at other times. They say people should not carry out important duties when they feel sleepy. And they say the best thing to do is to take a nap. About twenty minutes of rest is all you need. Experts say this provides extra energy and can increase your effectiveness until the end of the day.

But experts warn that a nap should last no more than twenty to thirty minutes. A longer nap will put the body into deep sleep. Waking up will be difficult.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Scientists have known for years that human life on Earth depends on the continued survival of many different kinds of plants, animals and other organisms. That is one reason why governments make laws to protect the environment.

In the United States, a major environmental law is the Endangered Species Act of Nineteen Seventy-Three. Earlier laws provided only limited ways to protect native animals considered in danger.

A conference in nineteen seventy-three led to a treaty that restricted international buying and selling of plants and animals believed to be harmed by trade. Later that year, the United States Congress approved the Endangered Species Act.

VOICE ONE:

The law expanded America's list of threatened animal species to include foreign animals. It defined the words endangered and threatened. The law extended protection to plants and other organisms. It also required federal agencies to carry out programs to help guarantee the survival of endangered and threatened species. Federal agencies were also barred from taking any step that would harm a listed species or destroy or change its living area.

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service calls the Endangered Species Act one of the most far-reaching wildlife conservation laws ever approved. Its purpose is to protect endangered and threatened species and their environments. It also requires the government to take action to help such species.

VOICE TWO:

To get this protection, a plant or animal species must be added to the Federal list of wildlife and plants said to be in the greatest need of help. Each species is listed as either endangered or threatened. The two words describe two levels of threat. An endangered species is one that is close to disappearing from all or much of its living area. One that is threatened will likely become endangered if nothing is done.

A species is added to the list when scientists have confirmed that its survival is threatened. The threats may include the destruction of its environment, disease and too much hunting or fishing.

Government action is taken within one year of the proposal. The final listing of each proposed species may be published, withdrawn or extended.

VOICE ONE:

After a species has been added to the list, it can receive government protection. This includes prevention of harmful activities and restrictions on taking, transporting or selling a species. Officials say they want to increase the population of the listed species to a level where federal protection is no longer required.

One recent success story took place earlier this year. In June, the Department of the Interior announced that it was removing the bald eagle from the list.

Federal protection has helped the bald eagle population to increase in the United States Federal protection has helped the bald eagle population increase in the United States Officials say the bald eagle was one of the first species protected under the Endangered Species Act. But action was taken to help it much earlier. Beginning in nineteen-forty, federal laws made it illegal to kill a bald eagle. But continued use of the insect poison DDT after World War Two made the birds' eggs unable to produce young. This reduced the number of bald eagles in the wild.

VOICE TWO:

The government banned the use of DDT in nineteen seventy-two. And federal agencies began other efforts to save the bald eagle. The results were so good that in nineteen ninety-five, officials lowered the threat level for the bald eagle from endangered to threatened.

In nineteen sixty-three, only four hundred seventeen breeding pairs of bald eagles were known to exist in the lower forty-eight United States. Each breeding pair consisted of a fully-grown male and a female. Today, the forty-eight states are home to more than nine thousand pairs. Officials say the bald eagle in Alaska has never needed protection. They say between fifty and seventy thousand bald eagles live there.

The bald eagle will continue to enjoy federal protection under the Bald Eagle Protection Act of Nineteen Forty. That law makes it illegal to kill, sell or in any other way hurt eagles, their nests or eggs. But American officials say they are now sure about the future security of the bald eagle.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by SooJee Han and Nancy Steinbach. Brianna Blake was our producer. I'm Bob Doughty.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Pat Bodnar. Read and listen to our programs at voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again at this time next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.


Musical Training Found Important for Communications Skills La formation musicale est jugée importante pour les compétences en communication

VOICE ONE: ボイスワン:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. これは、VOAスペシャルイングリッシュのニュースサイエンスです。

I’m Bob Doughty. ボブ・ダウティーです。

VOICE TWO:

Researchers believe cello music can help improve communications skills Researchers believe cello music can help improve communications skills And I’m Pat Bodnar. 研究者は、チェロ音楽がコミュニケーションスキルの向上に役立つと信じています This week, we will tell about a new finding about the value of musical training. 今週は、音楽トレーニングの価値に関する新たな発見についてお話します。 We will also tell how a short rest during the day can help your heart. また、日中の短い休息があなたの心臓にどのように役立つかについても説明します。 And, we tell about an American law that protects all kinds of plants and wildlife. そして、私たちはあらゆる種類の植物や野生生物を保護するアメリカの法律について話します。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

American scientists say musical training seems to improve communication skills. They found that developing musical skills involves the same process in the brain as learning how to speak. 彼らは、音楽のスキルを発達させることは、話す方法を学ぶことと同じ脳内のプロセスを伴うことを発見しました。 The scientists say that could help children with learning disabilities. 科学者は、それが学習障害を持つ子どもたちを助けることができると言います。

Nina Kraus is a neurobiologist at Northwestern University in Illinois. She says musical training involves putting together different kinds of information. Elle dit que la formation musicale implique de rassembler différents types d'informations. 彼女は、音楽のトレーニングにはさまざまな種類の情報をまとめることが含まれると言います。 She says the process involves hearing music, looking at musical notes, touching an instrument and watching other musicians. 彼女によると、このプロセスには音楽の聴取、音符の確認、楽器のタッチ、他のミュージシャンの視聴が含まれます。 She says the process is not much different from learning how to speak. Both involve different senses. 両方とも異なる感覚を伴います。 Оба связаны с разными чувствами.

VOICE TWO:

Professor Krauss says musical training and learning to speak each make us think about what we are doing. クラウス教授は、音楽の訓練と話すことの学習はそれぞれ、私たちがしていることについて考えるようになると言います。 She says speech and music pass through a structure of the nervous system called the brain stem. 彼女は、音声と音楽は脳幹と呼ばれる神経系の構造を通過すると言います。 Она говорит, что речь и музыка проходят через структуру нервной системы, называемую стволом мозга. The brain stem controls our ability to hear. 脳幹は私たちの聞く能力を制御します。

Until recently, experts have thought the brain stem could not be developed or changed. Jusqu'à récemment, les experts pensaient que le tronc cérébral ne pouvait pas être développé ou modifié. 最近まで、専門家は脳幹を開発または変更できないと考えていました。 But Professor Krauss and her team found that musical training can improve a person’s brain stem activity. Their study was reported in the Proceedings in the National Academy of Sciences. Leur étude a été rapportée dans les Actes de l'Académie nationale des sciences. 彼らの研究は、全米科学アカデミーの議事録で報告されました。

VOICE ONE:

The study involved individuals with different levels of musical ability. この研究には、さまざまなレベルの音楽能力を持つ個人が参加しました。 They were asked to wear an electrical device that measures brain activity. 彼らは、脳の活動を測定する電気機器を着用するように求められました。 The Individuals wore the electrode while they watched a video of someone speaking and a person playing a musical instrument -- the cello. Professor Krauss says cellos have sound qualities similar to some of the sounds that are important with speech. クラウス教授は、チェロは音声で重要ないくつかの音に似た音質を持っていると言います。

The study found that the more years of training people had, the more sensitive they were to the sound and beat of the music. この研究では、人々が長年トレーニングを重ねるほど、音楽の音とビートに敏感になることがわかりました。 Исследование показало, что чем больше лет обучения, тем более чувствительны они к звуку и ритму музыки. Those who were involved in musical activities were the same people in whom the improvement of sensory events was the strongest. Ceux qui étaient impliqués dans des activités musicales étaient les mêmes personnes chez qui l'amélioration des événements sensoriels était la plus forte. 音楽活動に関与したのは、感覚イベントの改善が最も強かったのと同じ人でした。 Те, кто участвовал в музыкальной деятельности, были теми же людьми, в которых улучшение сенсорных событий было самым сильным.

Professor Kraus says the study shows the importance of musical training to children with learning disabilities. She says using music to improve listening skills could mean they hear sentences and better understand facial expressions. 彼女は、音楽を使ってリスニングスキルを向上させると、彼らは文章を聞き、表情をよりよく理解することを意味すると言っています。

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Medical experts say most Americans do not get enough sleep. They say more Americans need to rest for a short period in the middle of the day. 彼らは、より多くのアメリカ人が日中に短い期間休む必要があると言います。 They are advising people to sleep lightly before continuing with other activities. 彼らは、他の活動を続ける前に、軽く眠るように人々に助言しています。

One study earlier this year found that persons who sleep for a few minutes during the day were less likely to die of heart disease. The study followed more than twenty-three thousand Greek adults for about six years. この研究は、約6年間、2万3千人を超えるギリシャの成人を追跡しました。 Adults who rested for half an hour at least three times a week had a thirty-seven percent lower risk of dying from heart disease than those who did not nap.

Study organizers said the strongest evidence was in working men. The organizers said naps might improve health by reducing tension caused by work. Организаторы заявили, что дремота может улучшить здоровье, уменьшив напряжение, вызванное работой.

VOICE ONE:

Some European and Latin American businesses have supported the idea of napping for many years. 一部のヨーロッパおよびラテンアメリカの企業は、長年にわたり昼寝のアイデアを支持してきました。 They urge people to leave work, go home and have a nap before returning. 彼らは、帰る前に仕事を辞め、家に帰り、昼寝をするよう人々に促します。 In the United States, some companies let workers rest briefly in their offices. They believe this reduces mistakes and accidents, and also increases the amount of work a person can do.

Sleep experts say it is likely that people make more mistakes at work than at other times. They say people should not carry out important duties when they feel sleepy. And they say the best thing to do is to take a nap. そして、彼らが行うべき最善のことは、昼寝を取ることであると言います。 About twenty minutes of rest is all you need. 必要なのは約20分の休息だけです。 Experts say this provides extra energy and can increase your effectiveness until the end of the day.

But experts warn that a nap should last no more than twenty to thirty minutes. しかし、専門家は、仮眠は20〜30分しか続かないと警告しています。 A longer nap will put the body into deep sleep. Waking up will be difficult.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Scientists have known for years that human life on Earth depends on the continued survival of many different kinds of plants, animals and other organisms. 科学者は長年、地球上の人間の生活は多くの異なる種類の植物、動物、その他の生物の生存に依存していることを知っています。 That is one reason why governments make laws to protect the environment.

In the United States, a major environmental law is the Endangered Species Act of Nineteen Seventy-Three. 米国では、主要な環境法は19の絶滅危Act種法です。 Earlier laws provided only limited ways to protect native animals considered in danger. 以前の法律は、危険と見なされる在来動物を保護するための限られた方法しか提供していませんでした。

A conference in nineteen seventy-three led to a treaty that restricted international buying and selling of plants and animals believed to be harmed by trade. 1973年の会議は、貿易によって害を受けると考えられる動植物の国際的な売買を制限する条約につながりました。 Конференция в девятнадцатьдесят семь лет привела к заключению договора, который ограничивал международные покупки и продажи растений и животных, которые, как полагают, пострадали от торговли. Later that year, the United States Congress approved the Endangered Species Act. その年の後半、米国議会は絶滅危ed種法を承認しました。

VOICE ONE:

The law expanded America’s list of threatened animal species to include foreign animals. La loi a élargi la liste américaine des espèces animales menacées pour inclure les animaux étrangers. 法律は、アメリカの絶滅危ened種のリストを外国の動物を含むように拡大しました。 It defined the words endangered and threatened. 絶滅の危機にある言葉を定義しました。 Он определил слова, находящиеся под угрозой исчезновения и находящиеся под угрозой. The law extended protection to plants and other organisms. 法律は植物やその他の生物の保護を拡大しました。 It also required federal agencies to carry out programs to help guarantee the survival of endangered and threatened species. また、連邦政府機関は、絶滅危threat種の生存を保証するためのプログラムを実施する必要がありました。 Federal agencies were also barred from taking any step that would harm a listed species or destroy or change its living area. また、連邦政府機関は、リストされている種に害を及ぼしたり、その居住地域を破壊または変更するような措置を講じることを禁止されていました。

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service calls the Endangered Species Act one of the most far-reaching wildlife conservation laws ever approved. Le Fish and Wildlife Service des États-Unis appelle la loi sur les espèces en voie de disparition l'une des lois de conservation de la faune les plus importantes jamais approuvées. 米国魚類野生生物局は、絶滅危ed種法を、これまでに承認された最も広範囲の野生生物保護法の1つと呼びます。 Its purpose is to protect endangered and threatened species and their environments. その目的は、絶滅の危機にthreatしている種とその環境を保護することです。 It also requires the government to take action to help such species.

VOICE TWO:

To get this protection, a plant or animal species must be added to the Federal list of wildlife and plants said to be in the greatest need of help. Pour bénéficier de cette protection, une espèce végétale ou animale doit être ajoutée à la liste fédérale des espèces sauvages et végétales dont on dit qu'elles ont le plus besoin d'aide. この保護を得るには、植物または動物種を連邦政府の野生生物のリストに追加する必要があり、植物は最も助けを必要としていると言われています。 Each species is listed as either endangered or threatened. 各種は、絶滅危or種または絶滅危as種として記載されています。 The two words describe two levels of threat. 2つの単語は、2つのレベルの脅威を表します。 An endangered species is one that is close to disappearing from all or much of its living area. 絶滅危species種は、その生息域のすべてまたは大部分から消失しつつある種です。 One that is threatened will likely become endangered if nothing is done. 何もしなければ、脅されている人は危険にさらされるでしょう。

A species is added to the list when scientists have confirmed that its survival is threatened. The threats may include the destruction of its environment, disease and too much hunting or fishing. 脅威には、環境の破壊、病気、狩猟や釣りの過剰が含まれる場合があります。 Угрозы могут включать в себя разрушение его окружающей среды, болезней и слишком много охоты или рыболовства.

Government action is taken within one year of the proposal. 政府の措置は、提案から1年以内に行われます。 Действия правительства принимаются в течение одного года после предложения. The final listing of each proposed species may be published, withdrawn or extended. La liste finale de chaque espèce proposée peut être publiée, retirée ou étendue. 提案された各種の最終リストは、公開、撤回、または拡張することができます。

VOICE ONE:

After a species has been added to the list, it can receive government protection. 種がリストに追加された後、政府の保護を受けることができます。 This includes prevention of harmful activities and restrictions on taking, transporting or selling a species. Cela comprend la prévention des activités nuisibles et les restrictions sur la prise, le transport ou la vente d'une espèce. これには、有害な活動の防止や、種の採取、輸送、販売の制限が含まれます。 Officials say they want to increase the population of the listed species to a level where federal protection is no longer required. 当局者は、リストされた種の個体数を、連邦政府の保護がもはや必要とされないレベルまで増やしたいと言います。

One recent success story took place earlier this year. 今年の初めに、最近の成功事例が1つありました。 In June, the Department of the Interior announced that it was removing the bald eagle from the list. 6月、内務省は、白頭aldをリストから削除すると発表しました。

Federal protection has helped the bald eagle population to increase in the United States Federal protection has helped the bald eagle population increase in the United States Officials say the bald eagle was one of the first species protected under the Endangered Species Act. 連邦政府の保護は、米国での白頭ワシの個体数の増加を助けました連邦政府の保護は、米国での白頭ワシの個体数の増加を助けました。 But action was taken to help it much earlier. しかし、はるかに早くそれを助けるために行動がとられました。 Beginning in nineteen-forty, federal laws made it illegal to kill a bald eagle. But continued use of the insect poison DDT after World War Two made the birds' eggs unable to produce young. Mais l'utilisation continue du poison d'insecte DDT après la Seconde Guerre mondiale a rendu les œufs des oiseaux incapables de produire des petits. しかし、第二次世界大戦後、鳥の卵を幼くすることができなくなった後、昆虫毒DDTの使用を続けました。 This reduced the number of bald eagles in the wild. これにより、野生の白頭ワシの数が減りました。

VOICE TWO:

The government banned the use of DDT in nineteen seventy-two. And federal agencies began other efforts to save the bald eagle. The results were so good that in nineteen ninety-five, officials lowered the threat level for the bald eagle from endangered to threatened. 結果は非常に良かったので、19九五年に、当局は白頭ワシの脅威レベルを絶滅の危機から脅迫へと下げました。

In nineteen sixty-three, only four hundred seventeen breeding pairs of bald eagles were known to exist in the lower forty-eight United States. En 1963, seuls quatre cent dix-sept couples reproducteurs de pygargues à tête blanche étaient connus dans les quarante-huit États-Unis inférieurs. 1963年に、わずか48 17頭の白頭ワシの繁殖ペアが、米国本土48州に存在することが知られていました。 Известно, что в девятнадцатьдесят три тридцать семь семян размножающихся пар орланов были найдены в нижних сорока восьми Соединенных Штатах. Each breeding pair consisted of a fully-grown male and a female. 各繁殖ペアは、完全に成長したオスとメスで構成されていました。 Today, the forty-eight states are home to more than nine thousand pairs. 今日、48の州には9000以上のペアがあります。 Officials say the bald eagle in Alaska has never needed protection. 当局は、アラスカの白頭ワシが保護を必要としたことがないと言います。 They say between fifty and seventy thousand bald eagles live there.

The bald eagle will continue to enjoy federal protection under the Bald Eagle Protection Act of Nineteen Forty. 白頭ワシは、19の白頭ワシ保護法の下で連邦保護を享受し続けます。 That law makes it illegal to kill, sell or in any other way hurt eagles, their nests or eggs. But American officials say they are now sure about the future security of the bald eagle. しかし、アメリカの当局者は、白頭futureの将来の安全性について今確信していると言います。

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by SooJee Han and Nancy Steinbach. Brianna Blake was our producer. I’m Bob Doughty.

VOICE TWO:

And I’m Pat Bodnar. Read and listen to our programs at voaspecialenglish.com. voaspecialenglish.comでプログラムを読んで聞いてください。 Join us again at this time next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.