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Crash Course European History, Medieval Europe: Crash Course European History #1 (1)

Medieval Europe: Crash Course European History #1 (1)

Hello and welcome to Crash Course European history, I'm John Green,

and as you may know medieval Europe has a terrible reputation.

We often hear that it was disease and famine-ridden (which it was).

Children were supposedly forced to marry at six or eight or ten years old, which was not common,

although people did start marrying younger,

in part because they were also dying younger.

We hear that knights in shining armor slaughtered wantonly, albeit with good manners called chivalry, which is partly true,

although the chivalric code was in decline.

And we also hear that it wasn't safe to drink the water, so they drank beer exclusively,

which more on that in a moment. But yeah, today we're turning our attention to these so-called "Middle Ages."

But right, so about beer. In those days, people did drink beer and ale.

The were nutritious (and still are), but they also drank other things: milk, other beverages, and especially water.

There were wells with safe and delicious drinking water.

Still, it's true that a lot of bad things did happen in the 14th and 15th centuries:

The Black Death, the Great Schism in the Catholic Church, and the Hundred Years War.

Also, in the 14th century,

the Little Ice Age began, which meant cooler temperatures and declining harvests,

and that contributed to stunting and starvation.

But let's begin with the Black Death, a huge pandemic of a disease called Bubonic Plague,

which spread to Europe from Asia. Many experts believe the plague originated in Tibet as a localized epidemic

but then spread carried by rats and mice and fleas.

And those animals were able to travel widely because humans were traveling, and the fleas and rats hitched rides with us,

so in that sense,

the plague was a product of growing human interconnectedness.

Bubonic plague is a horrible disease. After infection with the bacterium Yersinia Pestis,

lymph nodes swell and sometimes burst; victims often get high fevers and vomit blood;

gangrene can cause extremities and facial features to turn black with necrosis,

hence "the Black Death";

and depending on the strain, somewhere between 50 and 60 percent of people infected died.

These days, bubonic plague is treatable by antibiotics,

But such treatments have only been around for a few decades. As recently as the 20th century, outbreaks in India and China

killed more than 12 million people.

But the 14th century's Black Death was even worse.

Around 25 million people had died in Asia by the time the plague reached Constantinople in 1347,

and within four years, a staggering number of Europeans had died from it,

often within two days of becoming infected.

People faced a heartbreaking decision: whether to risk caring for their ailing loved ones,

or leave them to die alone in the hopes of avoiding infection.

Some areas lost up to 80 percent of their population.

The latest research claims that in Europe as a whole, around half of all people died.

Death haunted every moment. It's difficult to grasp

just how profound the Black Death was,

but imagine losing half of your community in a few years to a poorly understood disease.

Giovanni Boccaccio wrote, "Many died in the open street.

Others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies.

Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies,

which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches,

...like goods in a ship's hold. "How different has life become in the last 650 years?"

The bacterium that caused the Black Death, is now available as a plush stuffed

...bacterium. They don't actually look that threatening, especially with eyes. But yeah, this is Yersenia Pestis!

(Blown up and made into a stuffed animal.) No bacterium! Also you want to know an interesting fact about me?

I- I can't juggle.

Amid all this devastation, the Hundred Years War added sustained turmoil and destruction.

The war was fought between the rulers of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France, over who would rule large

swaths of continental Europe, and it actually lasted at least 116 years, beginning in 1337.

One of the most interesting questions in history is: "Whether war leads to instability or instability leads to war?"

and the truth is probably

..Yes. Both. Like, poor harvests and disease outbreaks make war more likely,

but war also worsens poor harvests and disease outbreaks.

So amid the huge shocks to Europe that accompanied the Black Death, the Hundred Years War

increased instability in the food supply, and also in long-held cultural beliefs, like The Code of Chivalry.

Chivalry was a set of behaviors

toward knightly opponents, whom one would treat on the battlefield with respect and trust, not killing your fellow knight,

but, instead, holding him for ransom in good condition.

Such noble behavior separated the knight from common archers and mercenaries.

But English Kings began to hire such mercenaries from across Europe, who viciously looted and plundered in a way

that wasn't terribly chivalrous. And some of these knights for hire found it so profitable to fight that even during

truces and peace treaties, they kept on marauding. The 116 Years War also changed the nature of war through innovation.

Like, non-aristocratic soldiers from England and Wales used the longbow,

famed for its combined deadly speed and accuracy, and that helped the English prevail at the Battle of Agincourt

Before the 100 Years War, the French had innovated with cannons on ships,

which the English later used in the war's land battles. Both types of cannons, by the way,

relied on gunpowder, a Chinese invention. The Hundred Years War also saw the

spectacular rise and fall of Joan of Arc, born to a prosperous French peasant family in 1412.

When she was sixteen, England had won enough battles to take over the French throne, confirmed in the

1420 Treaty of Troyes, and France seemed leaderless.

Visions told Joan to get French forces to take to the field and drive out the English, so that

Charles, whom she believed to be the rightful heir to the French throne, could be crowned,

and astonishingly this proved successful.

By 1429, Charles was Charles VII of France.

But in the process, the Burgundians, a competing and powerful royal court,

captured Joan and turned her over to the English, who burned her at the stake in 1431.

It's a bad way to go. Although, there are no good ways.

If it sounds like European life in the 14th and 15th centuries was hard,

well, it was. Murder and violent crime rates were likely much higher than they are today,

and dying in war was a pretty routine risk.

Malnutrition and stunting were also very common.

Child mortality was astonishingly high; perhaps as many as 50% of children died before the age of five.

But at least people were surrounded by the comforts of religion.

The comforts of religion, however,

turned out not to be that comforting.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

In 1300, Pope Boniface VIII was the leader of the Catholic Church,

but he was also an important political figure in Europe.

One of Europe's great questions was whether the Church had authority over the entire Catholic world,

or if kings had the ultimate authority in their kingdoms? Could, for instance, King Philip IV of France

tax the Catholic clergy in France?

Pope Boniface thought: No. He was from a well-connected and powerful family,

and at the start of the 14th century, he was flexing his muscles across the papacy,

ultimately declaring in 1302 that the Pope had supreme power over everyone!

The timing was bad in that kings were also starting to flex their muscles.

They wanted tax money from the Church to expand their administration. Boniface threatened to

excommunicate Philip, who then had the Pope kidnapped.

Boniface was reportedly tortured in captivity and died soon after his release in 1303.

By 1305, Philip had arranged for the election of a French Pope and his installation at

Avignon, just inside what was then the French border,

which made people think that the papacy was under the thumb of French kings and distant from its

spiritual mission, which you know, it was.

In 1377 Pope Gregory XI decided to move back to Rome,

but then he died.

The Cardinals, surrounded by loyal Romans, then elected an Italian pope,

causing the French Cardinals to scatter and regroup to elect a French pope to head the papal court in Avignon,

which meant there were two popes and a schism had occurred.

Historians, in fact, call it the Great Schism.

Thanks, Thought Bubble.

The Great Schism was a huge blow to the Church and its claims of spiritual leadership,

which had already been harmed by the clergy's inability

or unwillingness to provide spiritual guidance during the Black Death.

Priests and monks and nuns had been as frightened of and as vulnerable to

death as everyone else.

And now it wasn't even clear which pope was the real Pope,

or which church was the real Church.

This disunity, combined with stories of decidedly unspiritual indulgences,

all served to undermine the church's authority.

Instead, spiritual and other direction came from common people, not the high-and-mighty, like

Catherine of Siena, for instance, was an ordinary young woman of intense religious faith,

who was the one who successfully urged Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome. Although then of course, he died.

Before Catherine died in 1380 at the age of 33,

she'd undertaken several diplomatic missions between the Church and Italian cities

and had traveled across the region urging the clergy to reform themselves

and fortify their spiritual ministry.

Ultimately others in the Church called a council to end the Great Schism, and church leaders

finally elected a single pope, Martin V, in 1417.

Although before that, things got truly out of control when a third Pope was elected for a while.

I mean, if you wanted to be Pope, your chances really were never better than in the late Middle Ages.

All of this meant that European Christendom really was declining in power,

and in 1453, the Ottomans, a Turkic ethnic group of Muslims captured the capital of the Byzantine Empire,

with the help, by the way, of a Hungarian munitions expert who knew about cannons.

The Byzantine Emperor had felt that the munition expert's fees were too high.

The Ottomans already controlled parts of southeastern Europe,

but capturing the Byzantine capital and beheading its Emperor was a big deal.

It was the final fall of the Roman Empire, and Islam went on to replace Christianity as the leading religion in

Constantinople, as its famed Cathedral became the Hagia Sophia mosque.

And control of Constantinople was a big deal for many reasons, including trade routes,

but also because Constantinople at the time was probably Europe's least terrible city

Meanwhile, the aforementioned use of mercenaries helped undermine the feudal system,

in which everyone owed loyalty to a lord, from knights to a serf, who was bound to that lord's land.

The Black Death and persistent warfare helped change that too.

And there were also far fewer humans, which meant fewer people to work in agriculture,

so serfs could demand their freedom because their labor had become much more valuable.

Indeed, peasants rebelled when the nobility failed to meet their demands for better conditions.

Like in the Peasants Revolt of 1381 in England,

they murdered nobles and sacked castles and manor houses.

And in cities, urban artisans wanted higher pay and an end to higher taxes.

In 1378, The Ciompi, or workers in the cloth trade, rebelled in Florence, demanding an end to harsh

prosecution for debt and an end to the imposition of extra taxes.

They marched through the streets, shouting, "Long live the little people."

The expansion of rights for artisans and farm workers

would of course be a very long process,

but their growing power and the decline of feudalism was a dramatic shift for Europe.

Even warfare itself had changed. People no longer fought for ethical reasons or for God's glory



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Medieval Europe: Crash Course European History #1 (1) Europe médiévale : cours intensif d'histoire européenne #1 (1)

Hello and welcome to Crash Course European history, I'm John Green, Привет и добро пожаловать на Ускоренный курс Европейской истории. Я Джон Грин, Merhaba ve Crash Course ile Avrupa Tarihine hoşgeldiniz, Ben John Green,

and as you may know medieval Europe has a terrible reputation. и, как вы знаете, Средневековая Европа имеет ужасную репутацию. Ve bildiğiniz gibi ortaçağ Avrupa'sı çok kötü bir üne sahip.

We often hear that it was disease and famine-ridden (which it was). Muitas vezes ouvimos que era doença e fome (o que era). Мы часто слышим, что она была полна болезней и голода, и это так. Sık sık hastalıkların ve açlıkların hüküm sürdüğünü duyuyoruz (ki öyleydi).

Children were supposedly forced to marry at six or eight or ten years old, which was not common, Детей, предположительно, заставляли жениться в 6, или 8, или 10 лет, что не было обыкновенным явлением, Rivayete göre çocuklar; altı, sekiz ya da on yaşlarında zorla evlendiriliyorlardı. Aslında bu, insanların daha erken

although people did start marrying younger, хотя люди действительно стали жениться раньше, evlenip daha erken ölmelerine rağmen

in part because they were also dying younger. отчасти потому, что они и умирали раньше. yaygın değildi.

We hear that knights in shining armor slaughtered wantonly, albeit with good manners called chivalry, which is partly true, Şövalyelerin ışıltılı zırhlarıyla ve şövalyeliğin iyi terbiyeyi öğütleyen kurallarıyla katliamlar yaptıklarını işitiyoruz. Aslında bu da şövalyelik

although the chivalric code was in decline. kodunun öneminin düşüşte olmasına rağmen doğru.

And we also hear that it wasn't safe to drink the water, so they drank beer exclusively, Ve yine su içmek tehlikeli olduğundan özellikle bira içtiklerini de duyuyoruz.

which more on that in a moment. But yeah, today we're turning our attention to these so-called "Middle Ages." Но да, сегодня мы обратим внимание на так называемые Средние века. Buna da birazdan değineceğiz. Her neyse, bugün dikkatimizi sözüm ona "Orta Çağ'a" vereceğiz.

But right, so about beer. In those days, people did drink beer and ale. Так вот по поводу пива: в те времена люди действительно пили пиво и эль. Ah, bira konusu vardı! O günlerde insanlar bira ve ale içti.

The were nutritious (and still are), but they also drank other things: milk, other beverages, and especially water. Они были питательны, и таковы до сих пор. Но они пили и другие штуки: молоко, другие напитки, и, особенно, воду. Bunlar besleyeciydi (hala öyleler) ama başka şeyler de içtiler: süt, diğer içecekler ve özellikle su gibi.

There were wells with safe and delicious drinking water. У них были колодцы с безопасной и вкусной питьевой водой. Sağlıklı ve lezzetli içme suları ulan kuyular vardı.

Still, it's true that a lot of bad things did happen in the 14th and 15th centuries: Тем не менее, правда, что много плохих вещей произошло в XIV-XV веках: Yine de, 14'üncü ve 15'inci yüzyıllarda birçok kötü şeyin yaşandığı doğru.

The Black Death, the Great Schism in the Catholic Church, and the Hundred Years War. Чёрная смерть, Великий раскол в Католической церкви и Столетняя война. Kara Veba, Katolik Kilisesi'inde yaşanan büyük bölünme ve Yüzyıl Savaşları gibi.

Also, in the 14th century, Также в XIV веке начался Малый ледниковый период, Ayrıca 14'üncü yüzyılda,

the Little Ice Age began, which meant cooler temperatures and declining harvests, что означало снижение температур и гибель урожая, Küçük Buz Çağı başladı. Bu da daha düşük sıcaklıklar ve azalan hasatlar anlamına geliyordu.

and that contributed to stunting and starvation. которые привели к задержкам в росте и голоду. Bu da durulmaya ve açlığa neden oldu.

But let's begin with the Black Death, a huge pandemic of a disease called Bubonic Plague, Ama gelin Asya'dan Avrupa'ya yayılan Kara Ölüm denilen büyük salgın hastalık

which spread to Europe from Asia. Many experts believe the plague originated in Tibet as a localized epidemic Многие эксперты считают, что чума появилась в Тибете как локальная эпидемия, Kara Ölüm ile başlayalım. Birçok uzman vebanın Tibet'te yerel bir salgın olarak başladığına ama

but then spread carried by rats and mice and fleas. но затем распространилась, переносимая крысами, мышами и блохами. zamanla sıçanlar, fareler ve pireler aracılığıyla yayıldığına inanır.

And those animals were able to travel widely because humans were traveling, and the fleas and rats hitched rides with us, E esses animais foram capazes de viajar muito porque os humanos estavam viajando, e as pulgas e ratos pegaram carona conosco, Эти животные могли так далеко путешествовать, потому что путешествовали люди. А блохи и крысы становились нашими попутчиками. Ve bu hayvanlar rahatça seyahat edebiliyordu çünkü insanlar da seyahat ediyordu. Pireler ve sıçanlar da bizimle

so in that sense, В этом смысле, чума была результатом растущих взаимосвязей между людьми. beraber yola koyuldular. Bu bakımdan

the plague was a product of growing human interconnectedness. veba, insanlar arasında büyüyen bağlantının bir ürünüydü.

Bubonic plague is a horrible disease. After infection with the bacterium Yersinia Pestis, Бубонная чума - ужасная болезнь: после заражения бактериями чумной палочки, Kara Veba korkunç bir hastalıktır. Yersinia Pestis denen bakterinin bulaşmasından sonra

lymph nodes swell and sometimes burst; victims often get high fevers and vomit blood; лимфоузлы начинают пухнуть и иногда лопаться. Жертвы часто страдают от высокой температуры, их рвёт кровью; linf boğumları şişer ve bazen de patlardı. Mağdurlar sıklıkla yüksek ateşe yakalanır ve kan kusarlardı.

gangrene can cause extremities and facial features to turn black with necrosis, гангрена заставляет конечности и части лица чернеть от омертвения, Kangren, uzuvlar ve yüz organlarının siyaha çalıp çürümesine neden olabilir.

hence "the Black Death"; отсюда и название "Чёрная смерть". Bu nedenle de Kara Ölüm adı verilir.

and depending on the strain, somewhere between 50 and 60 percent of people infected died. e dependendo da cepa, algo entre 50 e 60 por cento das pessoas infectadas morreram. В зависимости от штамма, примерно от 50 до 60 процентов заражённых умирало. Zorlamaya bağlı olarak, hastalığa yakalanan yüzde 50-60 arası insan öldü.

These days, bubonic plague is treatable by antibiotics, В наше время бубонная чума лечится антибиотиками, Bugünlerde kara veba antibiyotiklerle tedavi edilebiliyor.

But such treatments have only been around for a few decades. As recently as the 20th century, outbreaks in India and China Ama bu tedaviler sadece birkaç onyıldır var. Daha henüz 20'inci yüzyılda Hindistan'da ve Çin'de

killed more than 12 million people. ortaya çıkan ani salgınlar 12 milyondan fazla insanı öldürdü.

But the 14th century's Black Death was even worse. Но Чёрная смерть XIV века была даже хуже. Lakin 14'üncü yüzyılın Kara Ölüm'ü çok daha feciydi.

Around 25 million people had died in Asia by the time the plague reached Constantinople in 1347, Около 25 млн человек погибло в Азии к моменту, когда чума достигла Константинополя в 1347 году. 25 milyon civarında insan, veba Konstantinopolis'e 1347'de ulaştığında ölmüştü

and within four years, a staggering number of Europeans had died from it, В течение 4 лет, ошеломляющее количество европейцев погибло от неё, ve 4 yıl içinde kayda değer sayıdaki Avrupalı hastalıktan dolayı öldü.

often within two days of becoming infected. зачастую в течение 2 дней после заражения. Çoğu hastalığa yakalandıkları iki gün içinde ölüyordu.

People faced a heartbreaking decision: whether to risk caring for their ailing loved ones, Люди оказывались перед душераздирающим выбором: рискуя, помочь своим заболевшим любимым, İnsanlar iç sızlatan bir karar vereceklerdi: Ya hasta sevdiklerine bakmak için riske gireceklerdi ya da

or leave them to die alone in the hopes of avoiding infection. или оставить их умирать в одиночестве, надеясь избежать заражения. hastalıktan muaf kalma umuduyla onları ölüme terk edeceklerdi.

Some areas lost up to 80 percent of their population. Некоторые регионы потеряли до 80 процентов своего населения. Bazı bölgeler nüfuslarının yüzde 80 kadarını kaybetti.

The latest research claims that in Europe as a whole, around half of all people died. Новейшие исследования говорят, что во всей Европе погибла почти половина населения. Son araştırmalar Avrupa'nın tamamında tüm insanların aşağı yukarı yarısının öldüğünü belirtiyor.

Death haunted every moment. It's difficult to grasp Смерть могла прийти в любой момент. Ölüm her an avlanıyordu. Kara Ölüm'ün ne kadar yıkıcı olduğunu

just how profound the Black Death was, Невозможно вообразить, какой силой обладала Чёрная смерть. kavramak bile zordu

but imagine losing half of your community in a few years to a poorly understood disease. Но представьте, каково это - потерять половину своего сообщества в течение нескольких лет из-за какой-то непонятной болезни. ama tebaanızın yarısını birkaç yıl içinde doğru dürüst çözülememiş bir hastalığa kaybettiğinizi düşünün.

Giovanni Boccaccio wrote, "Many died in the open street. Джованни Боккаччо писал: "Многие кончались <...> на улице; Giovanni Boccaccio şöyle demişti: "Birçoğu caddelerde öldü.

Others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies. иные, хотя и умирали в домах, давали о том знать соседям не иначе, как запахом своих разлагавшихся тел. Evlerinde ölen diğerleri ise çürüyen bedenlerinin kokularıyla fark edildi.

Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, Так как для большого количества тел <...> не хватало освященной для погребения земли, <...> Kilseye tahsis edilmiş avlular cesetlerin çokluğundan defin işlemlerine yetmedi.

which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, вырывали громадные ямы, куда сотнями клали приносимые трупы,

...like goods in a ship's hold. "How different has life become in the last 650 years?" нагромождая их рядами, как товар на корабле..." Как сильно поменялась жизнь за последние 650 лет?

The bacterium that caused the Black Death, is now available as a plush stuffed

...bacterium. They don't actually look that threatening, especially with eyes. But yeah, this is Yersenia Pestis! Aslında o kadar da tehlikeli gözükmüyorlar, özellikle gözle bakılınca. Ama yine de bu bir Yersenia Pestis!

(Blown up and made into a stuffed animal.) No bacterium! Also you want to know an interesting fact about me? Şişirilmiş ve peluş bir hayvana doldurulmuş. Yok artık bakteri! Benim hakkımda ilginç bir bilgi öğrenmek ister misiniz?

I- I can't juggle. Ben hokkabazlık yapamam.

Amid all this devastation, the Hundred Years War added sustained turmoil and destruction. Посреди всего этого опустошения, Столетняя война принесла долгий период смуты и разрушений. Tüm bu yıkımın ortasında, Yüzyıl Savaşları devamlı bir çatışma ve yıkım dahil etti.

The war was fought between the rulers of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France, over who would rule large

swaths of continental Europe, and it actually lasted at least 116 years, beginning in 1337. И на самом деле она длилась как минимум 116 лет, начавшись в 1337 году.

One of the most interesting questions in history is: "Whether war leads to instability or instability leads to war?" Один из наиболее интересных вопросов в истории: "Ведёт ли война к нестабильности или нестабильность ведёт к войне?" Tarihteki en ilginç sorulardan biri: "Savaş mı istikrarsızlığa yol açar yoksa istikrarsızlık mı savaşa yol açar?"

and the truth is probably И правильный ответ, скорее всего, - Ve gerçek muhtemelen

..Yes. Both. Like, poor harvests and disease outbreaks make war more likely, ДА. И ТО, И ДРУГОЕ. Так, плохие урожаи и эпидемии увеличивают вероятность войны, ...evet, ikisi de. Yetersiz mahsüller ve salgın hastalıklar savaşı daha olası hale getiriyor ama

but war also worsens poor harvests and disease outbreaks. но война усугубляет последствия плохих урожаев и эпидемий. savaş da aynı zamanda mahsülü verimsizleştiriyor ve salgın hastalıklara yol açıyor.

So amid the huge shocks to Europe that accompanied the Black Death, the Hundred Years War Avrupa'yı Kara Ölüm'le birlikte sarsan Yüzyıl Savaşları'nın ortasında

increased instability in the food supply, and also in long-held cultural beliefs, like The Code of Chivalry. но и устоявшихся культурных традиций, таких как рыцарский кодекс. besin temini ve Şövalyelik Kuralları gibi uzun zamandır muhafaza edilen kültürel değerlerde de dengesizlik arttı.

Chivalry was a set of behaviors Рыцарский кодекс был сводом правил поведения по отношению к благородному сопернику, Şövalyelik, kişinin savaş alanında saygı ve güven ile hareket ettiği,

toward knightly opponents, whom one would treat on the battlefield with respect and trust, not killing your fellow knight,

but, instead, holding him for ransom in good condition.

Such noble behavior separated the knight from common archers and mercenaries.

But English Kings began to hire such mercenaries from across Europe, who viciously looted and plundered in a way

that wasn't terribly chivalrous. And some of these knights for hire found it so profitable to fight that even during Некоторые из таких "рыцарей по найму" нашли войну такой прибыльной,

truces and peace treaties, they kept on marauding. The 116 Years War also changed the nature of war through innovation. что даже во время перемирий они продолжали мародёрствовать. Стошестнадцатилетняя война также изменила характер войны с помощью инноваций. Yağmaya devam ettiler. 116 yıllık savaş, yenilikler vasıtasıyla savaşın doğasını da değiştirdi.

Like, non-aristocratic soldiers from England and Wales used the longbow, Так, незнатные солдаты из Англии и Уэльса использовали длинный лук, Galler ve İngiltere'den aristokrat olmayan askerler hatasızlığı ve ölümcül hızıyla ünlenmiş

famed for its combined deadly speed and accuracy, and that helped the English prevail at the Battle of Agincourt uzun yayları kullandılar. Bu da Agincourt Muharebesi'nde İngilizlerin baskın gelmesine yardımcı oldu.

Before the 100 Years War, the French had innovated with cannons on ships, Ещё до начала Столетней войны французы стали использовать пушки на кораблях, Yüzyıl savaşlarından önce Fransızlar gemilerde savaş topu yeniliğine gittiler.

which the English later used in the war's land battles. Both types of cannons, by the way, İngilizler de bunu kara savaşlarında sonradan kullanacaktı. Bu arada iki tür savaş topunun da kaynağı,

relied on gunpowder, a Chinese invention. The Hundred Years War also saw the bir Çin icadı olan barut idi. Yüzyıl savaşları aynı zamanda

spectacular rise and fall of Joan of Arc, born to a prosperous French peasant family in 1412. родившейся в обеспеченной французской крестьянской семье в 1412 году. 1412'de zengin köylü bir Fransız ailesinde doğan Jeanne d'Arc'ın da ihtişamlı yükselişini ve düşüşünü gördü.

When she was sixteen, England had won enough battles to take over the French throne, confirmed in the Когда ей было 16, англичане выиграли достаточно сражений, чтобы занять французский трон, 16 yaşındayken, İngiltere, Fransız tahtını devralmak için yeteri derecede savaş kazanmıştı.

1420 Treaty of Troyes, and France seemed leaderless. что было подтверждено договором в Труа 1420 года, и казалось, что Франция осталась обезглавленной. 1420 Troyes Antlaşmasıyla da Fransa lidersiz gözüküyordu.

Visions told Joan to get French forces to take to the field and drive out the English, so that Видения сказали Жанне вывести французские войска в поле и прогнать англичан, Rüyetler, Joan'a Fransız güçlerini savaş alanına sürüp İngilizleri saf dışı bırakmasını söylüyordu.

Charles, whom she believed to be the rightful heir to the French throne, could be crowned, чтобы Карл, которого она считала законным наследником французского престола, мог быть коронован.

and astonishingly this proved successful. И, ко всеобщему удивлению, ей это удалось.

By 1429, Charles was Charles VII of France. К 1429 году Карл стал Карлом VII, королём Франции. 1429'a gelindiğinde Charles, Fransa'nın VII. Charles'ı idi.

But in the process, the Burgundians, a competing and powerful royal court, Но в ходе этих событий, бургундцы - соперничающая с французами сильная монархия, Ama süreç içinde güçlü ve iddialı bir kraliyet mahkemesi olan Burgundiyalılar,

captured Joan and turned her over to the English, who burned her at the stake in 1431. поймали Жанну и передали её англичанам, которые сожгли её на костре в 1431. Joan'ı ele geçirdi ve onu 1431'de kazıkta yakacak olan İngilizlere teslim etti.

It's a bad way to go. Although, there are no good ways. Ужасный конец, хотя хороших и не бывает. Gidilecek kötü bir yol ama iyi yol da yok.

If it sounds like European life in the 14th and 15th centuries was hard, Звучит так, что жизнь европейцев в XIV-XV веках была сложной. 14'üncü ve 15'inci yüzyıllarda Avrupai yaşam zor gibi geliyorsa,

well, it was. Murder and violent crime rates were likely much higher than they are today, Ну, именно так и было. Уровень убийств и насильственной преступности, скорее всего, был гораздо выше, чем сегодня, evet, zordu. Cinayet ve şiddet suçları muhtemelen günümüzde olduğundan çok daha fazlaydı.

and dying in war was a pretty routine risk. и гибель в бою была довольно привычным риском. Savaşta ölmek de oldukça olası bir ihtimaldi.

Malnutrition and stunting were also very common. Недоедание и задержки в росте тоже были распространены. Yetersiz beslenme ve bodurluk da epey yaygındı.

Child mortality was astonishingly high; perhaps as many as 50% of children died before the age of five. Детская смертность была невероятно высокой - возможно, вплоть до 50% детей умирало, не достигнув возраста 5 лет. Çocuk ölümleri inanılmaz bir şekilde yüksekti; belki de çocukların yüzde 50 kadar büyük bir kısmı 5 yaşına gelmeden ölüyordu.

But at least people were surrounded by the comforts of religion. Но, люди могли хотя бы найти себе отраду в религии. Ama en azından insanlar dinin konforuyla çevrelenmişti.

The comforts of religion, however, Впрочем, отрада в религии оказалась не такой отрадной. Lakin, dini konforun

turned out not to be that comforting. o kadar da konforlu olmadığı ortaya çıktı.

Let's go to the Thought Bubble. Gelin bir Düşünce Balonu'na gidelim.

In 1300, Pope Boniface VIII was the leader of the Catholic Church, 1300'de Papa VIII. Boniface, Katolik Kilisesi'nin lideriydi

but he was also an important political figure in Europe. но он также был важной политической фигурой Европы. ama aynı zamanda Avrupa'da önemli bir siyasi figürdü.

One of Europe's great questions was whether the Church had authority over the entire Catholic world, Одним из важнейших вопросов для Европы был "Есть ли у Церкви власть над всем католическим миром, Avrupa'daki en önemli sorulardan biri Kilise'nin bütün Katolik dünyası üzerinde otorite sahibi olup olmadığı

or if kings had the ultimate authority in their kingdoms? Could, for instance, King Philip IV of France ya da kralın, kendi krallıklarında nihai otoriteye sahip olup olmadığıydı. Örneğin, Fransız kral Philip IV

tax the Catholic clergy in France? Fransa'daki Katolik ruhban sınıfını vergiye bağlayabilir miydi?

Pope Boniface thought: No. He was from a well-connected and powerful family, Папа Бонифаций считал, что нет. Он был из влиятельной семьи с хорошими связями, Papa Boniface düşündü: Hayır. Papa, çevresi geniş ve güçlü bir aileden geliyordu.

and at the start of the 14th century, he was flexing his muscles across the papacy, и в начале XIV века он поигрывал мускулами на всё Папство, 14'üncü yüzyılın başlarında, 1302 yılında nihayet Papa'nın herkesin üzerinde en yüksek merci olduğunu ilan ederek

ultimately declaring in 1302 that the Pope had supreme power over everyone! в конечном счёте в 1302 году объявив, что Папа обладает абсолютной властью над всеми! papalık üzerinde güçlerini gösteriyordu.

The timing was bad in that kings were also starting to flex their muscles. Время было выбрано неудачно в том смысле, что короли тоже начинали играть мускулами. Krallar da güçlerini göstermeye başladıklarından dolayı zamanlama kötüydü.

They wanted tax money from the Church to expand their administration. Boniface threatened to Hükümranlıklarını genişletmek için Kilise'den vergi parası istiyorlardı. Boniface, daha sonradan kendisini kaçırtacak olan Philip'i

excommunicate Philip, who then had the Pope kidnapped. aforoz etmekle tehdit ediyordu.

Boniface was reportedly tortured in captivity and died soon after his release in 1303. По сообщениям, в тюрьме Бонифация пытали, и он умер вскоре после своего освобождения в 1303 году. Boniface söylenilene göre esaretteyken işkenceye uğradı ve salınmasından kısa bir süre sonra 1303'te öldü.

By 1305, Philip had arranged for the election of a French Pope and his installation at 1305'e gelindiğinde Philip, Fransız Papa'nın seçilmesi için seçim ayarlamıştı ve o zamanlar

Avignon, just inside what was then the French border, Fransa'nın sınırları içinde olan Avignon'a ataması,

which made people think that the papacy was under the thumb of French kings and distant from its insanların, papalığın Fransız krallarının eli altında olduğunu ve manevi misyonundan

spiritual mission, which you know, it was. И знаете ли, так оно и было. uzak olduğunu düşündürdü, ki biliyorsunuz öyleydi.

In 1377 Pope Gregory XI decided to move back to Rome, В 1377 году Папа Григорий XI решил вернуться назад, в Рим, но он вскоре умер. 1377'de Papa XI. Gregory, geri Roma'ya taşınmayı düşündü

but then he died. ama öldü.

The Cardinals, surrounded by loyal Romans, then elected an Italian pope, Sadık Romalılar tarafından çevrelenen Kardinaller, sonrasında bir İtalyan Papa seçtiler.

causing the French Cardinals to scatter and regroup to elect a French pope to head the papal court in Avignon, заставив французских кардиналов собраться и выбрать французского Папу, чтобы он мог занять Папский престол в Авиньоне, Böylece Fransız Kardinallerin dağılıp tekrar gruplaşmasına ve Avignon'daki papalığa yeni bir Fransız papa seçmesine sebep oldu.

which meant there were two popes and a schism had occurred. что означало, что теперь Пап двое, и произошёл Раскол. Bu da 2 papa olduğu anlamına geliyordu ve bölünme meydana geldi.

Historians, in fact, call it the Great Schism. Историки назвали его Великим Расколом. Aslında tarihçiler buna Büyük Bölünme diyor.

Thanks, Thought Bubble. Спасибо, Пузырь Мыслей. Teşekkürler, Thought Bubble.

The Great Schism was a huge blow to the Church and its claims of spiritual leadership, Великий Раскол был огромным ударом по Церкви и её претензии на её главенство в духовной сфере,

which had already been harmed by the clergy's inability которое уже было под вопросом из-за невозможности или нежелания духовенства

or unwillingness to provide spiritual guidance during the Black Death. предоставить духовное наставление во время Чёрной смерти. zarar görmüş manevi liderlik iddiasına büyük bir darbeydi.

Priests and monks and nuns had been as frightened of and as vulnerable to Rahipler, keşişler ve rahibeler, diğer herkes gibi korkmuş ve ölüme savunmasız

death as everyone else. hale gelmişlerdi.

And now it wasn't even clear which pope was the real Pope, Şimdi ise hangi papa'nın gerçek Papa, hangi kilisenin gerçek Kilise olduğu da belirsizdi

or which church was the real Church. и какая Церковь - настоящей Церковью.

This disunity, combined with stories of decidedly unspiritual indulgences, Эта разобщённость, соединённая с историями о решительно бездуховных индульгенциях, Bu uyuşmazlık, şüphesiz manevi olmayan düşkünlüklerle birleşince

all served to undermine the church's authority. послужила причиной подрыва авторитета Церкви. Kilise'nin otoritesinin sarsılmasına yol açtı.

Instead, spiritual and other direction came from common people, not the high-and-mighty, like Вместо неё, духовные и прочие указания исходили от простого народа, а не от сильных мира сего. Bunun yerine, manevi ve alternatif bir yol halkın içinden geldi, yükseklerden değil.

Catherine of Siena, for instance, was an ordinary young woman of intense religious faith, Так, Екатерина Сиенская была обычной очень религиозной девушкой, Papa XI. Gregory'i başarılı bir şekilde Roma'ya geri getiren Siena'lı Catherine,

who was the one who successfully urged Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome. Although then of course, he died. которая, однако, смогла успешно убедить Папу Григория XI вернуться в Рим, хотя он вскоре, разумеется, умер. terbiyeli, dinine bağlı genç bir kadındı. Sonrasında Gregory tabi ki de ölmüştü.

Before Catherine died in 1380 at the age of 33, До своей смерти в 1380 году в возрасте 33 лет, Екатерина приняла участие Catherine 1380 yılında, 33 yaşında ölmeden önce,

she'd undertaken several diplomatic missions between the Church and Italian cities в нескольких дипломатических миссиях между Церковью и итальянскими городами, Kilise ve İtalyan şehirleri arasında birkaç diplomatik misyon edindi ve

and had traveled across the region urging the clergy to reform themselves объехала весь регион, требуя от духовенства начать реформы и прилагать больше усилий в своём служении. Bölge boyunca seyahat ederek ruhban sınıfını reforma ve

and fortify their spiritual ministry. manevi vekaletlerini güçlendirmeye çağırdı.

Ultimately others in the Church called a council to end the Great Schism, and church leaders В конце концов, был собран совет с целью прекращения Великого Раскола, En sonunda Kilise'deki diğer insanlar Büyük Bölünme'yi sonlandırmak için bir konsül talep etti ve

finally elected a single pope, Martin V, in 1417. и церковные лидеры в 1417 году наконец-то избрали единого Папу - Мартина V, Kilise liderleri 1417'de tek bir papa belirledi: V. Martin.

Although before that, things got truly out of control when a third Pope was elected for a while. хотя до этого ситуация действительно вышла из под контроля, когда на какое-то время был избран третий Папа. Lakin bundan önce, bir süreliğine üçüncü bir papa daha seçilince işler tamamiyle çığrından çıktı.

I mean, if you wanted to be Pope, your chances really were never better than in the late Middle Ages. Таким образом, если Вы хотели стать Папой, Ваши шансы никогда не были выше, чем в Позднем Средневековье. Papa olmak isteseniz şansınız kesinlikle Orta Çağ sonlarından daha iyi değil.

All of this meant that European Christendom really was declining in power, Всё это означало, что европейское христианство действительно теряло свою власть. Tüm bunlar Avrupa Hristiyanlığı'nın çöküşte olduğunu gösteriyordu

and in 1453, the Ottomans, a Turkic ethnic group of Muslims captured the capital of the Byzantine Empire, В 1453 году османы, тюркская этническая группа мусульман, захватили столицу Византийской империи, ve 1453'te Türk kökenli olan Müslüman Osmanlılar, Bizans İmparatorluğu'nun başkentini ele geçirdi.

with the help, by the way, of a Hungarian munitions expert who knew about cannons. не без помощи венгерского эксперта по боеприпасам, который знал про пушки. Bu arada, bu, savaş topları hakkında bilgisi olan Macar bir cephane uzmanının yardımıyla olmuştu.

The Byzantine Emperor had felt that the munition expert's fees were too high. Византийский император считал, что расходы на такого эксперта были слишком велики. Bizans İmparatoru cephane uzmanının ücretinin çok yüksek olduğunu hissetmişti.

The Ottomans already controlled parts of southeastern Europe, Османы уже контролировали часть юго-восточной Европы, Osmanlılar çoktan güneydoğu Avrupa'nın bazı kısımlarını kontrol ediyordu

but capturing the Byzantine capital and beheading its Emperor was a big deal. но захват столицы Византии и казнь её императора были важным событием, ama Bizans'ın başkentini ele geçirmek ve imparatorunun kafasını kesmek büyük bir olaydı.

It was the final fall of the Roman Empire, and Islam went on to replace Christianity as the leading religion in Bu Roma İmparatorluğu'nun yok oluşuydu ve İslam, Konstantinopolis'te meşhur Katedralİ Ayasofya Camii'sine dönüşüp

Constantinople, as its famed Cathedral became the Hagia Sophia mosque. в то время как его известный собор стал мечетью Айя-София. Hristiyanlığı geçerek hakim din haline gelmişti.

And control of Constantinople was a big deal for many reasons, including trade routes, Захват Константинополя был важным событием по многим причинам, Konstantinopolis'i kontrol etmek ticaret yolları gibi birçok nedenden dolayı büyük bir olaydı.

but also because Constantinople at the time was probably Europe's least terrible city в том числе из-за торговых путей, но ещё и из-за того, что Константинополь в это время был, скорее всего, "наименее ужасным городом Европы".

Meanwhile, the aforementioned use of mercenaries helped undermine the feudal system, В это же время, вышеупомянутое использование наёмников обеспечило подрыв феодальной системы,

in which everyone owed loyalty to a lord, from knights to a serf, who was bound to that lord's land. в которой каждый был обязан присягать на верность своему господину, от рыцарей до крепостных, которые были привязаны к земле этого господина.

The Black Death and persistent warfare helped change that too. Чёрная смерть и непрекращающиеся войны тоже ускорили эти изменения.

And there were also far fewer humans, which meant fewer people to work in agriculture, Теперь было гораздо меньше людей, которые могли бы работать в сельском хозяйстве. Ve ortalıkta çok daha az insan vardı. Bu da tarımda daha az insanın çalışması anlamına geliyordu.

so serfs could demand their freedom because their labor had become much more valuable. Поэтому крепостные могли потребовать себе свободу, ведь их труд стал гораздо ценнее. Böylece toprak ağaları özgürlük talebinde bulundu çünkü işleri çok daha değerli olmuştu.

Indeed, peasants rebelled when the nobility failed to meet their demands for better conditions. Разумеется, крестьяне восставали, когда знать не могла обеспечить им лучшие условия, Dahası, soylular isteklerini karşılamayınca köylüler de ayaklandı.

Like in the Peasants Revolt of 1381 in England, так, например, во время крестьянского восстания 1381 года в Англии İngiltere'deki 1381 Köylüler İsyanı'ndaki gibi,

they murdered nobles and sacked castles and manor houses. они убивали знатных людей, разрушали замки и поместья. soyluları öldürdüler ve kaleleri ve malikaneleri yağmaladılar.

And in cities, urban artisans wanted higher pay and an end to higher taxes. В городах же ремесленники хотели повышения оплаты труда и снижения налогов. Şehirlerde kentli zanaatkarlar daha yüksek ücret ve yüksek vergilere son verilmesini istedi.

In 1378, The Ciompi, or workers in the cloth trade, rebelled in Florence, demanding an end to harsh 1378'de Ciompiler ya da kumaş ticareti işçileri, borç için yürütülen ağır davalara ve

prosecution for debt and an end to the imposition of extra taxes. ekstra vergilerin dayatılmasına karşı Floransa'da isyan ettiler.

They marched through the streets, shouting, "Long live the little people." Они шествовали по улицам и кричали: "Да здравствует тощий народ!" Caddelerde "Yaşasın küçük insanlar." nidalarıyla yürüdüler.

The expansion of rights for artisans and farm workers Расширение прав ремесленников и крестьян будет, разумеется, очень долгим процессом, Zanaatçiler ve çiftlik çalışanları için hakların genişletilmesi

would of course be a very long process, elbette çok uzun bir süreç oldu

but their growing power and the decline of feudalism was a dramatic shift for Europe. но их растущая сила и упадок феодализма - существенный сдвиг для Европы. ama büyüyen güçleri ve feodalizmin düşüşü Avrupa için kritik bir kaymaydı.

Even warfare itself had changed. People no longer fought for ethical reasons or for God's glory Даже военное дело изменилось - теперь люди воевали не по этическим причинам или во славу Божью,

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