It would be interesting, in discussing these examples, to see some more context to get an idea of what exactly we are talking about.
I certainly agree that reading grammar books can help us notice things in the language we are studying. I find that trying to remember grammar rules is elusive, and most things learned during the time I spend studying grammar just stays briefly in my short term memory. Only with enough exposure do these descriptions of what happens in the language start to make sense, as I remember having come across the language patterns described by the explanations. Since I need to reread the rules often, I prefer a very short grammar book that can be skimmed every now and then, or in the case of Chinese, don't bother.
In fact I generally am more inspired to read more about history, or literature, or just communicate, and end up spending very little time on grammar. If I were a professional translator, I think things would be different.
It all depends on our preferences and goals I guess.
June 10, 2012, 6:45 p.m.
"in a language without definite or indefinite articles like Chinese, the reference of unmarked nounce is influenced by a number of factors such as context, sentence type, the position of the noun in relation to the verb in the sentence and the nature of the verb itself" 1.2.1.
书已经环了 the book/books have already been returned
我去借书 I am going to/ went to borrow a book/some books
孩子回来了The child/children has/have come back
In some cases however a post-verbal unmarked noun may be part of given informationand terefore be part of definite reference
她去照顾孩子 she went to look after the children
and so it goes on.
This is just though one example that shows that although a language does not have noun declensions and verb conjugations, these are then often expressed in other ways. Also word order is important in Chinese for that reason, and I have often come across people who were less able to make themselves understood as they had not grasped that bit. But maybe they just need more exposure.